Final Exam: Grevemeyer's Articles Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam: Grevemeyer's Articles Questions Deck (85)
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1

  1. Which statement regarding limb conformation in foals with angular limb deformities is correct?
    1. With valgus deformities, there is usually a certain degree of outward rotation of the feet
    2. With varus deformities, there is usually a certain degree of outward rotation of the feet
    3. With valgus deformities, there is usually a certain degree of inward rotation of the feet
    4. Rotational deformities are uncommon in foals with angular limb deformities

a. With valgus deformities, there is usually a certain degree of outward rotation of the feet

2

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the multi-factorial complex implicated in development of angular limb deformities in foals?
    1. Abnormal fetal limb positioning
    2. Placentitis
    3. Hypoplasia of the proximal sesamoid bones (Should be hypoplasia of the CUBOIDAL bones)
    4. Growth plate trauma

Hypoplasia of the proximal sesamoid bones (Should be hypoplasia of the CUBOIDAL bones)

3

  1. Which statement regarding diagnosis of angular limb deformities in foals is true?
    1. Regardless of the degree and location of the deformity, all foals should have their limbs radiographed at the initial examination
    2. The limb can usually be manually straightened in foals with asymmetric physeal or epiphyseal growth
    3. The limb can usually be manually straightened in foals with hypoplasia of the carpal bones
    4. Radiography is useful in determining the degree of rotational deformity

c. The limb can usually be manually straightened in foals with hypoplasia of the carpal bones

4

  1. Which statement regarding the diagnostic workup in foals with tarsal angular limb deformities is correct?
    1. A dorsoplantar radiographic view is especially useful in identifying tarsal bone hypoplasia
    2. A lateromedial radiographic view is especially useful in identifying tarsal bone hypoplasia
    3. Clinicians should rely heavily on a dorsoplantar radiographic view for exact identification and evaluation of the location and degree of tarsal angular limb deformities
    4. Concurrent rotational deformities are best identified using radiography

a. A dorsoplantar radiographic view is especially useful in identifying tarsal bone hypoplasia

5

  1. Which of the following is the most likely cause of carpal angular deformities in newborn foals?
    1. Asymmetric growth at the distal radial growth plate
    2. Periarticular laxity
    3. Delayed ossification of the epiphysis
    4.  Asymmetric growth at the distal radial growth plate and the epiphyseal growth cartilage

b. Periarticular laxity

6

  1. Which statement regarding congenital hypothyroidism is correct?
    1. It has been implicated as a cause of uneven physeal growth
    2. It has been implicated as a cause of delayed ossification of the carpal and tarsal cuboidal bones
    3. It has been implicated as a cause of delayed epiphyseal ossification
    4. It is often associated with abnormal fetal limb positioning

b. It has been implicated as a cause of delayed ossification of the carpal and tarsal cuboidal bones

7

  1. Foals with tarsal bone hypoplasia tend to present with:
    1. Valgus deformity
    2. Varus deformity
    3. Valgus deformity and straight-hocked appearance
    4. Valgus deformity and sickle-hocked appearance

d. Valgus deformity and sickle-hocked appearance

8

  1. Which statement regarding physical exam of foals with angular limb deformities is true?
    1. Angular limb deformities are often associated with some degree of lameness in the affected limb(s)
    2. Angular limb deformities are normally associated with heat, pain, and swelling at the site of the deformity
    3. In most cases, foals with angular limb deformities are not lame
    4. A and B

c. In most cases, foals with angular limb deformities are not lame

9

  1. Which statement regarding foals with cuboidal bone hypoplasia is correct?
    1. If left untreated, cuboidal bone hypoplasia results in a manually irreducible deformity within 2 weeks
    2. If left untreated, cuboidal bone hypoplasia results in a manually irreducible deformity within 2 days
    3. Manual reducibility of this condition is not time dependent
    4. This condition is never manually reducible

a. If left untreated, cuboidal bone hypoplasia results in a manually irreducible deformity within 2 weeks

