Gastrointestinal agents Flashcards Preview

PTCB Drugs > Gastrointestinal agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal agents Deck (58):
1

Types of gastrointestinal agents

Gas
Anti-diarrheals
Laxatives
Antiemetic agents
Anti-ulcer agents (Antacids, Histamine-2 blockers, Proton pump inhibitors, Antibiotics, Miscellaneous)

2

Generic name: simethicone

Brand name: Mylicon drops (Over the counter)
Brand name: Gas X, Phazyme (Over the counter)
-treats flatulence by collapsing gas bubbles in the GI tract

3

Anti-diarrheals

bismuth subgallate
loperamide
kaolin/attapulgite
opium tincture
diphenoxylate

4

Generic name: bismuth subgallate

Brand name: Pepto-Bismol (OTC)
Anti-diarrheal

5

Generic name: loperamide

Brand name: Imodium (OTC)
Anti-diarrheal

6

Generic name: kaolin/attapulgite

Brand name: Kaopectate (OTC)
Anti-diarrheal

7

Generic name: opium tincture

Brand name: Paregoric (Rx Class III)
Anti-diarrheal

8

Generic name: diphenoxylate

Brand name: Lomotil (Rx Class V)
Anti-diarrheal

9

Types of laxatives

Stool softeners/Lubricants/Saline
Stimulants
Bulk-forming
Bowel evacuants

10

Generic name: docusate sodium

Brand name: Colace (OTC)
Stool softner/Lubricant/Saline

11

Generic name: lactulose

Brand name: Enulose, Cephulac, Generlac (Rx)
Stool softner/Lubricant/Saline

12

Generic name: mineral oil

Brand name: Kondremul (OTC)
Stool softner/Lubricant/Saline

13

Generic name: magnesium hydroxide

Brand name: Milk of Magnesia (MOM) - OTC
Stool softner/Lubricant/Saline
Antacid

14

Generic name: sodium phosphate

Brand name: Phospho-soda (OTC)
Stool softner/Lubricant/Saline

15

Generic name: glycerin suppositories

Brand name: Fleet suppositories (OTC)
Stool softner/Lubricant/Saline

16

Generic name: bisacodyl

Brand name: Dulcolax (OTC)
Stimulant

17

Generic name: castor oil

Brand name: castor oil (OTC)
Stimulant

18

Generic name: senna

Brand name: Senokot (OTC)
Stimulant

19

Generic name: casanthrol/docusate

Brand name: Peri-Colace (OTC)
Stimulant

20

Generic name: polycarbophil

Brand name: FiberCon (OTC)
Bulk-forming

21

Generic name: methylcellulose

Brand name: Citrucel (OTC)
Bulk-forming

22

Generic name: psyllium

Brand name: Metamucil (OTC)
Bulk-forming

23

Generic name: polyethylene-glycol (PEG)

Brand name: GoLYTEly, NuLytely, TriLyte, HalfLytely (Rx)
Bowel evacuant

24

Generic name: chlorpromazine

Brand name: Thorazine (Rx)
Antiemetic agent

25

Generic name: dimenhydrinate

Brand name: Dramamine (OTC)
Antiemetic agent

26

Generic name: granisetron

Brand name: Kytril (Rx)
Antiemetic agent

27

Generic name: hydroxyzine

Brand name: Atarax (Rx)
Antiemetic agent
Will cause dry mouth and dizziness

28

Generic name: meclizine

Brand name: Antivert, Bonine (OTC)
Antiemetic agent
Will cause dry mouth and dizziness

29

Generic name: metoclopramide

Brand name: Reglan (Rx)
Antiemetic agent

30

Generic name: ondansetron

Brand name: Zofran (Rx)
Antiemetic agent
Will cause drowsiness

31

Generic name: prochlorperazine

Brand name: Compazine (Rx)
Antiemetic agent

32

Generic name: promethazine

Brand name: Phenergan (Rx)
Antiemetic agent
Will cause drowsiness

33

Generic name: trimethobenzamide

Brand name: Tigan (Rx)
Antiemetic agent

34

Generic name: diphenhydramine

Brand name: Benadryl (OTC)
Antiemetic agent
Will cause drowsiness

35

Generic name: scopolamine

Brand name: Transderm Scop (Rx)
Antiemetic agent
1 patch behind ear every 72 hours

36

GI ulcer

Occurs due to loss of tissue lining those parts of the digestive tract exposed to gastric acids.
Anti-ulcer agents work by either reducing the secretion of gastric acids (H2 antagonists) or by coating the lining of the stomach and small intestine to protect it from the adverse effects of stomach acids
Causes: Excess stomach acid, cigarette smoking, bacteria H. pylori, aspirin, NSAIDS, and stress

37

Antacids

Take 1 hour after a meal to neutralize the stomach acid for 2 hours.
Active ingredients: Magnesium, Aluminum, or Calcium carbonate
-Magnesium causes diarrhea
-Aluminum causes constipation
Concern: absorb other drugs, which reduces their effect in the body --> Space apart drugs as far as possible.

38

Generic name: aluminum hydroxide

Brand name: Amphojel, Alternagel (OTC)
Antacid

39

Generic name: aluminum-magnesium

Brand name: Maalox, Mylanta (OTC)
Antacid

40

Generic name: magnesium trisulcate

Brand name: Gelusil (OTC)
Antacid

41

Histamine-2 blockers

Block the histamine receptors in the GI tract, which reduces production of acid from other cells
cimetidine
nizatidine
ranitidine
famotidine

42

Generic name: cimetidine

Brand name: Tagamet (OTC and Rx)
Histamine-2 blocker

43

Generic name: nizatidine

Brand name: Axid (OTC and Rx)
Histamine-2 blocker

44

Generic name: ranitidine

Brand name: Zantac (OTC and Rx)
Histamine-2 blocker

45

Generic name: famotidine

Brand name: Pepcid (OTC and Rx)
Histamine-2 blocker

46

Proton pump inhibitors

Reduce acid more vigorously than histamine-2 blockers. Rx only.
lansoprazole
omeprazole
pantoprazole
esomeprazole
rabeprazole

47

Generic name: lansoprazole

Brand name: Prevacid (Rx)
Proton pump inhibitor

48

Generic name: omeprazole

Brand name: Prilosec (OTC and Rx)
Proton pump inhibitor

49

Generic name: pantoprazole

Brand name: Protonix (Rx)
Proton pump inhibitor

50

Generic name: esomeprazole

Brand name: Nexium (Rx)
Proton pump inhibitor

51

Generic name: rabeprazole

Brand name: Aciphex (Rx)
Proton pump inhibitor

52

Generic name: misprostol

Brand name: Cytotec (Rx)
Miscellaneous ulcer care

53

Generic name: bismuth subsalicylate

Brand name: Pepto-Bismol (OTC)
Miscellaneous ulcer care

54

Generic name: sucralfate

Brand name: Carafate (Rx)
Miscellaneous ulcer care

55

Generic name: alginic acid

Brand name: Gaviscon (OTC)
Miscellaneous ulcer care

56

Generic name: mesalamine

Brand name: Rowasa, Asacol, Pentasa (Rx)
Miscellaneous ulcer care

57

Generic name: sulfasalazine

Brand name: Azulfidine (Rx)
Miscellaneous ulcer care

58

synergy

Combination of drugs produces a greater effect than each drug separately.
ex> Pepto-bismol + Prilosec + Amoxil = better heartburn and ulcer treatment