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Flashcards in GI: Esophagus Deck (57)
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1

What is the breakdown of muscle distribution in the esophagus?

upper 1/3 = striated muscle
lower 2/3 = smooth muscle

2

Define achalasia

related to partial of incomplete relaxation of the LES resulting in dilated esophagus and birds beak deformity on barium swallow

3

What autoimmune can lead to esophageal dysmotility?

scleroderma

4

What are the 2 most common types of malignancies associated with the esophagus and what are the risk factors for them?

1) squamous cell carcinoma (alcohol and tobacco)
2) adenocarcinoma (barrett's esophagus, tobacco, and obesity)

5

What is the medical emergency that is associated with massive hematemesis following retching and vomiting?

Boerhaave Syndrome

6

Esophageal varices are commonly associated with __________ and _____________

cirrhosis and portal hypertension

7

What is the one main histological criteria for Barrett's esophagus?

goblet cells (intestinal metaplasia)

8

What are the 2 viruses associated infectious esophagitis?

CMV
HSV

9

What fungus is associated with infectious esophagitis?

candida

10

What is the epithelium subtype of the esophagus?

stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium (barrier to blood absorbing things from food)

11

_______ has squamous epithelium while __________ has columnar epithelium

esophagus, gastrum

12

Define atresia

a thin cord-like non-canalized segment of esophagus associated with proximal blind pouch and lower pouch leading to the stomach

13

What is an esophageal fistula?

communication between trachea and esophagus

14

What does the most common TE fistula look like?

esophagus is connected to the end of the trachea

15

TE fistulas are commonly associated with _________

cardiac abnormalities

16

What is the prognosis for TE fistulas?

100% survival in the absence of other abnormalities (surgically repaired)

17

When does congenital pyloric stenosis present?

2-6 weeks old

18

What are the 3 identifying characteristics of achalasia?

1) anti-peristalsis
2) relaxation of LES with swallowing
3) increased resting tone of LES

19

What is the cause of primary achalasia?

UNKNOWN, idiopathic

20

What are some secondary causes of achalasia?

chagas
polio
surgical ablation
diabetes
sarcoid
malignancy
amyloid

21

bird's beak sign on barium swallow is associated with ____________

achalasia

22

What are some of the complications of achalasia?

- 5% develop SCC
- candida
- diverticula
- aspiration pneumonia

23

histologically, ___________ ____ __________ _________ is associated with achalasia

inflammation of the myentereic plexus

(destroying the nerve cells causing problems with peristalsis)

24

Scleroderma leads to atrophy of what part of the esophagus?

smooth muscle in the lower 2/3 of the esophagus

(leading to dysphagia)

25

Define hiatal hernia

separation of diaphragmatic crura and widening of space between muscular crura and esophageal wall

26

What are the two types of hiatal hernias?

1) sliding (entire stomach pushes up - get reflux symptoms)
2) paraesophageal (rolling) LES still in place, no reflux symptoms)

27

______________ is a predisposing factor for mallory weiss tears

hiatal hernias

28

mallory weiss tears only affect which layers of the esophagus?

mucosa and submucosa

29

What are some complications of mallory weiss tears?

reflux, ulcerations, painful vomiting

30

Why do mallory weiss tears not require surgical repair?

because they only affect the mucosa and submucosa, not the muscular layer