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Flashcards in Heart & Blood vessels Deck (30)
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What is heart failure?

caused by the heart failing to pump enough blood around the body at the right pressure.


What is a syndrome?

-caused by multiple things
-look for signs and symptoms and not disease itself


What happens when the heart does not pump as effectively as it should?

-oedema - pulmonary (water in the lungs) and peripheral (in the legs normally)
- tiredness


What can cause your heart not to pump properly?

-ischaemic heart disease (dead tissue/ fibrosis after heart attack)
- hypertension
- valvular heart disease
- arrhythmias
-congenital heart disease


Why may hypertension cause heart failure? (brief explanation)

- more pressure the more difficult it is
- puts pressure on heart
- make muscle get bigger and become effective
- will wear the heart out


initially when the heart fails it starts to compensate, what is happening though?

- leads to cardiac hypertrophy
- leads to dilation
- eventual inability to maintain normal function (this is when symptoms occur)


What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac failure?

- shortness of breath (fluid on lungs)
- fatigue ( pulmonary and peripheral oedema)
- fluid in lungs/ pulmonary oedema
- all over excessive fluid-filled veins (systemic venous congestion & oedema)


What is the difference between acute cardiac failure and chronic?

acute - happens quick such as after MI
Chronic - hypertension, develops over time


if left side of the heart is involved in cardiac failure what happens?

- fluid backs up into the lungs
- more pulmonary oedema and SOB
- raised jugular venous pressure


If right side of the heart is involved in cardiac failure what happen?

- fluid backs up into rest the body
- large abdomen, fluid in the legs


Congestive heart failure is were both sides of the heart are effected in heart failure. what are the effects of this?

- fluid goes into the lungs and rest of the body


In valvular heart disease what is stenosis?

- failure of valve to open completely
- harder to flow forwards


In valvular disease what is meant by incompetence/regurgitation?

-failure of valve to close
- allowing reverse flow


In valvular disease what is vegetations?

- abnormal tissue growth on valve (fibrin, platelet and bacteria)


What are the under lying causes for valvular heart disease?

- age related degeneration
- infection (endocarditis/rheumatic disease)
- after heart attack
- heart failure
- hypertension
- IV drug use


What are the symptoms/consequences with valvular heart disease?

- stroke
- arrhythmias
- ventricular hypertrophy
- angina
- syncope (fainting)
- heart failure
- infarcts to kidney and spleen


What is infective endocarditis?

when lining of heart becomes infected/inflammed


What are the causes of infective endocarditis?

- when bacteria present in the blood (anything that makes the outside world come in contact with the blood)
- mass of bacteria builds up
- common in IV drug users


What side of the is affected in IV drug users?

- right side
- left side in others


What examination would show endocarditis?

echo scan


What are the clinical presentations of endocarditis?

- sepsis
- heart failure
- new murmur


What is pericarditis and myocarditis ?

myo (muscle) - muscle inflamed
peri (means outside) - outside of heart inflamed
- can be caused by anything that may cause inflammation to the heart (ie radiation)


*In cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscle) a category of this is dilated, what does this mean?

- when its stretched so contraction is noit as good

eg. myocarditis, alcohol, sarcoid


*In cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscle) a category of this is hypertrophic, what does this mean?

wall of ventrical becomes thicker and therefore does not work as effectively
eg. storage disease


*In cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscle) a category of this is restrictive, what does this mean?

- doesn't give way as much and makes filling harder
eg. chemotherapy related


What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

- when heart muscle gets to big and makes blood flow worse
- common in footballers when they have heart problems on pitch


What are clinical features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

-chest pain
- palpitations
- black out


What is an aneurysm?

when artery is permanently stretched
- aorta is common
-can burst and if major blood vessel can cause sudden death


What are the treatments for aneurysms?

- stents
- surgery
- reducing arterial pressure


What puts people at risk of aneurysms?

- age
- atherosclerosis
- ischaemia
- hypertension
- diabetes