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Flashcards in Final - Lecture 15 Deck (24):

Name the increased risks associated with obesity

Diabetes, heart attacks, stroke and cancer


What issue is associated with childhood obesity?

Obese children have 7.5x the risk of becoming obese adults


Which ethnic group is most at risk for obesity?

African-American women


What are some health risks associated with obesity?

Diabetes, Cancer, Hypertension and CVD


What is the mechanism by which obesity increases the chance of breast cancer?

Obesity often leads to high levels of cholesterol which can be converted to hydroxycholesterol. 27HC (hydroxycholesterol) binds estrogen receptor, which encourages tumor growth.


What is the relationship between obesity and liver cancer?

A high fat diet leads to obesity. The large amount of fat leads to more bile usage. Bile acids that reach the large intestine can be converted by bacteria present obese mice into a liver carcinogen (DCA)


Besides cancer, what other impacts can obesity have on health?

Insulin insensitivity -> diabetes, immune system weakened, brain cells can be impacted which can lead to Alzheimer's.


Metabolic diseases can be caused by energy and metabolic imbalance. What are some factors of these?

1) amount and type of food eaten
2) amount of activity
3) basal metabolic rate


There is a positive correlation between the number of obese parents and the obesity risk of the child. Explain the reason for this.

Based on twin studies, genetics seem to have an impact on obesity risk. Genes control 40-70% of weight gain,


What genes are associated with obesity risk and what do they do?

Thrifty genes. They promote conservation and storage of energy.


What are some genes that can cause obesity and how do they do this?

Ob gene via control of satiety
MRAP2 gene which controls energy homeostasis in the brain


How does change in microbiota impact obesity?

A more diverse microbiota leads to a decrease in obesity risk


What is an environmental factor that can lead to obesity

The people we interact with can increase the risk of obesity. Obese friends have the most impact, followed by spouse while neighbors have little to no effect


Name some lifestyle risk factors that are most related with increased obesity

1) Sweetened beverages (soda)
2) fast foods
3) large portion sizes
4) Screen (esp. TV) time
5) High energy intake (kcals)
6) energy-dense foods


What lifestyle factors that can decrease obesity risk?

Dietary factors: higher consumption of dietary fiber, fruits, veggies (plant-based whole foods)


What is the impact of insulin on obesity risk?

Increased insulin levels increases the amount of fat storage in your body, which can lead to obesity


How is body mass index (BMI) calculated?

(body weight in kg)/((ht in m)^2)
For the english system, multiply by 703.1 to account for conversion factors.


What are the BMI categories?

23 Asians)
30-35: obese (>25 Asians)
35-40: severely obese
40-50: morbidly obese
50-60: super obese


True of False: BMI indicates how weight is distributed?

False, in order to determine weight distribution, it is necessary to take into other factors like density or subcutaneous fat.


What are some increased risk associated with increased visceral fat?

CVD, diabetes, breast and colon cancers, hypertension and metabolic syndrome


What is metabolic syndrome and what are some risk factors that are included?

Is a biological marker that is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD.
Requires 4 or 5 of the following factors to be classified as such:
abdominal obesity
high blood glucose
high blood pressure
high blood triglycerides
high LDL and low HDL levels
insulin resistance or glucose intolerance
high inflammatory markers


What are the components of Energy Expenditure?

EE=Basal Metabolism x Physical activity x Thermic food effect


What is TEF and how does cooking impact it?

Thermic Food Effect is the energetic cost of digesting food. Cooking food decreases TEF by making the food more easily digested.


Basal metabolism is the minimal energy expended in a fasting state to keep a resting conscious person alive in warm quiet environment. What are some factors calculated into this and how much of energy expenditure is accounted for?

Heart beat, respiration, thermogenesis. It accounts for 60-70% of total energy expenditure