History Of Psych Quiz 5 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > History Of Psych Quiz 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in History Of Psych Quiz 5 Deck (23):
0

According to Gestalt Psych
How should we explain our findings?

1.Holism: " whole is more than the sum of the parts"
Emergent properties: combine parts together as a whole new properties emerge
The whole determines the nature of the parts
Everything is meaningless and vague until it's been put in a situation
Top down processing.
2.Isomorphim: structural similarity
Electrical activity in brain and conscious experience
One line quickly changes to another slide with the line lower you think you see it move
Neurons in brain fire, takes time
Generating really complicated electrical field
ii. Brain is important not indeed (epiphenomenalism)
We do think but what we think is coletly run by our brain, it is a byproduct. Brain makes us think what we do
iii. Environment forces brain to react in a certain way (Determinism)
Neuro view of psych, no free will mind is reflection if brain
3. relationships between parts are important, not the parts themselves
Shown to babies, they cry!
Relationship that counts not parts
4. Closure: not just relationships but pretty much anything
Oh yeah! I get it!
Final puzzle piece
Neurons in brain not being able to bridge gap
When monkeys were given a picture if a circle with a gap, they always complete it!
5. Other principles
Figure ground proximity continuity
II. Important individuals
A. Wertheimer
1. Founder of Gestalt Psychology
2. Phi phenomenon
B. Koehler
1. Insight learning
Flash of insight: spark, aha all of the sudden I get it!
Monkey put in room with hanging bananas, sits down and then gets up to stack boxes so they could get it. Not because they thought about it but because the things in your environment forced them to get up. Have conscious experience but not from your thinking but because brain worked it out.
2. Transposition
Black paper vs gray paper, learned to peck black for corn
Never rewarded for gray
Presented with gray and white, they peck on gray (darker)
what counts is relationship (darker one) not parts (black paper)
Fact relative to other facts
C, Kofka
1. Child development


1

Holisim

Holism: " whole is more than the sum of the parts"
Emergent properties: combine parts together as a whole new properties emerge
The whole determines the nature of the parts
Everything is meaningless and vague until it's been put in a situation
Top down processing.

2

Isomorphism

Isomorphim: structural similarity
Electrical activity in brain and conscious experience
One line quickly changes to another slide with the line lower you think you see it move
Neurons in brain fire, takes time
Generating really complicated electrical field
ii. Brain is important not indeed (epiphenomenalism)
We do think but what we think is coletly run by our brain, it is a byproduct. Brain makes us think what we do
iii. Environment forces brain to react in a certain way (Determinism)
Neuro view of psych, no free will mind is reflection if brain

3

Kofka

Kofka
1. Child development

4

Koehler

Koehler
1. Insight learning
Flash of insight: spark, aha all of the sudden I get it!
Monkey put in room with hanging bananas, sits down and then gets up to stack boxes so they could get it. Not because they thought about it but because the things in your environment forced them to get up. Have conscious experience but not from your thinking but because brain worked it out.
2. Transposition
Black paper vs gray paper, learned to peck black for corn
Never rewarded for gray
Presented with gray and white, they peck on gray (darker)
what counts is relationship (darker one) not parts (black paper)
Fact relative to other facts

5

Wertheimer

1. Founder of Gestalt Psychology
2. Phi phenomenon

6

Closure:

not just relationships but pretty much anything
Oh yeah! I get it!
Final puzzle piece
Neurons in brain not being able to bridge gap
When monkeys were given a picture if a circle with a gap, they always complete it!

7

Zeigarik effect

don't complete it, better memory
Implications: no exams till end of college
Sometimes in learning books
Insight and transposition learning

8

What happened to Gestalt Psych?

Was very influential in Germany
Until hitler! Two were Jewish and one was reported for not saying hail hitler before his lectures
Got yo US, didn't amount to much
Little bits scattered among classes
General psych books: figure ground, proximal, talking about perception means talking about Gestalt
Memory chapter: The Zeigarik effect
Me don't complete it, better memory
Implications: no exams till end of college
Sometimes in learning books
Insight and transposition learning
Social psychology
Lewin field theory
To try to explain what a person is doing you have to explain everything!
Cognitive dissonance research (closure)
If you are presented with a stupid task for two hours and not really rewarded you will change your attitude. I actually had fun doing it
Social conformity
While influences parts
Line experiment, which line is longer? The whole class says the shorter one is longer so you conform and say the same
Why wasn't it important?
Behaviorism already established
Difficult to understand
No graduate students: that's how professors got famous!
Ahead of it's time!
It's making a comeback because of research in neuro!

