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Flashcards in Midterm 1 - Lecture 9 Deck (15):

Define Binge drinking

4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more for men in 2 hrs. Can lead to acute alcohol intoxication and death.


How is alcohol absorbed in the body?

-Alcohol is absorbed in stomach (20%) & small intestine (80%) directly into blood stream (no transporters needed)
-Food in stomach slows absorption


Blood Alcohol & Driving (Blood Alcohol []'s)

BAC of 0.02 begins to impair driving
BAC or 0.08 is illegal for driving (DUI in CA)


Ethanol metabolism - ADH pathway metabolites

CH3CH2OH (ethanol) +NAD+-> CH3CHO (acetaldehyde) +NAD+-> CH3COOH (acetic acid) +CoA-> CH3CO-S-CoA (Ac-CoA)


Ethanol metabolism - ADH pathway enzymes

alcohol dehydrogenase -> aldehyde dehydrogenase -> Ac-CoA synthetase


Why are women more affected by alcohol than men?

1) they are smaller (less total body mass)
2) have less water per body weight
3) have less ADH in stomach lining


Under what condition is the MEOS pathway utilized?

Under high doses of ethanol; creates Acetaldehyde


t 1/2 for drugs is defined as

time required for drug concentration to fall by half


How can ethanol affect drug degradation?

Inhibits it by competitive inhibition with the drug; as a result, alcohol with drugs such as sedatives can be lethal.

Increase rate of metabolism by increasing level of cytP450; may result in more toxic metabolites as with acetominophen+alcohol


Effects of alcohol on brain

-Interacts with multiple receptors including endorphin receptors in the brain-> release of dopamine -> sensation of intoxication
-Addictive: most common addictive substance in US.
-Excessive alcohol intake -> tolerance -> increased consumption -> dependence and addiction.


Hangover gene in Drosophila

Mutants defective in this gene cannot build tolerance to alcohol
-encodes a nuclear DNA-binding protein


Nutritional Effects of Excessive Alcohol

-too many empty calories and too few good nutrients
-Impairs absorption, metabolism or retention of key vitamins & minerals
-Diuretic -> dehydration (contributes to hangover)


Disease Risks from Excessive Alcohol

-liver cirrhosis (cells gain fat -> rupture -> organ failure)
-Heart failure (same as liver)
-Brain damage: direct alcohol toxicity -> impaired brain fxn
-Stomach and pancreas: inflammation
-Breast cancer: up 50% from 3 or more drinks/day
-Oropharyngeal Cancer...if both smoking and drinking


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

-Alcohol is a potent teratogen (birth defects)
-Causes FAS-mental retardation with impaired nerve & immune
function (ADD, bi-polar, asthma, epilepsy, autism).
-Leading known cause of mental retardation in West.


Beneficial Effects of Alcohol

~1 drink/d reduces incidence of heart disease by 20-40%.
-Red wine has antioxidants.