Flashcards in Disorders of growth Deck (48)
What is neoplasm?
abnormal mass of tissue
What is neoplasia?
the process by which neoplasm is formed
what does tumour mean?
How does a benign tumour grow?
- by expansion, displacing adjacent tissue
How does a malignant tumour grow?
- infiltrates local tissue and spreads to other parts of the body
What is meant by primary tumour?
- original malignant tumour
What is meant by secondary or offspring/met tumour?
offspring of primary malignant tumour
How can malignant tumours spread?
Local - direct invasion (pancreas to stomach )
Distant - metastasis (vis lymph nodes or blood)
What two meanings can metastasis mean?
- a secondary tumour
- process by which secondary tumour is formed (distant spread)
Ways of which metastasis can spread by?
- transcoelomic (through peritoneal cavity)
-along epithelial-lined spaces (common in lung)
-within epithelium (common in lung)
How might the tumour spread via lymphatics?
- directly invade
- tumour emboli filtered out
Lymphatic spread is classical of ..
epithelial malignancy ( carcinoma)
How might the tumour spread via the blood?
- directly invade blood vessels
- emboli filtered out by capillary bed eg. liver, lung
-typical of stromal malignancy and later stage of epithelial malignancy
How does transcoelomic spreas
- via the body cavities such as peritoneal and pleural
In Paget's disease of the nipple, vulva and anus where does the route of metastasis happen?
Within the epithelium
What is an example of spread via epithelial-lined spaces?
-bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung
- thickened, dark cells along the alveolar spaces
Where can you get lymph nodes metastases from?
- the primary tumour can go anywhere
A met found in the liver where is the primary tumour most likely to be?
- GIT carcinomas
-anywhere from the anus to the GI tract can go to the liver
If a met is found in the lungs where is its likely primary tumour found?
- carcinoma of thyroid
Mets found in the bone are common of which primary tumours?
- carcinoma of breast, thyroid, bronchus and prostate
- this is why people are asked to report any pain in the bone
Mets found in the brain are common of which primary tumours?
- carcinoma of bronchus
Mets found in endocrines are likely to come from ?
- carcinoma of bronchus often goes to adrenal
Mets found on the skin are common of what primary tumours?
- malignant melanoma
- clear cell carcinoma of kidney
what does adenoma mean?
aden - glandular
oma- non malignant
What is a polyp?
a mass attached to a surface, which may or may not be a neoplasm
What does cancer mean?
any malignant tumour
what does carcinoma mean?
a malignant tumour of epithelial tissue
what does sarcoma mean?
a malignant tumour of stromal tissue
what does the suffix oma mean