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Flashcards in Grevemeyer's Articles Questions Deck (39)
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1

  • Which of the following is false about the donkey?
    • Nasogastric tube often gets entrapped in the enlarged pharyngeal recess
    • A smaller diameter nasopharyngeal tube is required for the donkey in comparison to the horse
    • The donkey has 5 lumbar vertebrae while the horse has 6
      • The cutaneous colli muscle covers the lower 1/3 of the jugular furrow

The cutaneous colli muscle covers the lower 1/3 of the jugular furrow – MIDDLE 1/3

2

A female donkey is called

Jenny/Jennet

3

A male donkey is called a

Jack

4

A castrated donkey is a

Gelding

5

A jack bred to a mare produces a

Mule

6

A stallion bred to a jenny produces a

Hinny

7

T/F Horses and donkeys have the same number of chromosomes.

FALSE - Donkey – 62, Horse – 64

8

A wound is considered infected when there are more than _______ bacteria

10^6 per gram tissue

9

  • All of the following will decrease wound healing when present in the wound EXCEPT
    • IPFs
    • Hemoglobin
    • Glove powder
    • Ferric iron
    • All of the above decrease wound healing

All of the above decrease wound healing

10

  • The product ketanserin used recently in equine medicine to aid in wound repair has what mechanism of action?

Serotonin receptor

11

T/F: 

  • Wounds created by impact injury are 100x more likely to develop a wound infection then those by shearing forces.

  • TRUE – Impact injury, such as a kick from a horse creates a substantial amount of soft tissue damage while simultaneously cutting off blood supply to that area.

12

  • The product ketanserin is best used to accomplish which goal in wound management?

Decrease the development of proud flesh

13

T/F:

  • Large animal wound infection rates are higher then small animal wound infection rates. 

TRUE

14

T/F:

  • Hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, and povidone iodine are all recommended for lavage of wounds.

FALSE

  • Hydrogen peroxide has a narrow antimicrobial spectrum and disrupts fibroblasts & vasculature

15

T/F:

  • Povidone iodine has killing affect against FUNGI but chlorhexidine does not.

TRUEalso there is no report of antimicrobial resistance against povidone iodine. Whereas proteus and pseudomonas have been reported to be resistant to CHX

16

  • All of the following are possible desirable affects of sugar or honey when applied to a wound EXCEPT:
    • Macrophage activation
    • Antimicrobial properties
    • Initiation of epithelialization
    • Up regulation of cytokines
    • Inhibition of fibroplasia

Inhibition of fibroplasia

17

  • T/F: 
    • Without surgical or chemical debridement by the surgeon or veterinarian, the body has no mechanisms with which to debride the wound 

FALSE - Neutrophils & other phagocytes are the natural debriders of the wound world

18

  • T/F:  The stage in which the veterinary surgeon has the most influence is the proliferative stage.

FALSE -INFLAMMATORY STAGE

19

  • If one of the testes cannot be located during routine castration
    • Neither testis should be removed and the horse should be referred or scheduled for cryptorchid castration
    • The horse is a monorchid
    • Ventral midline laparotomy should be done immediately to locate the intraabdominal testis
    • The descended testis should be removed and the horse should be referred to a sx facility for removal of the retained testis

Neither testis should be removed and the horse should be referred or scheduled for cryptorchid castration

20

  • T/F: Post-castration EDEMA
    • Is common, usually self-limiting and resolves with adequate exercise and drainage

TRUE

21

  • Excessive HEMORRHAGE during castration
    • Usually originates from the vascular spermatic cord and may result from improper or inadequate emasculation of the vascular structures
    • Predisposes the horse to eventration
    • Is rarely life threatening and requires no additional therapy
    • Should be addressed by reapplication of the emasculator or placement of a clamp or ligature
    • A and D

A and D:

Usually originates from the vascular spermatic cord and may result from improper or inadequate emasculation of the vascular structures

 

Should be addressed by reapplication of the emasculator or placement of a clamp or ligature

22

  • Incision of the CORPUS CAVERNOSUM penis during castration
    • Requires sx reapposition of the tunic to avoid further complications
    • Is of little consequence and can be left to heal by second intention
    • Is a frequent complication of castration
    • Requires immediate penile amputation

Requires sx reapposition of the tunic to avoid further complications

23

  • Postcastration eventration:
  • Only occurs after use of the open technique of castration
  • Can occur up to 6 days after castration
  • Is usually self limiting and reduces spontaneously
  • Is more likely to occur in arabs and other high strung breeds
  • C and D

Can occur up to 6 days after castration

24

Prolapse of the omentum from the scrotal wound:

  • Warrants euthanasia because of the poor prognosis
  • Should be corrected by transrectal palp and steady traction on the abdominal portion of the omentum
  • Can be managed by emasculation of the prolapsed tissue in simple cases but may require sx correction thru an inguinal approach
  • Can occur months to years after castration
  • A and D

  • Can be managed by emasculation of the prolapsed tissue in simple cases but may require sx correction thru an inguinal approach

25

Schirrous cord:

  • Refers to chronic low grade staph infx that results in formation of abscesses and fibrous tissue
  • Warrants euthanasia because of the poor prognosis
  • Can occur months to years after castration
  • Is caused by a clostridial infx of the scrotal wound
  • A and C

A and C

Refers to chronic low grade staph infx that results in formation of abscesses and fibrous tissue

 

Can occur months to years after castration

26

  • Postcastration peritonitis
    • Is considered septic when nucleated cell counts of the abdominal fluid exceed 10,000 cells/ul
    • Is more likely to result from the open technique of castration
    • Is usually inflammatory and self limiting, but sepsis should be suspected if degenerative neuts and phagocytized bacti are evident on cytologic studies
    • Does not occur because the vaginal tunic does not communicate with the abdomen
    • A and B

Is usually inflammatory and self limiting, but sepsis should be suspected if degenerative neuts and phagocytized bacti are evident on cytologic studies

27

  • Persistent masculine behavior after castration
    • Results from failure to remove the epididymis during castration
    • Can result from failure to remove testicular tissue during castration of a cryptorchid animal
    • Does not occur
    • Can be controlled with admin of benztropine mesylate

Can result from failure to remove testicular tissue during castration of a cryptorchid animal

28

  • Hydrocele is
    • A common complication of the closed technique of castration
    • A result of infx of the spermatic cord
    • The accumulation of serous fluid within the vaginal cavity
    • More common following the open technique of castration
    • C and D

C and D

The accumulation of serous fluid within the vaginal cavity

More common following the open technique of castration

29

  • Cryptorchidism: Abdominal retention of the testis
    • Is most common on the right side
    • Is most common on the left side
    • Is equally common on both sides
    • Does not occur

Is most common on the left side

30

  • The testis usually enters the scrotum
    • At day 100 – 150 of gestation
    • At day 275 of gestation to 10 days before birth
    • At day 315 of gestation to 10 days after birth
    • 3 wks after birth

At day 315 of gestation to 10 days after birth