Special Senses: Eye and Ear Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Special Senses: Eye and Ear > Flashcards

Flashcards in Special Senses: Eye and Ear Deck (86):
1

accommodation

a process in which the lens flattens to adjust to something seen at a distance, or thickens for close vision

2

aqueous humor

the fluid produced by the capillaries of the ciliary body; nourishes the cornea, gives shape to the anterior eye, and maintains an optimum intraocular pressure

3

cones

sensory receptors which are concentrated in the central area of the retina and are responsible for color vision

4

conjunctiva

a protective, thin mucous membrane lining the eyelids

5

cornea

the portion of the sclera that covers the anterior section of the eye and is transparent

6

extraocular muscle

attach the eyeball to the orbit and, on impulse from the cranial nerves, move the eyes

7

fovea

an area within the macula that contains only cones and provides the sharpest image

8

iris

a smooth muscle that contacts and relaxes to moderate the amount of light that enters the eye; colored part of the eye except in albinism, in which they are reddish-pink

9

lacrimal gland

tear gland, provides a constant source of cleansing and lubrication for the eye

10

lacrimation

the process of producing tears

11

lens

an avascular structure made of protein and covered by an elastic capsule held in place by thin strands of muscle that make up the ciliary body

12

macula lutea

during daylight, the area of the retina on which the light rays focus

13

meibomian gland

sebaceous glands for the eyelashes, secrete oil to lubricate the eyelashes

14

optic disk

the area that allows a natural blind spot in our vision; where the optic nerve leaves the retina to travel to the brain; there are no light receptors there

15

orbit

the protective, bony socket encasing each of our eyes

16

palpebral fissure

the area where the upper and lower eyelids meet

17

pupil

the dark area in the center of the iris where the light continues its progress through to the lens

18

refraction

bending of light rays (happens through the cornea) so that they are projected properly onto receptor cells in the eye

19

retina

the inner layer of the eye which contains the sensory receptors for images carried by the light rays

20

rods

sensory receptors which appear throughout the retina and are responsible for vision in dim light

21

sclera

means hard; the white of the eye; the outermost lateral and posterior portion of the eye

22

uvea

the middle, highly vascular layer of the eye

23

vitreous humor

jellylike substance between the lens and the retina which holds the choroid membrane against the retina to ensure an adequate blood supply

24

auricle

aka pinna; the flesh-covered cartilage of the outer ear where sound waves are initially gathered

25

cerumen

earwax; protects the ear with its antiseptic property and its stickiness, trapping foreign debris and moving it out of the ear

26

cochlea

part of the outer, bony labyrinth which is an organ of hearing

27

crista ampullaris

the semicircular canals detect dynamic equilibrium, or a sense of sudden rotation, through the function of a structure called the ___

28

eustachian tube

aka auditory tube; a mucous membrane-lined connection between the ears and the throat that equalizes pressure within the middle ear

29

external auditory canal

gathered sound is funneled into the ___

30

external auditory meatus

the opening of the outer ear

31

incus

anvil (ossicle)

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labyrinth

aka inner ear; the organ of receptors for hearing and balance

33

macula

a specialized patch of epithelium found in both the utricle and the saccule that provides information about the position of the head and a sense of acceleration and deceleration

34

malleus

hammer (ossicle)

35

organ of Corti

The transmission of sound continues through the endolymph to the ___, where the hearing receptor cells (hairs) stimulate a branch of the eighth cranial nerve, the vestibulocochlear nerve, to transmit the information to the temporal lobe of the brain

36

ossicular chain

the eardrum conducts sound to three tiny bones in the middle ear called the ___

37

oval window

the ossicles transmit the sound to the ____ through the stapes

38

pinna

aka auricle; the flesh-covered cartilage of the outer ear where sound waves are initially gathered

39

saccule and utricle

within the vestibule, two saclike structures that function to determine the body's static equilibrium

40

stapes

stirrup (ossicle)

