Flashcards in Medieval History - SG 1 Deck (44):
Who was Constantine?
passed Edict of Milan that legalized Christianity, Western emperor of Rome, allied with Licinius, conquered Maximinus because opposed Christianity, and exile and later hung Licinius for persecuting Christian spies (excuse for war with him, way to united empire and become sole emperor)
How God uses even wicked men to accomplish his righteous plans, emperor's right to rule
How did he come to power?
Battle of Milvian Bridge and Licinius, God's providence, right to rule
What was the Edict of Milan?
the document that legalized Christianity, divisions of religion
Why did Constantine move the capitol of the Roman Empire?
planning to attack Persia
Was Constantine a Christian?
used Christianity as tool (to unite people and gain loyalty), legalized it, Council of Nicea (attempt to unite empire), end of life baptism (reassurance), killed wife and son, how God uses even wicked men to accomplish his righteous plans
When and how did Constantine die?
As he planned to attack Persia, he died of illness on May 22, 337.
What happened to the empire after his death?
divided up into 3 sections with his 3 sons as the 3 rulers: Constans, Constantine 2, Constantius
Who was Arius?
He was a heretic and monotheist, was considered anathema (enemy of the church), and was excommunicated, heterousios, ideas did not take root in church but much debate, division of religion, sinful ambitions, God uses wicked men
Who was Athanasius?
bishop of Alexandria, one of the few bishops who stayed firm to homoousios when surrounded by arians, "contra mundune" ("do you not know that you are against the world?" to which he famously replied: "it is the world against me." canonized the Bible, division of religion
What is Arianism? Homoousios? Homoiousios? Heterousios?
Homoousios = Jesus is of similar essence to God.
Homoiousios= Jesus is of the same essence to God.
Heteroousios= Jesus is of different essence to God. (Arianism)
Council of Nicea declared homoousios as church doctrine but debate continued for years, division of religion
What was/happened at the Council of Nicea?
Jesus is of the same essence of God (homoiousios), C might've organized it to unite emperor, continued debate, division of religion
Who was Theodosius 1?
-Eastern emperor, going to secretly attack Persia but they ended up splitting Armenia in half
-debate with Ambrose (8 months repentance)
-co-emperors: Maximus and Valentinian 2
-Battle of Frigidus (east vs. west see below)
-claimed Honorius as emperor when V 2 dies and is replaced by Eugenius
What was the Edict of Thessalonica?
Christianity declared the state religion, trying to remove Roman religions - any means of worship is treason
God uses wicked men, providence, division of religion
Why did Ambrose of Milan rebuke Theodosius?
Theodosius starting riots in Thessalonica, killing revolters and bystanders, Ambrose excommunicates him from the church, eventually repents and is admitted back in
Right to rule, God uses wicked men
What does this rebuke and Theodosius' reaction to it tell us about the authority of the Church at this time and Theodosius himself? What significant shift has happened to the Roman Empire?
the church was gaining precedence over the government (christian bishops over pagan rulers), rulers now listened to the church, T was involved too much in church
Right to rule, providence, wicked men
What happened to the Roman Empire after Theodosius' death?
he was the last emperor of the united Rome, then Rome faded away
Who was St. Augustine? What was his book, City of God, about? What events caused him to begin writing City of God?
important patriarch and church, Nicene Christianity, converted by Ambrose, bishop of Hippo Regius. As the city of man rises and falls, the City of God is Eternal, so we should be like citizens of that city, meaning we should not do things that are clearly wrong yet under man's authority. Just war theory. The sack of Rome and the Vandal invasion (dying during Vandal invasion), fading away of Rome
Wicked men, providence, rise of barbarians
Who is Ambrose? How was he influential in the early church?
bishop of Milan, converts and baptizes Augustine to Nicene Christianity, church father. continued precedent of Christian bishops exerting authority over pagan rules: Theodosius starting riots in Thessalonica, killing revolters and bystanders, Ambrose excommunicates him from the church, eventually repents and is admitted back in
Right to rule
What was happening with the Christian Church during the late 300's-early 400's?
church gaining authority (see Ambrose answer), division between east and west empire (Constantinople and Rome), election of 1st pope (see answer for Leo the Great), Ambrose and Augustine establish doctrines and orthodoxy (put down Donatists who believed that baptism could only be done by a believer - 1st puritan church)
Division of religion
In general, what was happening in the Roman empire, politically, during this same period?
-Vandals invade North Africa, Rome cannot afford to protect it or regain it because of broken state
- 400- Visigoths attack Milan, forcing Honorius to Ravenna
-402- Stilicho defeats them
-407- Britannia claims Constantine III emperor and takes Gaul and Hispania
-Visigoths attack Rome (1st: paid off; 2nd: laid siege to Rome until they got Illyricum but instead Alaric is made magnus militum to Attala in Rome)
- 3 emperors (division)
- 410- Alaric and Visigoths sack Rome
- rise of barbarians, providence, right to rule
How were the barbarian generals like Stilicho and Alaric useful to the emperors of this period?
-magnus militums - top military official; job = to protect young emperors but can never usurp power because of barbarian blood, no reason to assasinate
- right to rule, rise of barbarians
Why do emperors need to find a 'right to rule'? How do they find this right? (22 and 23)
validation of authority to gain respect and trust from their people
1. divinity- son of god, the god, chosen by god
2. heredity- inherited position
3. usurpation/warfare- conquer and raise nations
4. marriage- example of Ataulf (trying to begin new Roman empire but failed) gave him claim to power
What is a magister militum?
top military official to the emperor
Right to rule
What is the obvious difference between the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths?
