Gastrointestinal System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Gastrointestinal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal System Deck (81):
1

alimentary canal

the long tube in the body through which food passes after it is eaten

2

anus

Final sphincter in the GI tract

3

appendix

a worm-shaped pouch attached to the large intestine

4

cecum

firsts part of the large intestine

5

colon

aka large intestine

6

defecation

The process of releasing feces from the body. Bowel movement (BM)

7

deglutition

Swallowing

8

digestion

The breakdown of food

9

esphagus

A muscular, mucus-lined tube that extends from the throat to the stomach.

10

gallbladder

small sac found on the underside of the right lobe of the liver

11

large intestine

aka colon. Eliminates waste products from the body

12

liver

2 lobes form the liver. Filters and stores blood and forms bile, which emulsifies or mechanically breaks down fat into smaller particles so they can be chemically digested

13

mastication

Chewing

14

oral cavity

Food normally enters the body through the mouth and cavity.

15

pancreas

gland located in the upper left quadrant

16

peristalsis

is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles which propagates in a wave down a muscular tube, in an anterograde fashion

17

pylorus

a muscular valve that holds food in the stomach until it is ready for the next stage in the digestive process

18

rectum

Last straight part of the colon

19

sigmoid colon

S-shaped part of the large intestine

20

small intestine

The small intestine is a long, highly convoluted tube in the digestive system that absorbs about 90% of the nutrients from the food we eat

21

stomach

the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine

22

a-

no, not, without

23

dia-

complete, through

24

dys-

abnormal bad

25

endo-

within

26

peri-

surrounding

27

re-

back

28

-chezia

condition of stools

29

-ectomy

removal, excision

30

-emesis

vomiting

31

-flux

flowing/ flow

32

-itis

inflammation

33

-pepsia

digestion

34

-phagia

eating, swallowing

35

-rrhaphy

suture

36

-rrhea

discharge, flow

37

-scopy

process of viewing

38

-stalis

contraction

39

-stomy

new opening

40

-tresia

condition of an opening

41

append/o, appendic/o

appendix

42

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

43

co/o, colon/o

colon

44

dent/i, odont/o

tooth

45

enter/o

small intestine

46

esophag/o

esophagus

47

gastr/o

stomach

48

hemat/o

blood

49

hepat/o

liver

50

herni/o

hernia

51

or/o

mouth, oral cavity

52

pancreat/o

pancreas

53

proct/o

rectum and anus

54

py/o

pus

55

pylor/o

pylorus

56

anastomosis

New connection between two hollow structures

57

appendicitis

inflammation of the vermiform appendix

58

barium enema

lower gastrointestinal (GI) examination, is an X-ray examination of the large intestine

59

cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gallbladder

60

colonoscopy

Viewing the lining of the colon

61

diarrhea

Abnormal discharge of watery, semisolid stools

62

diverticulosis

Development of diverticula, pouches in the lining of small or large intestine

63

dyspepsia

aka Indigestion is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen,it occurs during or right after eating.

64

dyshpagia

Difficulty with swallowing that may be due to an obstruction or a motor disorder

65

endoscopy

internal visualization of the body with an instrument called an endoscope. Enters the GI tract through many different opening

66

esophageal atresia

Esophagus that ends in a blind pouch and therefore lacks and opening into the stomach

67

gastroenteritis

your stomach and intestines are irritated and inflamed

68

gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD

Flowing back, return of the contents of the stomach to the esophagus

69

hermatemesis

Vomiting of blood

70

hematochezia

Bright red, frank lower GI bleeding from the rectum that may originate in the distal colon. Bloody stools

71

hemoccult test

screening test which detects blood in the stool

72

hemorrhoid

Varicose vein in the lower rectum or anus

73

hepatitis

Inflammaton of the liver that is caused by an increasing number of viruses, alcohol, and drugs

74

herniorrhaphy

Hernia repair, suture of the hernia

75

ileus

Obstruction, lack of movement

76

inguinal hernia

Protrusion of a loop of intestine into the inguinal canal. May be indirect or direct

77

melena

Black, tarry stools caused by the presence of partially digested blood.

78

periodontal disease

Pathologic condition of the tissues surrounding the teeth

79

polyp

Benign growth that may occur in the intestines

80

pyloric stenosis

Condition in which the muscle between the stomach and the small intestine narrows or falls to open adequate to allow partially digested food into the duodenum

81

pyorrhea

Purulent discharge from the tissue surrounding the teeth, often seen with gingivitis