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Flashcards in UW GI Deck (46):
1

Inhibit the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis (HMG-CoS reductase)

Statins

2

SE statins

Hepatotoxicity, muscle toxicity

3

Increase lipoprotein lipase activity,
decrease hepatic VLDL secretion,
increase HDL synthesis

Fibrates (Gemfibrozil, fenofibrate)

4

SE fibrates

muscle toxicity, esp when combined with statins; gallstones

5

Bind bile acids in the intestine; decrease reabsorption and increase de novo synthesis form cholesterol

Bile acid sequestrants (cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam)

6

Bile acid sequestrants SE

nausea, bloating, cramping; decreased absorption of digoxin, warfarin, and fat-soluble vitamins

7

Decreased lipolysis in adipose tissue causing decreased VLDL synthesis, increased HDL by reducing clearance

Niacin

8

Niacin SE

flushing, warmth, pruritius, hepatotoxicity

9

Decreased cholesterol absorption at the brush border of the intestine

Ezetimibe

10

Ezetimibe SE

Increased hepatotoxicity when coadministered with statins

11

Decreased synthesis of mycolic acid. Bacterial catalase-peroxidase (encoded by KatG) needed to convert this drug to its active metabolite.

Isoniazid (INH)

12

INH side effects

Neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, Pyroxidine (B6) can prevent neurotoxicity, lupus.

13

The biologically active form of pantothenic acid is

coenzyme A

14

Coenzyme A binds with oxaloacetate in the first step of the Krebs cycle to form

citrate and then succinyl-CoA

15

Artery behind lesser curvature of stomach

L. gastric

16

Third part of duodenum is in close association with

uncinate process of pancreas, SMA, + SMV

17

Pts receiving TPN are at risk for biliary stones d/t

decreased CCK release due to the lack of enteral stimulation

18

mutations associated with colitis-associated carcinoma are

early p53 and late APC (opposite)

19

Association with gallstone ileus

pneumobilia (air in the biliary tract)

20

Acute hepatitis on histology

hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and apoptosis

21

C diff toxin A attracts PMNs causing

mucosal inflammation, loss of water into the gut lumen and diarrhea, as well as mucosal death.

22

C diff toxin B causes

actin depolymerization, loss of cellular cytoskeleton integrity, cell death, and mucosal necrosis

23

lecithinase

C perfringens exotoxin

24

CEA

colon cancer

25

CA-125

ovarian cancer (and many others)

26

PSA

prostate cancer

27

hCG

gestational trophoblastic dz

28

AFP

HCC

29

Dilation of sinusoids and perivenular hemorrhage

acute venous outflow obstruction within the liver

30

substance accumulation within hepatocytes

Dubin-Johnson

31

Intrahepatic hyadatid cysts with surrounding fibrous reaction

Echinococcus

32

Granulomatous destruction of bile ducts

primary biliary cirrhosis

33

Diffuse hepatic fibrosis and nodular parenchymal regeneration

Cirrhosis

34

Pats with Crohns are prone to the development of gallstones d/t

increased biliary acid wasting

35

This parasite can destroy the myenteric plexi in the esophagus, intestines, and ureters, causing secondary achlasia, megacolon, and megaureter, respectively

Trypanosoma cruzi

36

The most common outcome in HBV-infected adults (>95%) is

complete resolution

37

Lipids are predominantly absorbed in the

jejunum

38

Histology of GERD

Basal zone hyperplasia, elongation of lamina propria papillae, and inflammatory cells (eos, neutrophils, and lymphocytes)

39

hemochromatosis gene (HLA-H) is on the short arm of what chromosome?

6

40

elevated ferritin

hemochromatosis

41

histology of primary biliary cirrhosis

destruction of interlobular bile ducts by granulomatous inflammation ("florid duct lesion") and a heavy portal tract infiltrate of inflammatory cells

42

middle-aged caucasian female with a long history of pruuritis and fatigue who develops pale stool and xanthelasma (cholestasis)

Primary biliary cirrhosis

43

middle-aged obese female with fever and prolonged episode of RU abdominal pain after fatty meal ingestion

acute cholecystitis

44

Male with a long history of UC presenting with fatigue and high alk phos

primary sclerosing cholangitis

45

older female with weight loss, abdominal discomfort, jaundice, and epigastric mass

pancreatic cancer

46

homeless male with fever, abdominal pain, jaundice

acute cholangitis