Flashcards in Quiz Questions - Ch. 11, 12, 13, 16, and 17 Deck (18):
Who is Augustine? What was his book City of God about?
important patriarch and church father, Nicene Christianity, converted by Ambrose, bishop of Hippo Regius. As the city of man rises and falls, the City of God is Eternal, so we should be like citizens of that city, meaning we should not do things that are clearly wrong yet under man's authority. Just war theory.
Who is Ambrose? How was he influential in the early church?
bishop of Milan, converts and baptizes Augustine to Nicene Christianity, church father. continued precedent of Christian bishops exerting authority over pagan rules: Theodosius starting riots in Thessalonica, killing revolters and bystanders, Ambrose excommunicates him from the church, eventually repents and is admitted back in
What was happening with the Christian church during the late 300's-early 400's?
church gaining authority (see Ambrose answer), division between east and west empire (Constantinople and Rome), election of 1st pope (see answer for Leo the Great), Ambrose and Augustine establish doctrines and orthodoxy (put down Donatists who believed that baptism could only be done by a believer - 1st puritan church)
In general, what was happening in the Roman Empire, politically, during this same period?
-Vandals invade North Africa, Rome cannot afford to protect it or regain it because of broken state
- 400- Visigoths attack Milan, forcing Honorius to Ravenna
-402- Stilicho defeats them
-407- Britannia claims Constantine III emperor and takes Gaul and Hispania
-Visigoths attack Rome (1st: paid off; 2nd: laid siege to Rome until they got Illyricum but instead Alaric is made magnus militum to Attala in Rome)
- 3 emperors (division)
- 410- Alaric and Visigoths sack Rome
How were the barbarian generals like Stilicho and Alaric useful to the emperors of this period?
-magnus militums - top military official; job = to protect young emperors but can never usurp power because of barbarian blood, no reason to assasinate
What is a magnus militum?
top military official to the emperor
What is the obvious difference between the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths?
Visigoths = west in Gaul
Ostrogoths = east in Germany
What was the common motivation that united the tribes which formed the Visigoths?
hatred of Romans. Battle of Frigidus = Goths used in battle. After Theodosius' death, Alaric not made magnus militum
Why do emperors need to find a 'right to rule'? How do they find this right? What methods are used by emperors to establish their right to rule?
validation of authority to gain respect and trust from their people
1. divinity- son of god, the god, chosen by god
2. heredity- inherited position
3. usurpation/warfare- conquer and raise nations
What did SWB mean when she said the Visigoths were a nation created by 'ethnogenesis'?
ethnogenesis- beginning of a people
used to be individual tribes wandering around but Alaric united them for a common purpose and made a united people
What was the ambition of Alaric, King of the Visigoths?
revenge for magnus militum and land for new people
Why were barbarian rulers like Ataulf interested in marrying Roman women?
sought power and a claim to Roman rule, combining Visigoth and Roman kingdoms, wants to build new and better Roman empire
Who was Attila? Rua? Bleda?
Attila- became sole ruler of the Huns, completely united them, attacked Rome several times
Rua- warrior chief, uncle to Attila, started to extend his power over other tribes in 432 - unity
Bleda- brother to Attila, ruled with him, 434 succeeded Rua, killed by Attila for ultimate power
How were the Huns able to extort money from the Romans?
either raided Roman villages on frontier or payment each other. Theodosius II chose payment which rose every year. Marcian stops these because he thinks it will go unnoticed since he is attacked the west.
What indirect influence gave the Huns their power?
weakening of Rome/ division of Rome, unity of Huns, Attila took advantage of this
What incident led to Attila's campaign to Rome?
Honoria has an affair with her assistant. When Valentinian finds out, he executes the assistant. She gains revenge by engaging herself to Attila. Her dowry would be 1/2 of the Roman empire. Valentinian says no automatically but Attila feels robbed and attacks.
Who was Leo the Great? How did he come to his position?
bishop of Rome, 1st pope (head of entire Christian church). elected by bishops and approved by Valentinian III in letter written by Leo which said that bishop of Rome should have full authority out of the 2 parts of Rome