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tympanic membrane

eardrum, marks the end of the external ear and the beginning of the middle ear

42

vestibule

part of the outer, bony labyrinth which functions to provide information about the body's sense of equilibrium

43

Impairment of color vision. Inability to distinguish between certain colors because of abnormalities of pigments produced by the retina. Color blindness is also called _____

Achromatopsia

44

Progressive destruction of the macula, resulting in a loss of central vision, which is the most common visual disorder after the age of 75 is ____

age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

45

Dull or dim vision due to disuse is ____

amblyopia

46

Condition of no lens, either congenital or acquired is ____

aphakia

47

Swelling of the eyelid is ____

blepharedema

48

Drooping of the upper eyelid is ______

blepharoptosis

49

Progressive loss of transparency of the lens of the eye is _____

cataract

50

Inflammation of the conjunctiva, commonly known as pinkeye and is a highly contagious disorder is _____

conjunctivitis

51

surgical repair of the occluded pupil

coreoplasty

52

Inflammation of a lacrimal gland is _______

dascryoadentis

53

What is the damage of the retina due to diabetes which is the leading cause of blindness?

diabetic retinopathy

54

Double vision is _____

diplopia

55

What is a protrusion of the eyeball form its orbit, that may be congenital or the result of an endocrine disorder?

exophthalmia

56

Turning outward of one or both eyes is _____

exotropia

57

Pertaining to the outside of the eye is ____

extraocular

58

Incision of the orbital network of the eye to promote introcular circulation and decrease intraocular pressure

goniotomy

59

Loss of half the visual field, often as the result of a cerebrovascular accident is _____

hemianopsia

60

Inflammation of the cornea is ______

keratitis

61

surgical repair of the cornea

keratoplasty

62

a visual examination that allows a doctor to see inside the back of the eye

ophthalmoscopy

63

condition in which the lens of the eye loses elasticity therefore its ability to focus, making it difficult to see objects up close is _____

presbyopia

64

Lack of coordination between the eyes, typically due to a muscle weakness or paralysis, that is also referred to as a squint is ______

strabismus

65

To measurement the intraocular pressure (IOP), in order to diagnose glaucoma

tonometry

66

Removal of part or all of the vitreous humor

vitrectomy

67

What is dry eye, or lack of adequate tear production to lubricate the eye, that is usually due to a bit A deficiency?

xerophthalmia

68

Hearing loss or deafness

anacusis

69

measuring hearing acuity for variations in sound intensity and pitch and for tonal purity is

audiometry

70

Benign adenoma of the glands that produce earwax

ceruminoma

71

an inflammatory contagious condition of the eardrum caused by viral or bacterial infection

infectious myringitis

72

mastoiditis inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone

mastoiditis

73

Condition of abnormally small auricles

microtia

74

procedure of lancing the tympanic membrane to allow ventilation of the middle ear space when the Eustachian tube is not functioning normally

myringostomy

75

What is an earache, pain in the ear, also referred to as otodynia?

otalgia

76

Inflammation of the middle of the ear is ____

otitis media (OM)

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Surgical repair of the ear

otoplasty

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Development of bone around the oval window with resulting ankylosis of the stapes to the oval window, resulting in progressive deafness

ostosclerosis

79

Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope

otoscopy

80

Abnormal hearing

paracusis

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age related hearing loss

presbycusis

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Removal of the third ossicle, the stapes, from the middle ear

stapedectomy

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Abnormal sound heard in one or both ears caused by trauma or disease; may be a ringing buzzing, or jingling

tinnitus

84

Measurement of the condition and mobility function of the eardrum

tympanometry

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Surgical repair of the eardrum , with or without ossicular chain reconstruction

tympanoplasty

86

Dizziness, abnormal sensation of movement when there is none, either of ones self moving or of objects moving around oneself. Can come from middle ear infections or the toxic effects of alcohol, sunstroke, and meds

vertigo