Exam 2: Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2: Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) Deck (55)
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1

The process of abnormal bone and cartilage formation is known as

osteochondrosis

2

A joint disorder in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone due to blood deprivation in the subchondral bone.

This loss of blood flow causes the subchondral bone to die

in a process called avascular necrosis. 

OCD- Osteochondritis Dissecans

3

______ bone is responsible for supporting cartilage

Subchondral

4

Bone and cartilage are formed by a process known as

Endochondral ossification

5

During bone formation,

_____________ form calcified columns in the hypertrophic zone

Chondrocytes

6

The primary spongiosa is formed by ________ using calcified columns

Osteoblasts

7

What are the two pathophysiological causes of OCD?

Failure of blood vessels to penetrate calcified cartilage

Epiphyseal necrosis

8

What is your diagnosis?

OCD- Flap formation

9

At what age is OCD seen in horses?

TWO age ranges:

Birth to 5 months

and

> 1 year old

10

What is the most important sequela of OCD?

Degenerative osteoarthritis

11

_______ is the only tissue in the body that can heal without scar formation

Bone

12

What is the sex predilection for degenerative osteoarthritis?

2:1 Males:Females

13

T/F: Degenerative osteoarthritis is a heritable trait

TRUE

14

T/F: Nutrition imbalances can cause degenerative osteoarthritis

TRUE

15

Degenerative osteoarthritis

is associated with

______ Calcium

and

_________ Phosphorus

decreased calcium

increased phosphorus

16

Osteochondrosis is a multifactorial disease.

What 4 factors contribute to development of this disease?

Nutrition

Growth Rate

Heriditary Factors

Trauma

17

Aberrant local signaling to the ____________

in the deep layer of the articular epiphyseal-cartilage complex

is believed to underlie the development of osteochondrosis

chondrocytes

18

What nutritional factors are involved in the epipathogenesis of osteochondrosis in horses?

LOW calcium, copper, selenium

HIGH phosphorus, zinc, molybdenum

Vitamin A,D deficiency

High protein diet

High caloric intake

19

_______ supplementation of mares during pregnancy may help decrease the prevalence of osteochondrosis

Copper

20

Greater weight gains during the ___ and ____ months of life

appear to have the most influence on the development of osteochondrosis.

3rd and 5th months

21

Compared with other affected foals,

foals confined in stalls tended to have more severe lesions,

and the _________ were more often affected.

femoral condyles

22

In regards to osteochondrosis,

exercised foals tended to have lesions involving the ________________

lateral trochlear ridge of the femur.

23

Major collagen type in fibrous connective tissue and bone

Not normally found in articular cartilage

Type 1 collagen

24

Major collagen type in hyaline cartilage

Type 2 collagen

25

Small-chain collagen type in mammalian articular cartilage

May have a cell-signaling function

Type 6 collagen

26

• Small-chain collagen that is found only in

hypertrophic growth cartilage and the deep zone of adult articular cartilage

• Unknown function

• Considered a marker for hypertrophic cartilage

Type X collagen

27

What 3 factors stimulate terminal differentiation of Chondrocytes?

Indian hedgehog

• Bone morphogenetic protein 6

• Bone morphogenetic protein 2

28

What 3 factors inhibit terminal differentiation of Chondrocytes?

Parathyroid hormone–related peptide

• Transforming growth factor–β1

• Bone morphogenetic protein 7

29

__________ factors that stress the weakened osteochondral junction

play an important role in the clinical manifestation of osteochondrosis

and may ultimately determine whether healing or osteochondritis dissecans flap formation ensues.

Biomechanical

30

T/F: Lameness is the first noticeable clinical sign of osteochondrosis

FALSE.

Lameness is rarely severe enough to be noticed