The process of abnormal bone and cartilage formation is known as
A joint disorder in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone due to blood deprivation in the subchondral bone.
This loss of blood flow causes the subchondral bone to die
in a process called avascular necrosis.
OCD- Osteochondritis Dissecans
______ bone is responsible for supporting cartilage
Bone and cartilage are formed by a process known as
During bone formation,
_____________ form calcified columns in the hypertrophic zone
The primary spongiosa is formed by ________ using calcified columns
What are the two pathophysiological causes of OCD?
Failure of blood vessels to penetrate calcified cartilage
What is your diagnosis?
OCD- Flap formation
At what age is OCD seen in horses?
TWO age ranges:
Birth to 5 months
> 1 year old
What is the most important sequela of OCD?
_______ is the only tissue in the body that can heal without scar formation
What is the sex predilection for degenerative osteoarthritis?
T/F: Degenerative osteoarthritis is a heritable trait
T/F: Nutrition imbalances can cause degenerative osteoarthritis
is associated with
Osteochondrosis is a multifactorial disease.
What 4 factors contribute to development of this disease?
Aberrant local signaling to the ____________
in the deep layer of the articular epiphyseal-cartilage complex
is believed to underlie the development of osteochondrosis
What nutritional factors are involved in the epipathogenesis of osteochondrosis in horses?
LOW calcium, copper, selenium
HIGH phosphorus, zinc, molybdenum
Vitamin A,D deficiency
High protein diet
High caloric intake
_______ supplementation of mares during pregnancy may help decrease the prevalence of osteochondrosis
Greater weight gains during the ___ and ____ months of life
appear to have the most influence on the development of osteochondrosis.
3rd and 5th months
Compared with other affected foals,
foals confined in stalls tended to have more severe lesions,
and the _________ were more often affected.
In regards to osteochondrosis,
exercised foals tended to have lesions involving the ________________
lateral trochlear ridge of the femur.
Major collagen type in fibrous connective tissue and bone
Not normally found in articular cartilage
Type 1 collagen
Major collagen type in hyaline cartilage
Type 2 collagen
Small-chain collagen type in mammalian articular cartilage
May have a cell-signaling function
Type 6 collagen
• Small-chain collagen that is found only in
hypertrophic growth cartilage and the deep zone of adult articular cartilage
• Unknown function
• Considered a marker for hypertrophic cartilage
Type X collagen
What 3 factors stimulate terminal differentiation of Chondrocytes?
• Bone morphogenetic protein 6
• Bone morphogenetic protein 2
What 3 factors inhibit terminal differentiation of Chondrocytes?
Parathyroid hormone–related peptide
• Transforming growth factor–β1
• Bone morphogenetic protein 7
__________ factors that stress the weakened osteochondral junction
play an important role in the clinical manifestation of osteochondrosis
and may ultimately determine whether healing or osteochondritis dissecans flap formation ensues.
T/F: Lameness is the first noticeable clinical sign of osteochondrosis
Lameness is rarely severe enough to be noticed