9

Lewin

Lewin field theory
To try to explain what a person is doing you have to explain everything!
Cognitive dissonance research (closure)
If you are presented with a stupid task for two hours and not really rewarded you will change your attitude. I actually had fun doing it
Social conformity
While influences parts
Line experiment, which line is longer? The whole class says the shorter one is longer so you conform and say the same

10

Historical trends

1940-1960
Hull vs. Tolman: behaviorism
1960
Skinner vs cognitive psychology
A lot similar no more math! Cognitive won!
1970 to 2000
Cognitive

11

Comparison to behaviorism

Similarities: methodology
Only record observable behaviors
Differences:
1. associationism
Cognitive: ideas
Behaviorism: stimulus and response
2. Importance of the environment versus the organism
Cognitive: emphasis on organism
Behaviorism: environment
3. Importance of mental processes
Cognitive: emphasis on though processes
Behaviorism: doesn't! Except Tolman
4. Importance and interpretation of animal research
Cognitive: learning about people need to study people
But they do believe animals think like people
Behaviorism: everything you learn about humans through animal research
Person is a big rat
5. Disappearance of reinforcement
Cognitive: never
Behaviorism: always

12

1940-1960

Hull vs. Tolman: behaviorism

13

1960

Skinner vs cognitive psychology
A lot similar no more math! Cognitive won!

14

1970 to 2000

Cognitive

15

Gestalt and behaviorism similarities

Similarities: methodology
Only record observable behaviors

16

Gestalt and behaviorism differences

Differences:
1. associationism
Cognitive: ideas
Behaviorism: stimulus and response
2. Importance of the environment versus the organism
Cognitive: emphasis on organism
Behaviorism: environment
3. Importance of mental processes
Cognitive: emphasis on though processes
Behaviorism: doesn't! Except Tolman
4. Importance and interpretation of animal research
Cognitive: learning about people need to study people
But they do believe animals think like people
Behaviorism: everything you learn about humans through animal research
Person is a big rat
5. Disappearance of reinforcement
Cognitive: never
Behaviorism: always

17

Reasons for the cognitive revolution

Reasons for the cognitive revolution
A. Death of logical positivism
B. Empirical problems with behaviorism
1. Biological constraints on animal learning
A. Garcia: taste aversion
Rats are biologically different than humans
B. The Brelands
Animal trainers tried to train animals but animals reverted to instinctive behavior
Raccoon didn't out quarter into bank but made a washed movement
Want to learn how humans learn, study humans
Not saying you can't do it on oeople just saying you shouldn't use rats to study people
2. The Role of consciousness in human learning
Role of consciousness: whether human beings need to be consciously aware of what's going on or being done to them to learn
Behaviorists don't believe that it's necessary.
A. Classical conditioning
Shock experiment
B. Greenspoon
Experimenter told the participant to just talk, reinforced with aha when saying a plural noun
Shock experiment
Have to prove participants didn't know what was being manipulated
All said no, but even though they didn't know it worked (looks good for behaviorism, behavior can change even when you have no clue what your doing)
65 of 75 participants were recorded
He threw out the data of those who knew! Considered them outliers
He was very specific on what had to be says to be considered them being conscious of what was being manipulated
If you're a smart researcher you can get significant results because you've managed to come up with the right participants, right statistic, right method to get what you want
C. Computers were invented
Argue that something like programs are inside of you (cognitive)
Reinforcing doesn't have a role in computers (not behaviorism)
Computers do a lot if what people do
Can program them to build, drive, and talk
D. The "New Look" in perception
Bruner: curse word takes longer to press because it's a bad word
When your looking at a word you aren't just pressing, you are also thinking about them too!
Thinking about it unconsciously! Slows down response
Don't just respond, you think about it too!
Argument for cognitive but behaviorists can explain these results saying that participants had been punished for cursing
E. Problems with behaviorist explanations of language
Chompsky: reviewed skinners book and tore it apart, convinced behaviorism is wrong

18

Garcia:

taste aversion
Rats are biologically different than humans

19

The Brelands

Animal trainers tried to train animals but animals reverted to instinctive behavior
Raccoon didn't out quarter into bank but made a washed movement
Want to learn how humans learn, study humans
Not saying you can't do it on oeople just saying you shouldn't use rats to study people

20

Greenspoon

Experimenter told the participant to just talk, reinforced with aha when saying a plural noun

21

Bruner:

curse word takes longer to press because it's a bad word
When your looking at a word you aren't just pressing, you are also thinking about them too!
Thinking about it unconsciously! Slows down response
Don't just respond, you think about it too!
Argument for cognitive but behaviorists can explain these results saying that participants had been punished for cursing

22

Chompsky:

reviewed skinners book and tore it apart, convinced behaviorism is wrong