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Flashcards in CNS Deck (57)
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1

What are the order of layers of the brain from outside in?

dura mater
arachnoid
pia mater

2

What regulates the blood supply to the brain?

circle of willis
- often a site for aneurysms and bleeds

3

What does the brain not have that the rest of the body does?

lymphatic system - tumours can not metastasize to the brain this way

4

The skull is a bony box that can not expand. Therefore if the volume of tissue of fluid inside the skull increases what happens?

- intracranial pressure rises
- results in herniation(abnormal protrusion) where part of the brain moves from one compartment of the skull to another

5

What do the neurons do compared to the glial cells?

- Neurons - the processors
- Glial cells - supporting functions (includes schwann cells, astrocytes & oligodendrocytes)

6

Frontal lobe is responsible for ...

planning

7

parental lobe which is responsible for ...

movement

8

occipital lobe responsible for ...

vision

9

cerebellum which is responsible for..

co-ordinating movement and balance

10

Brain stem is responsible for...

vital functions like regulation BP, resp rate ect.

11

pre central and post central gyrus are responsible for ...

pre - motor cortex
post - sensory cortex

12

Frontal and temporal lobe are responsible for ...

speech and language
includes brocas area in frontal lobe
includes wernickes area in temporal lobe

13

What is the brain stem composed of (3 areas)?

midbrain
pons
medulla

14

What is focal neurological signs?

a set of symptoms or signs in which causation can be localized to an anatomic site in the central nervous system

15

What is generalised neurological abnormalities?

Essentially an alteration in level of consciousness

16

If you have damage to the frontal lobe what are the likely signs?

Anosmia (inability to smell)
Inappropriate emotions
Expressive dysphasia (cant get words out )
Motor impairment

17

If you have damage to the parietal lobe what are the likely signs?

Receptive dysphasia ( not understanding language)
Sensory impairment

18

If you have damage to the temporal lobe what is the likely signs ?

- cortical deafness
- Receptive dysphasia

19

Diffuse neurological injury is usually manifest as impairment of consciousness. Most often due to what?

- increased intracranial pressure
- may occur as a primary response
- or as a secondary to response to a focal injury (injury to specific area)

20

What are the 2 main pathologies types of strokes?

- ischaemic (as result of blockage, atheroma or thrombosis or emboli)
- haemorrhagic (as a result of berry aneurysm or hypertension related)

21

What is the only difference between a stoke and a TIA

- the duration in which the symptoms last (TIA resolves within 24 hours)

22

In cerebrovascular disease survival depends on what 3 things ?

- duration of ischaemia
- what collateral circulation available
- how much reduction of flow and quickly it happens

23

What are the treatments for TIA's?

- antiplatelet therapy (aspirin or clopidogrel)
- control BP
- lower cholesterol

24

What are the risk factors for strokes?

- hypertension
- diabetes
- heart disease
- Previous transient ischaemic attacks
- hyperlipidaemia

25

What are causes of haemorrhagic events (strokes ect.)?

- hypertension
- vascular malformation (berry aneurysm )
- neoplasia
- trauma
- drug abuse
- iatrogenic

26

What are the management of strokes?

- thrombolysis (break up blood clot)
- aspirin/ clopidogrel
- physiotherapy
- occupational therapy
- SALT
- supportive treatment

27

intracerebral haemorrhage (haemorrhagic stroke) presents as what symptoms?

- headache
- rapid or gradual decrease in conscious level
- localises depending on site of bleed

28

Subarachnoid haemorrhage normally occur ?

- spontaneous
- when berry aneurysm ruptures

29

What are the symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

- thunderclap headache (bad!)
- meningitis like signs (photophobia ect.)
- requires neurosurgical input

30

where does a subdural haemorrhage occur?

- bleeding from bridging veins between cortex and venous sinuses
- blood between dura and arachnoid