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Flashcards in GI: Liver 1 Deck (23)
1

What is the name of the fibrous capsule covering the liver?

capsule of Glisson

2

What is the portal triad?

portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct

3

Which zone is the closest to the portal triad?

zone 1

4

Which zone is more highly oxygenated?

zone 1 (closest to the source)

5

What cells are the first to receive blood, last to necrose, and first to regenerate?

periportal hepatocytes

6

_________ are least susceptible to ischemia while ___________ are most susceptible to ischemia

periportal hepatocytes (least)

centrilobular hepatocytes (most)

7

bile is secreted into the ____________________

bile canaliculus

8

What are the 4 cell ypes found in sinusoids?

1) Kupffer cells (macrophages)
2) fenestrated endothelium
3) space of disse
4) microvilli of hepatocytes

9

What 3 cell types comprise the Space of Disse?

stellate cells
NK cells
T and B lymphocytes

10

True or false: the epithelium of hepatocytes has microvilli

TRUE (to increase absorption)

11

What is the purpose of the stellate cell/

to lay down collagen (starts the cirrhotic process by initiating fibrosis)

12

What kind of fluid flows within hepatic sinusoids?

mixed arterial and venous blood

13

What are 5 big functions of the liver?

1) metabolic (gluose and lipid)

2) synthetic (albumin and coag factors)

3) storage (glycogen, iron, triglycerides, ADEK)

4) Catabolic (ammonia to urea)

5) excretory (bile excretion)

14

What are the 3 roles the liver plays in carb metabolism?

1) glycogenesis
2) glycogenolysis
3) gluconeogenesis

15

how is ammonia removed from the body?

converted to urea by the liver

16

What are the acute phase proteins?

1) ceruloplasin
2) alpha 1 antitrypsin
3) alpha 1 acid glycoprotein

17

What are the 4 classes of proteins made by the liver?

1) albumin
2) glycoprotein transport proteins
3) acute phase proteins
4) protective proteins

18

What is the importance of the liver in the urea cycle?

liver produces urea by breaking ammonia down

19

What role does the liver play in fat metabolism?

oxidize triglycerides to produce energy (exports acetoacetate into blood where it is picked up and metabolized by other tissues)

20

Where are excess carbs and proteins turned into fatty acids prior to exportation to adipose tissue?

liver

21

What does the liver do with the excess cholesterol made?

makes bile

22

What are the 3 most important components of bile?

- phospholipids
- cholesterol
- bile pigments

23

What are the 2 types of bile acids?

- cholic acid
- chenodeoxycholic acid