Flashcards in Midterm 1 - Lecture 1 Deck (18):
The 2 most important dietary risks in the United States are:
1. diets low in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds
2. diets high in sodium, processed meats, and trans fats.
Effect of Tree nut consumption (~1 serving/d versus 0
serving/week) on CHD
Lowers risk of CHD by ~40-60%
The science of food, diet and
What are the 2 main focuses of Nutrition?
1. nutrients (their
function, interaction and balance in
relation to health and disease)
2. the processes by which food and
nutrients are ingested, absorbed,
transported, utilized and excreted.
Dietary Reference Intakes;
Includes RDAs, AI, ULs, and EARs
Recommended Dietary Allowances;
daily amount that is adequate to meet needs of 97-98% of healthy population
estimate made when RDA cannot be determined (no EAR or functional marker)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels;
highest level that is safe (less than 2-3% of people show adverse effects)
Estimated Average Requirements;
Must have a measurable biochemical/physiological marker as agreed upon by the Food and Nutrition Board;
comprehensive criteria and averaged over several days
What is a calorie? (Not Calorie)
A measurement of energy;
“the amount of energy needed to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree
What is a Calorie?
"the amount of energy needed to raise 1L of water
1 degree Celsius"
The standard American diet is heavy in:
animal fat and sugar
Effect of 5 servings/d of fruits & veggies on all-cause mortality:
decrease all-cause mortality by 1/3 and increased life span 3yr on average
Benefits of Fruits & Vegetables
Fiber, vitamins & minerals, Phytonutrients
Name 3 phytonutrients
How does consumption of phytonutrients affect risk of disease?
Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties help to lower risk of disease
Name the 4 components of a Healthy Lifestyle and what percentage of people do all 4? (Golden Nugget)
1. eat healthy diet (>5 fruits & veggies /day)
2. exercise >30 min/day
3. maintain a healthy weight (