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Flashcards in Disorders of growth Deck (48):
1

What is neoplasm?

abnormal mass of tissue

2

What is neoplasia?

the process by which neoplasm is formed

3

what does tumour mean?

swelling

4

How does a benign tumour grow?

- by expansion, displacing adjacent tissue

5

How does a malignant tumour grow?

- infiltrates local tissue and spreads to other parts of the body

6

What is meant by primary tumour?

- original malignant tumour

7

What is meant by secondary or offspring/met tumour?

offspring of primary malignant tumour

8

How can malignant tumours spread?

Local - direct invasion (pancreas to stomach )
Distant - metastasis (vis lymph nodes or blood)

9

What two meanings can metastasis mean?

- a secondary tumour
- process by which secondary tumour is formed (distant spread)

10

Ways of which metastasis can spread by?

- lymphatics
- blood
- transcoelomic (through peritoneal cavity)
-along epithelial-lined spaces (common in lung)
-within epithelium (common in lung)

11

How might the tumour spread via lymphatics?

- directly invade
- tumour emboli filtered out

12

Lymphatic spread is classical of ..

epithelial malignancy ( carcinoma)

13

How might the tumour spread via the blood?

- directly invade blood vessels
- emboli filtered out by capillary bed eg. liver, lung
-typical of stromal malignancy and later stage of epithelial malignancy

14

How does transcoelomic spreas

- via the body cavities such as peritoneal and pleural

15

In Paget's disease of the nipple, vulva and anus where does the route of metastasis happen?

Within the epithelium

16

What is an example of spread via epithelial-lined spaces?

-bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung
- thickened, dark cells along the alveolar spaces

17

Where can you get lymph nodes metastases from?

- the primary tumour can go anywhere

18

A met found in the liver where is the primary tumour most likely to be?

- GIT carcinomas
- bronchus
- breast
-anywhere from the anus to the GI tract can go to the liver

19

If a met is found in the lungs where is its likely primary tumour found?

- sarcomas
- carcinomas
- carcinoma of thyroid
- breast
- kidney
- bronchus

20

Mets found in the bone are common of which primary tumours?

- carcinoma of breast, thyroid, bronchus and prostate
- this is why people are asked to report any pain in the bone

21

Mets found in the brain are common of which primary tumours?

- carcinoma of bronchus

22

Mets found in endocrines are likely to come from ?

- carcinoma of bronchus often goes to adrenal

23

Mets found on the skin are common of what primary tumours?

- malignant melanoma
- clear cell carcinoma of kidney

24

what does adenoma mean?

aden - glandular
oma- non malignant

25

What is a polyp?

a mass attached to a surface, which may or may not be a neoplasm

26

What does cancer mean?

any malignant tumour

27

what does carcinoma mean?

a malignant tumour of epithelial tissue

28

what does sarcoma mean?

a malignant tumour of stromal tissue

29

what does the suffix oma mean

if benign

30

what does the suffix sarcoma mean?

if malignant

31

What is leukaemia?

neoplastic proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells
- all regarded as malignant

32

What is the difference between Hodgkins disease and non-Hodgkins disease?

- hodgkins lymphoma has mixture of cells including Reed-Sternberg cells

33

What is lymphoma

- Cancer with in lymph nodes

34

Where do teratomas classical resign?

- ovary (usually benign)
- testes (usually malignant)
- midline ( rare)

35

What are teratomoa's and what do they arise from?

- tumours arises from totipotential cell or germ cells
- can reproduce any part of the body

36

What are the non-neoplastic precursors of malignancy?

- chronic inflammation (varicose veins)
- cirrhosis of the liver
- chronic ulcerative colitis
- xeroderma pigmentosum

37

What are the neoplastic prescursors of malignancy?

- FAP (Familial polyposis coli)- these people will get colon cancer, effects their children
- Intra-epithelial neoplasia

38

What are the stages of grading cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia?

normal
CIN I
CIN II
CIN III
-next step is cancer

39

What is the difference between grading and staging of cancer?

- grading is how bad it looks
- staging is how far its gone

40

In TNM staging what does each of the symbols stand for?

T -size of primary TUMOUR
N - extent of lymph NODE involvement
M - distant METASTASIS

41

What are the general effects of tumours?

- displacement or destruction of normal structures
- excess of normal function
- paraneoplastic phenomena

42

What paraneoplastic phenomenas?

-

43

What are the effects of benign tumours?

- Mechanical pressure
- obstruction
- ulceration
- infarction of pedunculated tumour ( can cause pain and bleeding)
- infection
- rupture of cystic neoplasm
- hormone production
- become malignant

44

What are the effects of malignant tumours?

- all the physical effects of benign tumours
- tissue destruction ( eg. cancer of stomach infiltrating the pancreas)
-haemorrhage (any cancer breaching a vessel wall )
- secondary infection (bacteria invasion of necrotic tumour)
- cachexia (severe weight loss)
- pain
-anaemia
- paraneoplastic syndromes

45

In benign tumours one of their effects could be infection give an example.

- bladder papilloma.
causes a site where bacteria can stay and cause urinary infect.

46

In benign tumours one of their effects could be hormone production give an example.

islet cell tumour of pancreas
- cause excess insulin and cause hypoglycaemia

47

Why do paraneoplastic syndromes commons happen ?

- ectopic hormone production

48

What are examples of what can happen in paraneoplastic syndromes?

- excess of hormone production
- peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar degeneration, myopathy
- Thrombophlebitis migrans (inflammation of blood vessels
- acanthosis nigrican (black under arm pits and neck )
- finger clubbing