Flashcards in CNS Deck (57)
What are the order of layers of the brain from outside in?
What regulates the blood supply to the brain?
circle of willis
- often a site for aneurysms and bleeds
What does the brain not have that the rest of the body does?
lymphatic system - tumours can not metastasize to the brain this way
The skull is a bony box that can not expand. Therefore if the volume of tissue of fluid inside the skull increases what happens?
- intracranial pressure rises
- results in herniation(abnormal protrusion) where part of the brain moves from one compartment of the skull to another
What do the neurons do compared to the glial cells?
- Neurons - the processors
- Glial cells - supporting functions (includes schwann cells, astrocytes & oligodendrocytes)
Frontal lobe is responsible for ...
parental lobe which is responsible for ...
occipital lobe responsible for ...
cerebellum which is responsible for..
co-ordinating movement and balance
Brain stem is responsible for...
vital functions like regulation BP, resp rate ect.
pre central and post central gyrus are responsible for ...
pre - motor cortex
post - sensory cortex
Frontal and temporal lobe are responsible for ...
speech and language
includes brocas area in frontal lobe
includes wernickes area in temporal lobe
What is the brain stem composed of (3 areas)?
What is focal neurological signs?
a set of symptoms or signs in which causation can be localized to an anatomic site in the central nervous system
What is generalised neurological abnormalities?
Essentially an alteration in level of consciousness
If you have damage to the frontal lobe what are the likely signs?
Anosmia (inability to smell)
Expressive dysphasia (cant get words out )
If you have damage to the parietal lobe what are the likely signs?
Receptive dysphasia ( not understanding language)
If you have damage to the temporal lobe what is the likely signs ?
- cortical deafness
- Receptive dysphasia
Diffuse neurological injury is usually manifest as impairment of consciousness. Most often due to what?
- increased intracranial pressure
- may occur as a primary response
- or as a secondary to response to a focal injury (injury to specific area)
What are the 2 main pathologies types of strokes?
- ischaemic (as result of blockage, atheroma or thrombosis or emboli)
- haemorrhagic (as a result of berry aneurysm or hypertension related)
What is the only difference between a stoke and a TIA
- the duration in which the symptoms last (TIA resolves within 24 hours)
In cerebrovascular disease survival depends on what 3 things ?
- duration of ischaemia
- what collateral circulation available
- how much reduction of flow and quickly it happens
What are the treatments for TIA's?
- antiplatelet therapy (aspirin or clopidogrel)
- control BP
- lower cholesterol
What are the risk factors for strokes?
- heart disease
- Previous transient ischaemic attacks
What are causes of haemorrhagic events (strokes ect.)?
- vascular malformation (berry aneurysm )
- drug abuse
What are the management of strokes?
- thrombolysis (break up blood clot)
- aspirin/ clopidogrel
- occupational therapy
- supportive treatment
intracerebral haemorrhage (haemorrhagic stroke) presents as what symptoms?
- rapid or gradual decrease in conscious level
- localises depending on site of bleed
Subarachnoid haemorrhage normally occur ?
- when berry aneurysm ruptures
What are the symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage?
- thunderclap headache (bad!)
- meningitis like signs (photophobia ect.)
- requires neurosurgical input