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Flashcards in Endocrine- the rest Deck (27):
1

The hypothalamus is split in to the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. What hormones are secreted from these?

ANTERIOR - multiple hormone
- growth hormone
- thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
- adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
- FSH
LH
- prolactin

POSTERIOR - oxytocin (uterus contractions)
ADH( reabsorption of water from urine)

2

Hyperpituitarism related effects normally happen due to adenomas, cancer or hyperplasia . What are hypopituitarism related causes?

- ischaemic necrosis of the pituitary: Sheehans syndrome
- non functioning adenomas
- surgery or irradiation
- inflammatory lesions

3

What are the symptoms of hyper-pituitarisms and hypo-pituitary problems?

- compressing the optic chiasm
- visual problems
- treated by scapping away adenoma

4

When a pituitary adenoma occurs what does each of these hormone increases lead to:
- ACTH
- Growth hormone
- Prolactin
- TSH
- FSH/LH

ACTH - crushings disease

growth hormone - gigantism (children)
- acromegaly (adults) (facial features)

Prolactin - galactorrhea/ amenorrhea
- sexual dysfunction
- infertility

TSH - hyperthyroidism

FSH/LH - hypogonadism
- mass effects
- hypopituitarism

5

What causes hyperthyroidism?

- Graves disease (auto immune )
- over treatment by thyroxine
- infective - De Quervains thyroiditis (viral infection)
- toxic multinodular goitre
- toxic adenoma

6

What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

- heat intolerance
- muscle wasting
- localised oedema
- tremors
- weight loss
- enlarged thyroid
- finger clubbing
- menstrual changes
- bulging eyes

7

What causes graves disease?

- unregulation overproduction of thyroid hormones
- antibody sits on receptor
- so switches off THS production - thyroxine increases

8

*Hyperthyroidism must be managed and treat the cause. What drugs will do this?

- carbimazole/ propylthioracil (down regulate thyroid gland)
- Radioiodine therapy (kills thyroid gland) (must be isolated from children)
- thyroidectomy

9

What causes hypothyroidism?

- iodine deficiency
- Autoimmune - Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- lacrogenic: surgery, radioiodine
- pituitary defects
- congenital

10

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

- intolerance to cold
- receding hairline
- facial and eyelid oedema
- weight gain
- lethargy
- muscle aches and weakness
- constipation

11

What is Hashimotos thyroiditis?

- autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland

12

How do you manage hypothyroidism?

- thyroxine

13

What is the most common type of thyroid cancer?

- papillary carcinoma
- however normally non-functional tumour

14

What causes hypo-parathyroidism?

- removal by surgery (thyroidectomy)
- congenital
- hereditary (autoimmune)

15

What are the functions of the parathyroid glands?

- 4 in total
- to help calcium and phosphate regulation

16

What are the symptoms of hypo-parathyroidism?

- symptoms normally due to low calcium
- irritability
- tetany (muscle spasms)
- seizures

17

Hyper-parathyroidism are caused by ?

- adenoma
- chronic renal failure
- after renal transplant

18

What are the symptoms of hyper- parathyroidism

- due to hypercalcemia
- constipation
- depression
- seizures
- muscle wasting
- polyuria
- bone fractures
- kidney stones
(bones, stones, abdominal groans & psychic moans )

19

What are the symptoms of conns disease which is caused by hyperaldosteronism ?

- oedema
- hypertension
- high sodium
- low potassium

20

Glucocorticoids: corticol may increase due to stress, using steroids. What is caused when there is excess release?

- cushings syndrome
- due to ACTH releasing tumours
- or steroid use

21

What are the symptoms of cushings syndrome/ long term steroid use ?

- moon face
- buffalo hump
- thin, wrinkled skin
- adrenal tumour or hyperplasia
- muscle weakness
- poor wound healing

22

What is cushings disease?

- increase in corticol levels

23

Addisons disease is an adrenal insufficiency. What are the causes of it?

- autoimmune
- infection
- secondary to neoplasms

24

What are the symptoms of Addison's disease?

- GI symptoms (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea)
- weight loss
- hyperpigmentation ((black in the gums ect. ) due to low circulating adrenal levels, ACTH increases)
- low sodium , high potassium
- Addison's crisis (acute adrenal insufficiency ) - can be due to coming off steroids quickly

25

What is a phaeochromocytoma ?

tumour of the adrenal medulla which secrets adrenaline and noradrenaline
- increases heart rate, BP and metabolic rate

26

What are the presentations of phaeochromocytoma ?

Hypertension
Sweating
Palpitations
Nervousness
Increased metabolic ratio
Rapid heart rate

27

What is multiple endocrine neoplasia? (MEN)

- Group of inherited diseases resulting in proliferative lesions of multiple endocrine organs
- there are different type