Flashcards in GI: Esophagus Deck (57)
What is the breakdown of muscle distribution in the esophagus?
upper 1/3 = striated muscle
lower 2/3 = smooth muscle
related to partial of incomplete relaxation of the LES resulting in dilated esophagus and birds beak deformity on barium swallow
What autoimmune can lead to esophageal dysmotility?
What are the 2 most common types of malignancies associated with the esophagus and what are the risk factors for them?
1) squamous cell carcinoma (alcohol and tobacco)
2) adenocarcinoma (barrett's esophagus, tobacco, and obesity)
What is the medical emergency that is associated with massive hematemesis following retching and vomiting?
Esophageal varices are commonly associated with __________ and _____________
cirrhosis and portal hypertension
What is the one main histological criteria for Barrett's esophagus?
goblet cells (intestinal metaplasia)
What are the 2 viruses associated infectious esophagitis?
What fungus is associated with infectious esophagitis?
What is the epithelium subtype of the esophagus?
stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium (barrier to blood absorbing things from food)
_______ has squamous epithelium while __________ has columnar epithelium
a thin cord-like non-canalized segment of esophagus associated with proximal blind pouch and lower pouch leading to the stomach
What is an esophageal fistula?
communication between trachea and esophagus
What does the most common TE fistula look like?
esophagus is connected to the end of the trachea
TE fistulas are commonly associated with _________
What is the prognosis for TE fistulas?
100% survival in the absence of other abnormalities (surgically repaired)
When does congenital pyloric stenosis present?
2-6 weeks old
What are the 3 identifying characteristics of achalasia?
2) relaxation of LES with swallowing
3) increased resting tone of LES
What is the cause of primary achalasia?
What are some secondary causes of achalasia?
bird's beak sign on barium swallow is associated with ____________
What are some of the complications of achalasia?
- 5% develop SCC
- aspiration pneumonia
histologically, ___________ ____ __________ _________ is associated with achalasia
inflammation of the myentereic plexus
(destroying the nerve cells causing problems with peristalsis)
Scleroderma leads to atrophy of what part of the esophagus?
smooth muscle in the lower 2/3 of the esophagus
(leading to dysphagia)
Define hiatal hernia
separation of diaphragmatic crura and widening of space between muscular crura and esophageal wall
What are the two types of hiatal hernias?
1) sliding (entire stomach pushes up - get reflux symptoms)
2) paraesophageal (rolling) LES still in place, no reflux symptoms)
______________ is a predisposing factor for mallory weiss tears
mallory weiss tears only affect which layers of the esophagus?
mucosa and submucosa
What are some complications of mallory weiss tears?
reflux, ulcerations, painful vomiting