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Flashcards in Female genital tract Deck (28)
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Human papilloma virus is transmitted by sexual contact and the risk increased with increased numbers of sexual partners. What can it cause?

- there are no symptoms
- thought to be the main cause of CIN and therefore cervical cancer


girls aged 12-13 offered HPV vaccination. What are the low and high risk types of HPV ?

low risk type - wart/ verrucas
high risk type - cervical cancer


The cervical screen test is the smear test for lab testing's. If abnormal cells found what happens?

- looking for CIN(cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) that if left untreated can lead to cervical cancer
referred to colposcopy
may have biopsies taken


What are the risk factors for cervical cancer ?

cervical cancer is invasion of the underlying stroma
- smoking
- non attendance to cervical screening programme


What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

- abnormal discharge
- bleeding
- on examination the cervix appears abnormal


What are the treatments of cervical cancer?

- depends on stage
- local excision or radical hysterectomy
- chemotherapy


What are endocervical polyps ?

- benign lesion of the cervix
- usually present with irregular vaginal bleeding
- can remove at hysteroscopy
- can cause miscarriages or problems with pregnancy


What is menorrhagia and the causes?

- heavy periods
- caused by dysfunctional uterine bleeding
- fibroids
- endometriosis
- polyps .....


* What are the treatments for menorrhagia?

- coil
- mefanamic and tranexamic acid
- depo provera
- endometrial ablation
- hysterectomy


What are fibroids (leiomyomas) and how do they present?

- benign tumours
- arise from myometrium (uterine muscular wall)
- can present with heavy or painful periods, pelvic pain or distension


What causes endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease and how does it present?

- caused by infections, usually sexually transmitted
- can present with abnormal discharge, pain or bleeding
- may be asymptomatic
- major cause of infertility


What is endometriosis and how does it present?

- endometrial tissue in the wrong location ie. outside of the endometrium
- same symptoms happen with these cycles as happen in menstrual cycle

- can present with heavy or painful periods, pelvic pain, painful sex
- can cause infertility


How is endometriosis treated?

- COCP (combined oral contraceptive pill)
- mirena coil (produces progesterone)
- zoladex injections
- surgery


What are endometrial polyps?

- benign growths from endometrial cavity
- can be removed at hysteroscopy


What is endometrial cancer?

- cancer of the lining of the uterus
- often presents as post menopausal bleeding and so detected early


What are the risk factors in developing endometrial cancer?

- nulliparity (not having children)
- high BMI
- HRT (longer oestrogen exposure)
- late menopause (longer oestrogen exposure)


What are follicular cysts?

- benign found in ovary
- usually less then 6cm
- often asymptomatic
no treatment needed


What are cystadenomas?

- can be large fluid filled cysts
- in the ovary
- symptoms caused by pressure effect


What are benign mature teratomas?

- in the ovary
- large cysts filled with solid substance


What is polycystic ovarian syndrome and how does it present?

- multiple cysts in the ovaries
- causes infertility
- presents as irregular periods, no periods, infertility


What are the treatments and complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome?

- metformin
- Clomifene
- increased cardiovascular risk
- increased risk of type 2 diabetes
- increased problems in pregnancy


Ovarian cancer is usually asymptomatic especially if small and usually presents late when already spread. What is the prognosis compared to endometrial cancer?

poorer prognosis than endometrial cancer


Ovarian cysts can be ____

- benign or malignant
- can be huge
- young women aged 20-45 are normally benign
- older women 45+ usually malignant
- usually need ovary to be removed if cyst is large


What are the risk factors for miscarriage?

- increasing age
- multiple pregnancies
- smoking
- alcohol
- connect tissue disorders in mothers
- diabetes


What are the treatment options for miscarriage?

- conservative
- medical with misoprostol
- surgical usually by vacuum suction under GA


What is an ectopic pregnancy?

- pregnancy that is non uterine. normally in tubes
- can be medical emergency. look out for pelvic pain and the test for pregnancy (raised beta-HCG levels)


What are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancies?

- coil
- PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
- previous ectopic
- pelvic surgery


What are the treatments for ectopic pregnancy?

most always surgical
this effects further pregnancy