North-south divide Flashcards Preview

History - Italy (Key Topic 1) > North-south divide > Flashcards

Flashcards in North-south divide Deck (28):
1

What is the questione meridionale?

The southern question

2

Who grappled with the questione meridionale?

Intellectuals and politicians

3

What did they focus their work on?

On an attempt to understand why the south had fallen into such poverty and what could be done to alleviate it

4

What were the theories or possible reasons for why the south had fallen into such poverty?

Poor economic structure
Geographical location
History
Poor treatment by the north

5

What did southern intellectuals call for?

Southern intellectuals called for greater economic investment and new fiscal policies

6

What was actually done?

Very little was actually done

7

What did Italy's politicians tend to do?

Italy's politicians tended to ignore the major issues facing the south

8

How long was it since an Italian PM visited the south?

No Italian PM visited the south until 1902 (32 years after unification)

9

What happened by 1911?

The situation had worsened

10

How did the situation worsen?

Industrial economic expansion focused on large northern cities such as Milan, Turin, Genoa and Bologna and the southern agriculturally based economy stagnated which led to an increase in poverty in the south

11

What did the government census show?

That almost half of Italy's 2.2 million industrial workers were employed in the northern provinces of Lombardy, Liguria and Piedmont

12

What were the provinces known as?

The provinces of Lombardy, Liguria and Piedmont was known as the industrial triangle

13

What did the industrial triangle focus on?

The 3 major cities of Milan, Genoa and Turin

14

What did the southern population suffer from?

Poor diet
Malnutrition
Lack of clean drinking water
High rates of infant mortality
Malaria
Tuberculosis

15

What happened between 1910 and 1911?

25K people in Naples died due to an epidemic of cholera caused by poor drinking water

16

How much of the southern population was illiterate?

More than half

17

[Illiteracy] What was this 5 times the rate of?

5 times the rate of Piedmont

18

What was income in the north by 1911?

Income per head was double in the north of that in the south

19

What did politicians view the questione meridionale as?

The most critical issue

20

What policies did they attempt to implement?

Tried to introduce policies, such as trying to encourage industrial investment in Naples which failed

21

What was the only means of alleviating pressure in the south?

Through emigration

22

How many Italians left per year between 1901 and 1913?

200K southern Italians left every year, mainly to the USA

23

How many Sicilians left Italy every year?

1 million Sicilians out of a population of 3.5 million left Italy every year

24

How many Italians who moved to the USA were southern?

3 out of 4 Italians who migrated to the USA were southern

25

How many Italians were living in New York by 1910?

600K Italians were living in New York

26

What did emigration lessen?

Helped lessen the economic strains

27

What did the emigration of Italians fail to do?

Failed to deal with the central and long term issues facing Italy

28

What was Italy reliant on?

Italy was reliant on other countries willingness to accept influxes of poor, unskilled Italians