10

  1. Angular limb deformities most often originate within the carpal, tarsal, ____________ joint regions
    1. Or distal interphalangeal
    2. Or proximal interphalangeal
    3. Or metacarpo- or metatarsophalangeal
    4. Or distal interphalangeal, or metacarpo- or metatarsophalangeal

c. Or metacarpo- or metatarsophalangeal

11

  1. Which statement regarding management of congenital angular limb deformities is correct?
  1. In most foals born with mild to moderate angular limb deformities, spontaneous resolution is unlikely.
  2. In most foals born with mild to moderate angular limb deformities, spontaneous resolution occurs within 2 to 4 weeks of life.
  3. In most foals born with angular limb deformities due to carpal or tarsal bone hypoplasia, spontaneous resolution occurs within 2 to 4 weeks of life.
  4. In most foals born with angular limb deformities due to  carpal  or  tarsal  bone hypoplasia, spontaneous  resolution occurs within 4 to  8 weeks of  life

B. In most foals born with mild to moderate angular limb deformities, spontaneous resolution occurs within 2 to 4 weeks of life.

12

  1. To avoid development of a contracted foot in a foal, glue-on shoes should not be left on for longer than
  1. 2 months.
  2. 3 months.
  3. 2 weeks.
  4. none of the above

2 weeks.

13

  1. To allow rapid growth in young foals, tube casts should be changed at  _______ intervals.
  1. 3- to 4-day      
  2. I 0 - to 14-day
  3. 3- to 4-week   
  4. 4- to  6-week

B. 10 - to 14-day

14

  1. Corrective ostectomy or osteotomy is
  1. preferred  in treating tarsal  bone hypoplasia
  2. preferred in treating severe carpal or tarsal bone hypoplasia.
  3. generally performed before cessation of physeal growth.
  4. generally performed after cessation of physeal growth.

D. generally performed after cessation of physeal growth.

15

  1. According  to  a recent  experimental study, HCPTE was
  1. More effective than stall confinement alone in correcting carpal angular limb deformity.
  2. Less effective than stall confinement alone in correcting carpal angular limb deformity.
  3. As effective as stall confinement alone in correcting carpal angular limb deformity.
  4. As effective as unlimited pasture exercise in correcting carpal angular limb deformit y.

C. As effective as stall confinement alone in correcting carpal angular limb deformity.

16

  1. Which statement regarding treatment of foals with carpal bone hypoplasia is correct?
  1. Foals with carpal bone hypoplasia often require surgical treatment after an initial period of splint bandaging.
  2. Foals with valgus deformities caused by carpal bone hypoplasia should be treated with confinement and by applying a glue-on shoe with extension to the inside.
  3. Foals with valgus deformities caused by carpal bone hypoplasia should be treated with confinement and by applying a glue-on shoe with extension to the outside
  4. Foals with carpal bone hypoplasia should be treated with splint bandaging or tube casting.

D. Foals with carpal bone hypoplasia should be treated with splint bandaging or tube casting.

17

  1. A 6-week-old foal with a significant varus deformity caused by asymmetric growth at the distal metatarsal growth plate in the left hindlimb is best treated  with
  1. splint bandaging and confinement .
  2. confinement.
  3. corrective trimming and, possibly, shoeing as well as confinement. 
  4. surgery, corrective trimming, and, possibly, shoeing as well as  confinement .

C. corrective trimming and, possibly, shoeing as well as confinement. 

18

  1. Which statement regarding HCPTE (hemicircumferential periosteal transection and elevation) is true?
  1. HCPTE temporarily retards longitudinal growth on the convex aspect of the deformity.
  2. HCPTE temporarily increases longitudinal growth on the concave aspect of the deformity.
  3. Foals that have undergone HCPTE require a second surgery to prevent overcorrection of the deformity.
  4. HCPTE exerts its effect for approximately 3 months.

