Flashcards in FA Endo Pharm Deck (21):
Exact mechanism is unknown.
Dec gluconeogenesis, inc glycolysis, inc peripheral glucose uptake (insulin sensitivity); first line in type 2 DM.
SE: lactic acidosis (CI in RF, LF, CHF, check BUN/Cr before starting)
Close K+ channel in beta cell membrane, so cell depolarizes --> insulin release via Ca2+ influx.
Sulfonylureas (2G: glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide)
Inc insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue. Binds to PPAR-gamma nuclear transcription regulator --> increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin.
SE: fluid retention, hepatox, hear failure
TZDs ( -glitazones)
Inhibit intestinal brush border alpha glucosidases.
SE: GI disturbances
Acarbose and miglitol
Decrease gastric emptying, decrease glucagon.
SE: hyoglycemia, nausea, diarrhea
Amylin analogs (Pramlintide)
Increase insulin, decrease glucagon release.
GLP-1 analogs (Exenatide, Liraglutide)
- SE: N/V, pancreatitis
DPP-4 inhibitors (-gliptans)
- SE mild UTI or URTI
Insulin - Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine
Insulin - Regular
Insulin - NPH
Insulin - Glargine, Detemir
Ex: Glyburide, Glimepiride, Glipizide
Ex: Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone
Ex: Acarbose, Miglitol
Ex: Exenatide, Liraglutide
Ex: Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin
Block thyroid peroxidase, inhibiting the oxidation of iodide and the organification (coupling) of iodine --> inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis; ALSO blocks peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
Block thyroid peroxidase, inhibiting the oxidation of iodide and the organification (coupling) of iodine --> inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis; does NOT block peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
ADH antagonist (member of the tetracycline family).
SE: nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, abnormalities of bone and teeth