Flashcards in The intervention crisis Deck (34):
What did Italy's declaration of neutrality do in 1914?
Italy's declaration of neutrality in 1914 split the opinion of the liberals in parliament and set off a political crisis concerning Italy's possible intervention in the war
What did Antonio Salandra argue? Why?
Antonio Salandra argued that Italy should join the war, fearing that Germany and Austro-Hungary won they would not be sympathetic to an ally who failed to come to their side at this critical time
On the other hand...
if Britain and France were victorious and Italy hadn't assisted them in their efforts they wouldn't be open to discussing Italy's ambitions in the Mediterranean
What did Antonio Salandra believe the war could provide?
Antonio Salandra also believed that the unique situation provided by the war would enable him to introduce more repressive legislation, which would offer an authoritarian solution to Italy's political problems.
What if Italy was victorious?
If Italy was victorious then it would be difficult to change Antonio Salandra's policies
Who began secret negotiations in 1915 and with who?
At the start of 1915, Antonio Salandra and his foreign minister, Sidney Sonnino, began secret negotiations with the British, French, German and Austrian governments
Who offered the best deal? What did they promise?
The Entente offered the best deal, promising that with victory Italy would gain much of the irredente lands - South Tyrol, Trentino, Istria, Trieste and much of Dalmatia
When was the Treaty of London signed?
The Treaty of London was signed on 26th April 1915
What did Italy pledge?
Italy pledged to support Britain, France and Russia
What did the news of the treaty cause?
News of the treaty caused significant unrest in Italy
How had the signing of the treaty been conducted?
It had been conducted in absolute secrecy by Antonio Salandra and Sidney Sonnino
Who hadn't even been informed about the singing of the treaty?
Even the army general staff hadn't been informed
Who were against intervention?
The PSI was firmly against intervention, as were most Catholics, including the pope, Benedict XV
What were the prefects (what are prefects?) asked to report in April 1915?
In April 1915, the politicians who had won Italy's local elections, known as prefects, were asked to report on public opinion
What did the prefects find?
The prefects found that an overwhelming majority of Italians in the provinces feared war and had little concern for irredentism or war against Austria
What caused the intervention crisis to grow considerably in early May 1915?
In early May 1915, the crisis of Italy's possible intervention in the First World War grew considerably when Giolitti denounced the Treaty of London and 300 deputies announced their opposition to Antonio Salandra's decision
What did the people who backed neutrality called for? Why was this not possible?
Those backing neutrality called on GIolitti to become PM again, but parliament was hopelessly divided
What did the interventionists do?
Massive crowds of supporters for the war held rallies in the streets where those backing neutrality were declared traitors
What was Mussolini expelled from? Why?
Mussolini, who believed that entry into the First World War was the best chance of creating revolution in Italy, was expelled from the socialist party for promoting intervention
What did Antonio Salandra do?
Antonio Salandra resigned
What did King Victor Emmanuel III do?
King Victor Emmanuel III asked Giolitti to form a new government
What was King Victor Emmanuel III worried about?
King Victor Emmanuel III was worried by the fact that going back on the Treaty of London of London was now impossible
What did King Victor Emmanuel III tell Giolitti?
King Victor Emmanuel III told Giolitti that he felt committed to the Treaty of London and might abdicate if it were not honoured
What did Giolitti do? Why?
Giolitti declined the offer to become PM as, given his previous position, he felt that the couldn't support the treaty, but at the same time he certainly didn't want to risk overthrowing the king
What did King Victor Emmanuel III do after Giolitti's resigation?
King Victor Emmanuel III turned to Antonio Salandra
Antonio Salandra was...
reinstated as PM on 16th May 1915 and on 20th May 1915 was granted emergency powers by parliament
What did Italy do on the 25th May 1915?
On 25th May 1915, Italy formally declared war on Austria
Italy formally declared war on Austria with Antonio Salandra proclaiming what?
With Antonio Salandra proclaiming that only through national unity could Italy claim victory against its enemies
Why did Italy enter the war?
Italy's entry into the war had been predominantly due to both foreign and domestic political reasons and had little to do with the interventionist protests going on at the time
How would this (that the government had been forced into the First World War by the interventionists) myth play a strong role later on?
The myth that the government had been forced into the First World War by the interventionists would later play a strong role in Mussolini's campaign after 1918
What did Antonio Salandra hope the war would do?
Antonio Salandra had hoped that the war would bring the Italian nation together and unite them in a heroic cause
Why was this (hope to unite the nation through war) unsuccessful?
The majority of Italians still opposed intervention even before a shot was fired, the debate over Italy's entry into the war had caused troubling divisions
What did the PSI do?
The PSI had voted against Antonio Salandra's emergency powers