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Flashcards in Giolitti and the socialists Deck (13):
1

The socialists were the main focus of the 1911 Giolitti programme. What was the party called?

The Partito Socialista Italiano (PSI)

2

How fast had socialism grown? Give an example.

Socialism had grown rapidly. In 1902, 250K industrial workers had joined socialist national federations

3

What was there a considerable amount of in 1902?

In 1902, there was a considerable amount of strike action in pursuit of higher wages

4

How many people had joined the cooperatives in the agricultural sector?

In the agricultural sector, 218K people joined the thousands of socialist agricultural cooperatives that had been formed by 1910

5

How did Giolitti focus on absorbing the socialists?

Giolitti focused on absorbing the socialist deputies, such as Filippo Turati, into the political system by offering a range of social reforms

6

What were the social reforms?

Compulsory accident insurance in industrial work paid for by employers and a non-compulsory national insurance fund for health and old age (1898)
The banning of employment of children under 12 (1901)
Limiting the working day for women to 11h (1902)
The introduction of a maternity fund (1910)
Introduced state-subsidised sickness and an old age fund for the merchant navy (1913)
He asserted a new policy of non-intervention in labour disputes and the establishment of arbitration courts that would look to settle pay disputes between employers and employees (1906), thus lowering the need for strike action

7

How did Filippo Turati react to these reforms?

These reforms were welcomed by Filippo Turati who viewed them as a way of gaining better pay for workers without the need for violent strikes or confrontation with the police

8

What did Giolitti offer in 1911?

In 1911, Giolitti's programme offered one of the key socialist leaders, Leonida Bissolati, a place in his cabinet which he denied

9

How successful was Giolitti's programme?

Giolitti's programme was partially successful with moderates like Filippo Turati up until 1912

10

What did he find difficult after 1912? Why?

After 1912, Giolitti found it increasingly difficult to win over the entire PSI as the party was split

11

What was the party split between?

The party was split between the reformists who were prepared to work with Giolitti to bring about gradual change for workers and the maximalists who believed in revolution and the violent overthrow of the state

12

What did the maximalists believe?

The maximalists, which included a young Benito Mussolini, despised the liberal state and opposed Filippo Turati's reformism, believing that it would undermine the party and stop the chance of real reform taking place

13

What problem did Giolitti have with the maximalists?

Giolitti wasn't able to win over this powerful, radical element which undermined the key aim of trasformismo