Fungal Infections II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fungal Infections II Deck (35):
1

why is it so difficult to treat tinea unguium and what is best treatment

using topical treatments don't work because it cannot penetrate the nail plate into the nail bed where the fungus resides

best to treat with oral systemic antifungal

2

what does epidermophyton attack and what is the only pathogenic species in this genus

skin and nails
e. floccosum

3

what is seen on agar of epidermophyton

just macroconidia which are smooth walled and large -- born singly or in banana shaped clusters

no microconidia

4

what does microsporum attack and what is seen on agat

skin and hair
see more macroconidia than microconidia

5

treatments for dermatophytes

orally active triazoles
allylamines (terbinafine)
griseofulvin and ketoconazole
thiocarbonates (tolnaftate)
many imidazoles

6

what are control measure for opportunistic fungi like candida and molds

-discontinue antibiotics and restore normal flora
-restore immune system
-surgical removal of lesions and antimicrobials

7

most common mold in externa otitis

aspergillus species
next is fusarium

8

where do skin infections with candida usually occur

moist areas like between toes, folds of skin obese patients, diaper rash in infants

9

prevention of candidiasis of the skin

-clotrimazole or nystatin
-disposable diapers
-decrease moisture and chronic trauma in babies

10

what is Hyalohyphomycosis

generic name for many species of non black mold fungal infections but aspergillosis just so common that it has its own category

fusarium is an example of hyalohyphomycosis

11

what is Phaeohyphomycosis

term for black mold fungal infections not covered by older historical names like tinea nigra and such

12

what are chronic subcutaneous infection caused by

fungi or bacteria

13

what is another name for chromoblastomycosis (which is in fact a type of phaeophyphomycosis)

verrucous dermatitis

14

causative agent of chromoblastomycosis

black pigmented soil fungi --> philalophora and cladosporium

15

clinical presentation of chromoblastomycosis

wart like nodules that are slow growing and painless

16

most common fungal agent of eumycetoma

Pseudoallescheria boydii (Petriellidium boydii).

17

another name for eumycetoma

madura foot

18

how does eumycetoma/madura foot present

local swelling with suppuration and abscess formation

19

what is causative agent of sporotrichosis

Sporothrix schenckii.

20

how does one get infected by sporothrix schenckii

infection by splinters, thorns, and cuts of the skin

21

how do you treat sporotrichosis

oral potassium iodide (in milk)

22

how does sporothrix schenckii look like on microscopy

flower like sporulation

23

what predisposes one to fusarium

scatches, contact lenses
since this is an eye infection

24

with a wood's light (UV) exam what do you see with tinea versicolor

fluoresces subtle gold colors

25

with a wood's light (UV) exam what do you see with tinea capitis and what is the limit

fluoresces a ligher greenish blue only if it is the microsporum canis and microsporum audouinii species causing

26

what do you see with UV exam if tinea capitis is caused by trichophyton

no fluorescence -- this will be the case for most tinea capitis since trichophyton is the most common agent

27

yeast infections in blood take how long to culture

2-7days

28

dimorphic fungi take how long to blood culture

2-6 weeks

29

what temp does mycobacterium marinum require to grow

28-30oC

30

what does mycobacterium marinum look like when exposed to light

yellow pigment (it is an acid fast photochromogen)

31

how can you identify mycobacterium marinum when clinically presented to you

cuts and abrasions of the skin usually hands while working in or around sea water or aquarium water

32

features of mycobacerium ulcers

-slow growing non photochromogen
-requires 28-30oC to culture
-commonly known as Buruli ulcer

33

what does mycobacterium chelonae cause

soft tissue abscesses and chronic cutaneous lesions

34

what is mycobacerium chelonae associated with

implants derived from living tissue

35

how do you treat m. chelonae

surgical excision plus cefoxitin and amikacin