B. HCPTE temporarily increases longitudinal growth on the concave aspect of the deformity.

19

  1. Which statement regarding TPB (transphyseal bridging) is correct?
  1. TPB is primarily used in young foals with severe angular deformities, miniature foals, or foals with significant limb deformity after the rapid growth phase.
  2. TPB is primarily used in foals with diaphyseal deformities.
  3. Contrary to HCPTE, overcorrection has not been reported after TPB.
  4. TPB is primarily used in young foals with severe angular deformities, miniature foals, or foals with diaphyseal deformities.

A. TPB is primarily used in young foals with severe angular deformities, miniature foals, or foals with significant limb deformity after the rapid growth phase.

20

  1. Postoperative treatment of foals using HCPTE includes
  1. free pasture exercise because it tends to increase the rate of correction.
  2. confinement.
  3. splint bandaging.
  4. none of the  above

B. confinement

21

  1. The most thorough examination of equine caudal cheek teeth is obtained by
    1. visual examination in a sedated horse by means of a speculum
    2. visual examination in an unsedated horse with the tongue withdrawn
    3. digital palpation in a sedated horse with the use of a speculum
    4. digital palpation of the teeth through the cheeks

C. digital palpation in a sedated horse with the use of a speculum

22

  1. Which cheek teeth are most commonly affected by periapical abscess formation?
    1. second upper and third lower
    2. fourth upper and third lower
    3. fifth and sixth lower
    4. fifth upper and fourth lower

fourth upper and third lower

23

  1. The most common clinical sign associated with periapical infection of the fourth upper cheek teeth is
    1. swelling of the rostral maxillary area
    2. swelling of the caudal maxillary area
    3. bilateral epistaxis
    4. unilateral, malodorous, purulent nasal discharge

unilateral, malodorous, purulent nasal discharge

24

  1. The most common clinical sign associated with early periapical infection of the third lower cheek tooth is
    1. quidding
    2. refusal to take the bit
    3. swelling or sinus formation of the ventral mandible
    4. halitosis

swelling or sinus formation of the ventral mandible

25

  1. In a 4 year old horse, focal thinning and distension of the mandible under the third cheek tooth
    1. is always a sign of perapical infection; the affected tooth should be treated
    2. is always followed by the development of a purulent sinus tract
    3. is a pathognomonic sign of bit damage
    4. may be a normal development feature if it occurs bilaterally and is not accompanied by sinus tracts

may be a normal development feature if it occurs bilaterally and is not accompanied by sinus tracts

26

  1. Which of the following statements concerning dental radiography in horses is true?
    1. powerful, fixed radiographic equipment is required
    2. general anesthesia is necessary
    3. there is slight variation in radiographic appearance among horses
    4. interpretation of early radiographic changes can be extremely difficult

interpretation of early radiographic changes can be extremely difficult

27

  1. In a Shetland pony, the optimum beam projection angle for radiographic examination of the spices of the mandibular cheek teeth is obtained via a
    1. straight lateral radiograph
    2. dorsoventral radiograph
    3. laterooblique radiograph of 40 to 45
    4. laterooblique radiograph of 30 to 35

laterooblique radiograph of 40 to 45

 

(laterooblique radiograph of 30 to 35 = (Maxillary))

28

  1. Which of the following statements concerning equine dentistry is true?
    1. a sclerotic area often develops around a lytic, infected tooth apex
    2. the lamina dura is the radiographic outline of the infundibulum
    3. loss of the lamina dura always indicated dental infection
    4. a radiolucent blunt appearance of the apex of a recently erupted tooth is definitive evidence of periapical infection

a sclerotic area often develops around a lytic, infected tooth apex

29

  1. After the development of chronic shear mouth, infection of the perapical tissue occurs via
    1. the infundibulum
    2. the pulp cavities
    3. hematogenous spread
    4. the periodontal membrane

the pulp cavities

30

  1. The term diastema is defined as
    1. the presence of abnormally large spaces between adjacent teeth
    2. the presence of additional abnormal cheek teeth
    3. rotation or displacement of teeth
    4. the presence of deep cavities in infundibula

the presence of abnormally large spaces between adjacent teeth