Visigoths = west in Gaul
Ostrogoths = east in Germany
Rise of barbarians
What did SWB mean when she said the Visigoths were a nation created by 'ethnogenesis'?
ethnogenesis- beginning of a people
used to be individual tribes wandering around but Alaric united them for a common purpose and made a united people
Rise of barbarians
What was the common motivation that united the tribes which formed the Visigoths?
hatred of Romans. Battle of Frigidus = Goths used in battle. After Theodosius' death, Alaric not made magnus militum
What was the ambition Alaric, King of the Visigoths?
revenge for magnus militum and land for new people
How did Alaric feel about Rome and Romans?
hatred for Battle of Frigidus and not made magnus militum to Theodosius after his death
What happened in 410?
-sack of Rome by Alaric and the Visigoths after 2 sieges of Rome (1. siege but goes away by money bribe; 2. demands Illyricum - says no - but offers magnus militum position to Alaric beside Attalus)
-ends up defeating Attalus
Rise of barbarians
Why were barbarian rulers like Ataulf interested in marrying Roman women?
sought power and a claim to Roman rule, combining Visigoth and Roman kingdoms, wants to build new and better Roman Empire
Right to rule, sinful ambitions
Who was Attila? Rua? Bleda? What happened to Bleda? (32 and 33)
Attila- became sole ruler of the Huns, completely united them, attacked Rome several times
Rua- warrior chief, uncle to Attila, started to extend his power over other tribes in 432 - unity
Bleda- brother to Attila, ruled with him, 434 succeeded Rua, killed by Attila for ultimate power
Rise of barbarians, right to rule
How were the Huns able to extort money from the Romans?
either raided Roman villages on frontier or payment each other. Theodosius II chose payment which rose every year. Marcian stops these because he thinks it will go unnoticed since he is attacked the west.
Martially, how were the Huns so effective?
rode on horses, great archers, advanced cavalry
Rise of barbs
What indirect influence gave the Huns their power?
weakening of Rome/ division of Rome, unity of Huns, Attila took advantage of this
Rise of barbs
What incident led to Attila's campaign to Rome?
Honoria has an affair with her assistant. When Valentinian finds out, he executes the assistant. She gains revenge by engaging herself to Attila. Her dowry would be 1/2 of the Roman empire. Valentinian says no automatically but Attila feels robbed and attacks.
Rise of barbs, God uses wicked men
Who was Leo the Great? How did he come to his position?
bishop of Rome, 1st pope (head of entire Christian church). elected by bishops and approved by Valentinian III in letter written by Leo which said that bishop of Rome should have full authority out of the 2 parts of Rome, good idea for unity but probably another attempt to gain power
Right to rule, divisions of religion
What two theories explain why Attila abandoned his campaign at the walls of Rome?
1st raids west (France) but loses that so retreats to Alps but then invades Rome. a lot of small raids. stopped because:
1. convinced by Leo of peace because he had an incredibly divine form (shone)
2. not in good condition to attack Rome
- plague prospered in Roman heat
- low on numbers from battles and plague
- heavy with loot from villages
- had some back-up coming so it was a good time to retreat and come back as strong as ever
How did Attila die? What happened to the Huns after Attila's death?
Attila got a nose bleed while he was passed out from drinking too much, choked on blood, suffocated. faded out of history: no longer raided, went back across the Danube, back to small tribes
What does the Vandal invasion of Africa reveal about the Roman Empire?
the Romans did not have enough power to either hold them off or drive them out when they attacked. North Africa was abandoned. weakening of Rome, couldn't spare armies or defend territories
- rise of barbs
What is happening in Britannia at this time?
1. Rome abandoned Britain. Vortigen- High King of Britain (president of kings), Picts (blue, naked) climbing over Hadrian's Wall because while Scotland is very beautiful, it has a harsh climate (they were not romanized and civilized, less cultured), Vortigen called Anglos and Saxons (Germanic tribes) to come drive Picts out of territory in turn for their own territory, but also brought Jutes and sent Picts back over (not a part of deal = Jutes) now wanted even more land so they conquered the native Britains and gained southern England
2. Ireland, St. Patrick (Patricius=Roman name) was a slave, escapes by ship to France, converted to Christianity, dream from God saying he should minister to Ireland and christianizes it
- right to rule, rise of a slave and barbs, division of religion, wicked men, sinful ambitions, providence
What contrast exists between the eastern and western empires?
western focusing on church, eastern on war (didn't help each other out), Marcian felt like the west had way more control over the church and didn't like that
- right to rule, divisions of religion
What was the council of Chalcedon?
supposed to be on Nestorianism (God can change his nature to accomplish his goals - 2 natures of Christ - human and divine) but ended up being a fight for power, Marcian refused for it to be held in Italy because it was in the west so Pope Leo didn't go
Division of religion
Describe, in brief, the dispute between the bishops of Rome and the bishops of Constantinople.
Nestorianism, Marcian wanted his bishop of Constantinople to have more power, declared him a patriarch (over all other bishops but still below Pope Leo), bishops of Alexandria hated this idea, Pope Leo worried that authority wouldn't be taken seriously
Division of religion