Tissue injury and repair Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tissue injury and repair Deck (17):
1

What three outcomes can injury to tissue lead to?

adaptation
reversible injury
irreversible injury and cell death

2

What is homeostasis ?

how variables are regulated so that internal conditions are kept stable

3

What does increased demand or stimulation lead to ?

hypertrophy or hyperplasia

4

What does decreased nutrients or stimulation lead to ?

atrophy

5

What does chronic irritation lead to ?

metaplasia

6

What are the causes of cellular injury?

- hypoxia
- physical agents
- chemical agents
- infectious agents
- immunologic reactions
- genetic derangements
- nutritional imbalance

7

What are the mechanisms of cellular injury ?

- ATP depletion
- mitochondrial damage
- increased intracellular calcium
- oxidative stress
- membrane damage
- DNA and protein damage

8

What does tissue regeneration require ?

viable stem cells and intact connective tissue
tissues with high proliferative capacity

9

What are examples of true regeneration ?

epithelium following superficial skin injury
bone following fracture

10

Healing can be done by three things...

repair (normal structure)
scarring (scar formation)
fibrosis (tissue scar )

11

persistent damage leads to chronic inflammation which would lead to ...

fibrosis

12

What happens in fibro-proliferation response?

- deposition of collagen and ECM components (scar)
- 'patches' tissue

13

What is the sequence of healing ?

- inflammation
- angiogenesis
- migration and proliferation of parenchymal cells and fibroblasts
- scar formation
- connective tissue remodelling

14

Give examples of local factors affecting wound healing?

size
location (how vascular it is )
type (infectious/necrotic/traumatic)
infections, mechanical forces, foreign bodies delay healing

15

Give examples of systemic factors that affect healing .

nutritional status
metabolic status ( eg. diabetes)
circulatory/ vascular status
hormones ( glucocorticoids)

16

What could be complications of tissue repair?

- deficient scar formation (wound dehiscene)
- excessive repair
- formation of contractures

17

What are examples of excessive repair?

- excessive granulation of tissue (proud flesh)
- excessive collagen accumulation (hypertrophic scar )
- keloid