Flashcards in Disorders of growth Deck (48):
What is neoplasm?
abnormal mass of tissue
What is neoplasia?
the process by which neoplasm is formed
what does tumour mean?
How does a benign tumour grow?
- by expansion, displacing adjacent tissue
How does a malignant tumour grow?
- infiltrates local tissue and spreads to other parts of the body
What is meant by primary tumour?
- original malignant tumour
What is meant by secondary or offspring/met tumour?
offspring of primary malignant tumour
How can malignant tumours spread?
Local - direct invasion (pancreas to stomach )
Distant - metastasis (vis lymph nodes or blood)
What two meanings can metastasis mean?
- a secondary tumour
- process by which secondary tumour is formed (distant spread)
Ways of which metastasis can spread by?
- transcoelomic (through peritoneal cavity)
-along epithelial-lined spaces (common in lung)
-within epithelium (common in lung)
How might the tumour spread via lymphatics?
- directly invade
- tumour emboli filtered out
Lymphatic spread is classical of ..
epithelial malignancy ( carcinoma)
How might the tumour spread via the blood?
- directly invade blood vessels
- emboli filtered out by capillary bed eg. liver, lung
-typical of stromal malignancy and later stage of epithelial malignancy
How does transcoelomic spreas
- via the body cavities such as peritoneal and pleural
In Paget's disease of the nipple, vulva and anus where does the route of metastasis happen?
Within the epithelium
What is an example of spread via epithelial-lined spaces?
-bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung
- thickened, dark cells along the alveolar spaces
Where can you get lymph nodes metastases from?
- the primary tumour can go anywhere
A met found in the liver where is the primary tumour most likely to be?
- GIT carcinomas
-anywhere from the anus to the GI tract can go to the liver
If a met is found in the lungs where is its likely primary tumour found?
- carcinoma of thyroid
Mets found in the bone are common of which primary tumours?
- carcinoma of breast, thyroid, bronchus and prostate
- this is why people are asked to report any pain in the bone
Mets found in the brain are common of which primary tumours?
- carcinoma of bronchus
Mets found in endocrines are likely to come from ?
- carcinoma of bronchus often goes to adrenal
Mets found on the skin are common of what primary tumours?
- malignant melanoma
- clear cell carcinoma of kidney
what does adenoma mean?
aden - glandular
oma- non malignant
What is a polyp?
a mass attached to a surface, which may or may not be a neoplasm
What does cancer mean?
any malignant tumour
what does carcinoma mean?
a malignant tumour of epithelial tissue
what does sarcoma mean?
a malignant tumour of stromal tissue
what does the suffix oma mean
what does the suffix sarcoma mean?
What is leukaemia?
neoplastic proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells
- all regarded as malignant
What is the difference between Hodgkins disease and non-Hodgkins disease?
- hodgkins lymphoma has mixture of cells including Reed-Sternberg cells
What is lymphoma
- Cancer with in lymph nodes
Where do teratomas classical resign?
- ovary (usually benign)
- testes (usually malignant)
- midline ( rare)
What are teratomoa's and what do they arise from?
- tumours arises from totipotential cell or germ cells
- can reproduce any part of the body
What are the non-neoplastic precursors of malignancy?
- chronic inflammation (varicose veins)
- cirrhosis of the liver
- chronic ulcerative colitis
- xeroderma pigmentosum
What are the neoplastic prescursors of malignancy?
- FAP (Familial polyposis coli)- these people will get colon cancer, effects their children
- Intra-epithelial neoplasia
What are the stages of grading cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia?
-next step is cancer
What is the difference between grading and staging of cancer?
- grading is how bad it looks
- staging is how far its gone
In TNM staging what does each of the symbols stand for?
T -size of primary TUMOUR
N - extent of lymph NODE involvement
M - distant METASTASIS
What are the general effects of tumours?
- displacement or destruction of normal structures
- excess of normal function
- paraneoplastic phenomena
What paraneoplastic phenomenas?
What are the effects of benign tumours?
- Mechanical pressure
- infarction of pedunculated tumour ( can cause pain and bleeding)
- rupture of cystic neoplasm
- hormone production
- become malignant
What are the effects of malignant tumours?
- all the physical effects of benign tumours
- tissue destruction ( eg. cancer of stomach infiltrating the pancreas)
-haemorrhage (any cancer breaching a vessel wall )
- secondary infection (bacteria invasion of necrotic tumour)
- cachexia (severe weight loss)
- paraneoplastic syndromes
In benign tumours one of their effects could be infection give an example.
- bladder papilloma.
causes a site where bacteria can stay and cause urinary infect.
In benign tumours one of their effects could be hormone production give an example.
islet cell tumour of pancreas
- cause excess insulin and cause hypoglycaemia
Why do paraneoplastic syndromes commons happen ?
- ectopic hormone production