Exam 2: Rectal Tears and Rectal Prolapse Flashcards Preview

RUSVM LASx PRACTICE QUESTIONS > Exam 2: Rectal Tears and Rectal Prolapse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2: Rectal Tears and Rectal Prolapse Deck (34)
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1

A rectal tear is a potentially catastrophic event

in this species

HORSES

2

Most rectal tears in horses occur

on the _______ aspect

dorsal

3

This muscle relaxant is used in horses 

in order to prevent rectal tears

BUSCOPAN

4

A spontaneous rectal tear can occur post-foaling

in horses due to

pressure necrosis at the ____________.

Pelvic inlet

 

squeezes foal against pelvic inlet and squeezes rectum

against rim of pelvis = crush necrosis and hole in rectum

5

How is a rectal tear diagnosed and confirmed?

Sudden release of pressure felt on palpation

Sudden ability to palpate abdominal organs

Blood on sleeve

 

Confirmed via speculum exam of rectum or careful palpation

BARE HANDED with lube

6

Rectal tears in mares are usually dorsal

and ____________

longitudinal

7

When confirming rectal tear by bare hand palpation,

what meds can be used to stop rectal contractions?

Epidural

Xylazine/Butorphanol/Buscopan

Lidocaine enema or gel

8

The most common rectal tear classification is

Grade 1, which involves these layers of tissue

mucosa and submucosa

9

What tissue layers are involved in a Grade 2 rectal tear?

mucosa, submucosa, and MUSCULAR LAYER

 

may feel like a thin wall/diverticulum- feces impacted here

10

Grade 3A rectal tear involves

all layers except the ________

serosa

11

Grade 3b involves

mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa,

___________ and ____________

MESORECTUM and RETROPERITONEAL TISSUE

12

Grade 4 rectal tear extends into the ________

abdomen

13

A  colicking horse is seen after palpation.

What are you concerned about?

Rectal tear

14

Septic shock and peritonitis are potential

sequela of rectal tears in horses.

Which antibiotics are used to treat this?

Penicillin

Gentamicin

Metronidazole

Flunixin

15

How is a rectal tear initially treated?

Given Antibiotics

Buscopan to reduce rectal motility

Epidural anesthesia

Gentle packing of rectum with gauze soaked in iodine

the REFER OUT!

16

Which grades of rectal tears can be treated

non-surgically and how are they treated?

Grade 1, 2, or 3:

Grade 1 and 2: Antibiotics + Flunixin

Grade 3: Frequent manual removal of feces + epidural anesthesia

+ peritoneal lavage

17

Grade _____ rectal tears must always be treated surgically

Grade 4

18

What surgical methods can be used

to fix a rectal tear?

Direct suture repair

Temporary indwelling rectal liner

Loop colostomy

19

What are the indications for a loop colostomy (LOW LEFT FLANK)

in the treatment of rectal tears in horses?

Grade 4, maybe Grade 3

Tear > 25% of rectal diameter

Tear > 50 cm from anus

20

What is the prognosis for rectal tears?

Grade 1: 93%

Grade 2: 80%

Grade 3: 70%

Grade 4: 6% only

21

What complications are associated with Grade 3 and 4

rectal tears?

Cellulitis, Abscess

Toxemia, Laminitis

Intestinal adhesions

Stricture

Diverticulum

Fistula

22

In regards to rectal prolapse:

is most common in younger _______ cattle

feedlot

23

Describe the pathogenesis of

rectal prolapse in sheep

due to excessively short tail cropping

If cut the tail too short, you cut the coccygeus muscle,

which causes decreased support around the anus

predisposing to rectal prolapse

24

Classify the rectal prolapse:

only mucosa projects through the anus

Type 1

25

Classify the rectal prolapse:

prolapse of all layers of the rectum

Type 2

26

Classify the rectal prolapse:

 

Small colon intussuscepts into rectum

Type 3

27

Classify the rectal prolapse:

 

Rectum/colon intussusception through the anus

Type 4

28

What are the most common types of rectal prolapse?

Types 1 and 2

29

Classify this rectal prolapse:

Type 2:

 

Prolapse of all layers of the rectum

30

On palpation of rectal prolapse,

a palpable trench is felt inside the rectum.

What classification does this correspond to?

Type 4 rectal prolapse