Flashcards in Quiz Questions - Ch. 46, 47, and 48 Deck (12):
What is a Caliph?
religious and political leader (like a king), defender of the faith - preserving the purity of the religion
What is the Caliphate?
the governing body under the caliph
What are the umma?
people of the empire, regular Muslims
What is the difference between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate?
The Umayyad believed that the leader (caliph) could be elected from the people while the Abbasid believed that the leader needed to come from Muhammad's clan. They also believed that the teachings needed to be restored to a pure state because the Umayyad caliphs were more politicians than worshippers. Some Arabs believed that their military fortunes would return when a true descendant from Muhammad's clan would become caliph. Therefore, Abu al-Abbas, the descendant of Ali, was appointed in place of Marwan.
How did the Abbasid Caliphate come into being?
al-Abbas vs. Marwan east of Tigris in 750, Umayyads were scattered, hunted down by al-Abbas, Marwan eventually found and killed, Abd ar-Rahman managed to survive the slaughter as heir to the Umayyad, rest of Umayyad family said to be granted amnesty if they would declare allegiance to al-Abbas at feast - 90 killed instead
What city did the Abbasid's make into their capitol? Why did they choose this city?
They chose Baghdad because it was a strategic location on the Tigris to build trade and wealth. Also central to empire. Done by al-Mansur.
By the late 700's how far in to India were the Arabs able to conquer?
NW India, Indus River
What Muslim kingdom was the first to operate independent of any caliphate?
Cordoba in the region of Al-Andalus, modern day Spain when claimed by ar-Rahman
Describe between Pope Gregory the Second and Emperor Leo the Third. Explain the positions.
Pope: emperor does not have any rule in the church, only politics (for icons)
Leo: since emperor, could rule all people, glory and power should be given to him (against icons), form of idolatry
Both felt like keepers of the church as if God had given them a right to rule in keeping the church pure and solving doctrinal issues (emperor - Constantine and Council of Nicea)
Ending: church split, Leo broke icons in certain churches, threw out bishops under his authority who did not agree with him, hired people who shared his views
What is icon veneration? How is this said to be different than the worship of icons? Why do many Christians agree?
icon veneration- showing respect to an individual who is no longer alive
worship- idolatry, praying to icons to talk to the person (saint) on behalf of them
too much similarity
In what ways did the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur become more emperor and less spiritual leader?
-fought ar-Rahman when he claimed his power back in Al-Andalus and became the emir
-killed any Shi'a leaders who refused to support the Abbasid
- spies throughout empire, tortured and executed enemies/captives
-large home that was extravagant for him and family