Flashcards in Economy 1865-1900 Deck (84)
What percent of the working class were skilled by 1870?
About 2%, making £2 per week
By 1871, how much of the population lived in urban areas?
When was most the sewerage system in London finished?
Who was the chief engineer behind the London sewer system?
When were Victoria and Albert Embankments opened and what did they do?
1870, attempted to conceal sewers, whilst reclaiming land for gardens and roads
What length of sewer pipes was laid in the London sewer system?
What did the 1868 Torrens Act mean?
Bound landlords to keep property in a good state of repair
What did Chamberlain do in Birmingham in terms of housing?
Used Artisans Dwellings Act to carry out widespread improvements (both in housing and municipal buildings)
What did the 1871 Trade Union Act mean?
That trade unions had legal status, now able to support workers
Who's economic argument about laissez faire did Bentham and Mill take up?
Adam Smith (1766, Wealth of Nations)
How was Smith's laissez faire adapted in government?
Smith talked about non-intervention in trade, the government used it as a policy for non-intervention in social reform too
What was Bentham's theory of Utalitarianism?
'Greatest happiness to the greatest number'
What was the mantra of Gladstonian Liberalism?
'Peace, retrenchment and reform'
What did the adoption of free trade lead to?
Massive increases in the volume of trade, stimulated economic growth
What was the rate of unemployment in 1872?
What was the rate of unemployment in 1879?
What was unemployment in 1886?
What did the 1886 Royal Commission on the Depression of Trade and Industry do?
Offered an opportunity of merchants and manufacturers to ventilate their concern over foreign competition
In 1879, what did The Economist describe the year as?
'One of the most sunless and cheerless of the century'
What did Randolph say about British trade in 1884?
That it was effected by a 'moral disease'
When did Italy abandon free trade?
When did Germany abandon free trade?
When did France abandon free trade?
When did the USA abandon free trade?
How did British steel production change 1875-1894 (as a percentage of world production)?
Fell from 35.9% to 24.6%
How did German steel production change 1875-1894 (as a percentage of world production)?
Increased from 16.6% to 21.4%
How did USA steel production change 1875-1894 (as a percentage of world production)?
Increased from 26% to 33.7%
What happened to the price of industrial goods 1873-96?
How much did the price of coal and textiles fall 1871-96?