Flashcards in Foreign Policy 1885-1901 Deck (128)
What was the 'mineral revolution' in the Transvaal?
Finding of gold and diamonds in the Transvaal
How did the mineral revolution impact the Transvaal?
Transformed economy; threatened to dominate British colonies in South Africa
Who held most the newfound wealth in the Transvaal?
British and German mine owners - 'Rand millionaires'
What did Chamberlain tell Kruger that strained tensions?
That the agreements following the First Boer War had not restored full domestic control to the republic of Transvaal
Who did Chamberlain appoint as High Commissioner for South Africa?
What did Chamberlain encourage London banks to do in regard to the Transvaal?
Deny long-term investment (along with Milner)
What did Milner demand regarding Uitlander citizenship?
It to be granted within 5 years
When did Kruger call Milner to a final meeting over Uitlander citizenship?
June 1899 in Bloemfontein
What did Kruger propose to Milner in May 1899?
Uiltlander citizenship within seven years, in return for British recognition of the Transvaal in domestic matters
What was Milner's response to Kruger's May 1899 offer?
Declined point blank
What did Kruger say about British policy in South Africa in May 1899?
'It is our country you want'
When did most the Cabinet agree with Milner's view that Boers needed 'teaching a lesson'?
What did Kruger's telegram on 9 October 1899 demand?
British withdrawal from the Transvaal border; or he would declare war (offered to negotiate at an international conference)
What was the British response to Kruger's telegram?
Did not even reply
When did the Transvaal start war on the Cape Colony?
11 October 1899
Who advised Kruger that the British could be defeated in a war?
Boer generals (especially Smuts)
When was the 'black week'?
What happened during the 'black week'?
British lost battles in Stromberg, Magersfontein and Colonso
Where were the British defeated in January 1900?
Who was blamed for humiliating defeats at the start of the Boer War?
Generals' poor leadership and poor planning from War Office
Who did the British send following early defeats in the Boer War?
More troops; Lord Roberts ('hero of the Indian Mutiny') and Lord Kitchener ('Hero of the Sudan')
What happened following the introduction of Kitchener and Roberts?
Kimberly, Ladysmith and Mafeking were relieved in quick succession
How was Britain faring in the Transvaal by June 1900?
Moving towards victory, Johannesburg and Pretoria were occupied. Kruger and his govt moved to Europe
What was the 'khaki' election?
Post-Boer War election in October 1900
How did the Boers continue the war after 1900?
Gritty guerrilla warfare
What happened in 1901 to the Cape Colony?
Invaded by Boers
Who returned to South Africa in 1901?
How did Kitchener deal with guerrilla warfare?
Split country into zones, divided by barbed wire; 'scorched earth policy' which meant burning Boer villages and collecting civilians into concentration camps
What did Campbell-Bannerman call British action in South Africa?
'methods of barbarism'