Military stalemate, 1915-16 Flashcards Preview

History - Italy (Key Topic 1) > Military stalemate, 1915-16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Military stalemate, 1915-16 Deck (29):
1

What did Antonio Salandra hope for?

Antonio Salandra had hoped for a brief, offensive war that would bring Italy almost immediate territorial gains

2

What did this expectation demonstrate?

This expectation simply demonstrated how misguided his understanding of the conflict was

3

Where was the war fought?

The war between Italy and Austria was fought predominantly in the mountainous area bordering the two countries

4

What was the war characterised by?

It was characterised by mainly static trench warfare in the ice and snow of the difficult alpine terrain

5

What were the conditions like?

The conditions were horrific

6

How many Italians were killed and by what?

Thousands of Italians were killed by cholera and frostbite

7

What followed Italy's declaration of war?

Two years of stalemate followed Italy's declaration of war

8

What were thousands of Italian soldiers sacrificed for?

Thousands of soldiers were often sacrificed in order to move a few hundred meters on the mountainside

9

How many Italian soldiers died in 1915?

62K Italians died in 1915

10

How did 62K Italians die in 1915?

They died during 4 attempted offensives against the Austrians that failed to change the situation at the front

11

What did the war reveal instead of bringing about national unity?

Instead of bringing about national unity many had hoped for, the war revealed that the great problems and divisions within Italian society

12

How many men were conscripted into the army? What were the majority of them?

Nearly 5 million men were conscripted into the army, with the majority being peasants and agricultural workers

13

What were southern conscripts?

Southern conscripts were overrepresented

14

What meant very little to the southern conscripts?

The ideals of the war concerning Italian expansion meant very little to them

15

What did the southern conscripts find difficult to comprehend?

It was difficult for these soldiers to comprehend why the frozen wastelands at the front were worth dying for

16

What did the majority of the southern conscripts fail to understand? Why?

The majority of peasant conscripts, who spoke a vast range of dialects, couldn't understand the orders being given to them by those in charge, who were predominantly educated northern Italians who mainly spoke the official Italian language (Florence dialect)

17

How were Italian conscripts treated?

Italian conscripts were treated poorly by the commanders

18

What were the rations like?

The rations were extremely low

19

What were the rations by the end of 1916?

The rations were around 3K calories a day by the end of 1916

20

How many soldiers were court-martialed during the war for desertion?

290K Italian soldiers were court-martialed during the war for desertion

21

Who was the Italian supreme commander?

The Italian supreme commander was Luigi Cadorna

22

What was Luigi Cadorna's solution to the lack of discipline and morale?

Luigi Cadorna's solution to the lack of discipline and morale was to repress dissent through harsh punishment

23

How many death sentences did military tribunals pass throughout the course of the war? For what?

Military tribunals passed 4K death sentences on Italian soldiers for desertion and indiscipline throughout the course of the war

24

What was 4K death sentences on Italian soldiers for desertion and indiscipline considerably more than?

This was considerably more per capita than any other Western army

25

What did Italian leaders fear?

Italians leaders feared that, given the troops' lack of patriotic feeling towards the war, if soldiers heard that conditions in prisoner of war camps were tolerable they might be inclined to surrender

26

What did the government do about this fear?

The government hampered any attempts to help Italians who had been captured

27

How many Italians were captured? What did they have to survive on?

600K Italians were captured and had to survive on 1K calories a day

28

How many Italians died from hunger-related illnesses? This was 5 times the...

100K died from hunger-related illnesses. This was 5 times the number from France and Britain who were allowed to receive food parcels at home

29

How did the survivors of prisoner of war camps feel?

Those soldiers who survived the prisoner of war camps came out with a strong feeling of abandonment and considerable anger towards a government that betrayed them