Intro to Renal Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Intro to Renal Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Renal Disease Deck (42)
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1

Name 3 hormones secreted by the kidney?

erythropoietin
vitamin D
renin

2

Name 3 hormones secreted by the kidney?

erythropoietin
vitamin D
renin

3

What is the cut off for acidosis?

4

What is the cut off for alkalosis?

>7.45

5

What is creatinine clearance an estimate of?

GFR

6

What does the Cockcroft Gault formula calculate?

GFR

7

What is normal urine output?

1500mL/day

8

What is the cut off for oliguria?

9

What is polyuria?

>3000mL/day

(2x as much urine)

10

What does BUN measure?

blood urea nitrogen (increases when GFR is low)

11

What does BUN measure?

blood urea nitrogen (increases when GFR is low)

12

What is the cut off for acidosis?

13

Define AKI in terms of lab metrics

>0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine (increase)

or

increase in serum creatinine of 50%

or

oliguria of 6 hours

14

What is creatinine clearance an estimate of?

GFR

15

What does the Cockcroft Gault formula calculate?

GFR

16

What is normal urine output?

1500mL/day

17

What is the cut off for oliguria?

18

What is polyuria?

>3000mL/day

(2x as much urine)

19

Define azotemia

elevation in renal indices (specifically BUN)

20

What does BUN measure?

blood urea nitrogen (increases when GFR is low)

21

What is uremia?

when BUN is elevated (should normally be eliminated by kidneys)

leads to pericarditis, pleural effusions, fatigue, anorexia, etc

22

What is the clinical term for acute renal failure?

acute kidney injury (AKI - no longer ARF)

23

Define AKI in terms of lab metrics

>0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine (increase)

24

What are the 3 staging criteria for AKI?

I: serum creatinine 150-200% from baseline

II: serum creatinine 200-300% from baseline

III: serum creatinine over 300% (and very little urine output)

25

How long do kidney problems need to persist for it to be classified as chronic kidney disease?

at least 3 months

26

Does CKD require albuminuria?

no - can be present with or without albuminuria

27

What is the cut off for kidney failure in terms of GFR?

less than 15mL/min

28

Define the lab values for nephrotic proteinuria

> 3-3.5mg/day

called nephrosis

29

What is the clinical term for blood in the urine?

hematuria

30

What are 3 common imposters instead of RBCs in hematuria?

free hemoglobin
myoglobin
menstrual contamination

31

What are the 2 most common kidney stones in the US?

calcium oxalate
calcium phosphate

32

Name 4 causes of abnormal urinary sediment?

hematuria
dysmorphic RBCs
pyuria
casts (RBCs, WBCs, tubular casts)

33

What are the 5 types of renal tubular casts?

1) epithelial
2) fatty
3) granular
4) hyaline
5) waxy

34

What casts are associated with dehydration, exercise, and diuretic therapy?

hyaline

35

What casts are associated with advanced kidney disease?

waxy

36

What are the differences between nephrosis and nephritis?

NEPHROSIS: proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, peripheral edema, hyperlipidemia, thrombophilia, urinary sediment, NONinflammatory renal biopsy

NEPHRITIS: inflammatory renal biopsy, active urinary sediment, variable proteinuria, azotemia, HTN

37

What is the main distinguising factor between nephrosis and nephritis?

INFLAMMATORY CELLS (there in nephritis, not in nephrosis)

38

How is total body weight divided by water content?

2/3 intracellular water
1/3 extracellular water

39

What is normal saline solution?

0.9% (9gm salt/L)

40

What is the function of vitamin D?

regulates calcium absorption

maintains normal levels of calcium and phosphorus

41

What can be a sneaky presenting feature of AKI/CKD?

drug toxicity (from renal dysfunction)

can also happen with endogenous substances like insulin

42

What are some signs of renal dysfuntion that can show up on physical exam?

fever, rash, pain