Fluoroquinolones Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Fluoroquinolones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluoroquinolones Deck (16):
1

What are the fluoroquinolones used today?

Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin

2

Fluoroquinolones have _____ spectrum of activity and _____ half lives.

Broad spectrum
Long half lives

3

What is the general mechanism of action for fluoroquinolones?

Inhibiting DNA synthesis.
In Gram Negative bacteria, inhibit topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase).
In Gram Positive bacteria, inhibit topoisomerase IV.

4

Resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones

-Chromosomal mutations in DNA Gyrase of Topoisomerase IV
-Efflux pumps
-Altered permeability

5

Fluoroquinolones' spectrum of activity for Gram Positive Aerobes

Levo, Moxi, or Gemi

6

Fluoroquinolones' spectrum of activity for Gram Negative Aerobes

Cipro = Levo > Moxi

7

Fluoroquinolones' spectrum of activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Cipro > Levo
Never use Moxi or Gemi

8

Fluoroquinolones' spectrum of activity for Anaerobes

Moxi

9

Fluoroquinolones' spectrum of activity for atypical bacteria

Use any fluoroquinolone for atypical infection

10

Fluoroquinolones' Clinical Uses
Respiratory Tract Infections - Community acquired and Nosocomial

CAP -- Levo, Moxi, Gemi

Nosocomial -- Cipro, Levo

11

Fluoroquinolones' Clinical Uses
UTIs

Cipro, Levo

12

Fluoroquinolones' Clinical Uses
Sinusitis, Bronchitis

All FQs

13

Adverse Effects of Fluoroquinolones

GI - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
CNS- headache, irritability, insomnia, dizziness
Hepatotoxicity- Moxi only
Cardiac - Prolonged QT Syndrome
Tendonitis and tendon rupture
Contraindicated in Pediatrics and Pregnant Women
Phototoxicity (rare)

14

Fluoroquinolones Drug Interactions
Divalent and Trivalent Cations

Decrease absorption of all FQs, leading to decreased clinical efficacy

15

Fluoroquinolones Drug Interactions
Theophylline and Cyclosporin

Decrease metabolism of ciprofloxacin, leading to increased serum levels and toxicity

16

Fluoroquinolones Drug Interactions
Warfarin

Idiosyncratic effects with all FQs

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