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Flashcards in UGI 2 Deck (39):
1

2/3 of urogenital schistosomiasis is due to what

schistosoma hematobium

2

symptoms/side effects of schistosomiasis

contact bleeding, discharge, pain on intercourse, secondary infections, diminished fertility

increased chance of bladder cancer

3

specimen for UTIs

clean catch urine specimen
white and red blood cells, bacteria

4

tests used for diagnosis of UTIs and why

leukocyte-esterase test
nitrate --> nitrite
bacteria converts nitrate to nitrite so looking for nitrite is diagnostic

5

amount of specimen needed in symptomatic women for accurate diagnosis for UTI

10^2 CFU

6

what drug used in the treatment for UTIs caused by e. coli is no longer effective because of the widespread resistance

fluoroquinolones

7

population with highest risk of STI

15-24 year olds

8

signs and symptoms seen in gonorrhea and chlamydia (also name the pathogen)

urethral discharge, cervicitis - vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain in women, neonatal conjunctivitis

neisseria gonorrhea and chlamydia trachomatis

9

signs and symptoms seen in syphilis and the pathogen

treponema pallidum

anogenital ulcers, inguinal swelling, generalized skin rash

10

signs and symptoms seen in chancroid and the pathogen

hemophilus ducreyi

genital ulcers with inguinal swelling

11

signs and symptoms seen in granuloma inguinale or donovanosis and the pathogen

klebsiella granulomatis

nodular swellings and anogenital ulcers

12

difference in the discharge in trichomoniasis and candidiasis

trichomoniasis - frothy (protein) vaginal discharge

candidiasis - thick curd like vaginal discharge

13

manifestations of STI

URETHRAL DISCHARGE, vaginal discharge, genital ulcers, lower abdominal pain, scrotal swelling, inguinal bulbo, neonatal conjunctivitis

14

other than cervicitis, what is another cause of vaginal discharge

vaginitis - trichomoniasis and candidiasis

15

causes of genital ulcers

syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid

16

causes of inguinal bubo

chancroid and LGV

17

causes of neonatal conjunctivitis

gonorrhea and chlamydia

18

mixtures of anaerobes can lead to female genital tract infections. name the common anaerobes

Prevotella bivia and disiens, bacteriodes fragillis

19

conditions with vaginitis

bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis

20

what is vaginitis characterized by

vaginal discharge, vulvar itching, irritation, odor

21

most common cause of vaginitis and most common vaginal infection in childbearing aged women

bacterial vaginosis

22

what is bacterial vaginosis

normal balance of bacteria in vagina is disrupted replaced by certain overgrowth

23

increased risk of HIV transmission is seen in what conditions

Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis, Gonorrhea

24

how do you distinguish bacterial vaginosis from candidiasis and trichomonas

clue cells

25

how and why is the pH of vagina affected in bacterial vaginosis

people with bacterial vaginosis have fewer lactobacilli hence not as much lactic acid being produced --> increased pH

if pH is greater than 4.5 --> suggests BV

26

candida albicans is normal flora of what

vagina, urethra, skin under nails

27

primary site of colonization for candida albicans

GI tract

28

conditions that put women at risk for candidiasis

pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, use of broad spectrum antibiotics or corticosteroid medication

29

only known protozoan parasite that infects the genital tract

trichomonas vaginalis

30

risk factors for trichomonas vaginalis

multiple sex partners, history of STDs, low socioeconomic status, lack of condom use

31

most common site of trichomoniasis infection in men and women

men: urethra
women: vagina

32

mode of transmission for trichomoniasis

sex is primary
fomites is also possible

33

how do you detect trichomonas vaginalis

NAAT

34

what is seen in NAAT

parasite with 4 flagella and short undulating membrane responsible for motility

35

clinical presentation of trichomoniasis

frothy discharge and strawberry cervix

36

difference in pH for conditions that cause vaginitis

bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis both have pH higher than 4.5

candidiasis has a pH of less than 4.5

37

what would you see with KOH wet mount for candidiasis

pseudohyphae if caused by candida albicans
spores if caused by other non albicans species

38

term used to describe gonorrhea in military situations

bacterial urethritis

39

major reservoir of gonorrhea

asymptomatically infected individual