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Behavioral memory forms

-procedural learning
-emotional learning
Not- episodic learning


Beale and Keil 1995

Demonstrated that individual faces are perceived categorically even when morphed into combination. The ability to classify the morphed faces depends on Their familiarity with faces


Place learning is dependent on



Response learning is dependent on



Neuron doctrine

Ramon y Cajal, late 1800s
The brain is composed of separate neurons that are essentially units of information processing


Long term depression:

neural process that helps to constrain the effects if LTP to prevent a situation in which neurons can no longer increase the strength of their neural communication


Resting potential:

neurons are inactive



a new stimulus is introduced and individual recovers behavioral response


Cognitive: focuses on

internal mental processes


Hippocampus: ------ learning

cognitive learning



classical conditioning



operant learning


Cortical area that processes sensory stimulus:

perceptual skill learning


Perceptual skill learning:

accurate detection, discrimination, and categorization if sensory stimuli


Sensory adaptation and fatigue differ from habituation because

sensory adaptation occurs at the level of the sensory neuron and fatigue occurs at the level of the motor neuron


Physiological basis of neural communication

Neuron recuses chemical input (neurotransmitter binds to receptor) from another neuron
As receptor is activate it's neurotransmitter gated ion channel opens up and allows Na+ ions to flow into the neuron
If enough recoveries are activated and enough Na+ ions flow into the neuron it will reach and Activation threshold (-40 mV)
When this happens all nearby voltage gated Na+ ion channels open up and many Na+ ions flow into the neuron changing it's charge to +30 mV this positive charge passes along the neuron membrane, down the axon because voltage gated ion channels open up one after another and allow Na+ ions into neuronWhen positive charge reaches terminal buttons voltage gated Ca++ ion channels open and calcium ions enter the neuron
Calcium activated proteins are created grab vesicles and move to edge of the buttons, and they release their neurotransmitter into the next synapse
Myelin: neural signal travels faster down the axon because voltage gated ion channels are covered up allowing fir quicker neural communication
Infi processing implication: faster beural communication means faster info processing


Physiological basis of learning

Release of glutamate binds to NMDA and AMPA receptors
AMPA receptors let sodium ions into neuron
NMDA receptor ion channel is blocked by a magnesium ion
If neuron then fires NMDA receptor ion Chanel gets unblocked
Calcium ions flow into neuron through NMDA channel
Calcium ion triggers production of calcium dependent proteins
Proteins create retrograde messengers diffuse back to presynaptic neuron and cause increase in production of NT
Proteins travel up to so a, grab extra A!PA receptors and insert them into dendrite membrane
Proteins cause the growth of the new dendrites to produce and increase synaptic connections
Have stronger signal sent by presynaptic neuron and greater ability to recurve signal by post synaptic neuron



unconditioned response is used in a conditioned place preference task


Rapid reacquisition:

ability of an animal to show a string conditioned response more quickly after extinction than during the original learning (once they are given a newCS-US pairings)


Eye blink conditioning:



Agent inhibition:

similar to extinction learning, a competing association is learned which inhibits the original learning it occurs when the CS predicts the absence of the US before pairings between the CS and US are given


Robert rescorla:



Interstimulus interval:

time between onset of the CS and the onset of the US


Fear conditioning:

strartle response


Sensory preconditioning:

occurs when two CS are paired together several times before an US is introduced, then the CR is observed when only one of the two CS is presented


The rescorla Wagner model of classical conditioning states that the development of a CR depends on:

A mismatch between the subjects expectation of the strength of the US and the actual strength of the US


Classical conditioning can happen in the absence of conscious memory:

travel and damasio (1985) proposagnosua (ability to recognize familiar faces) measured emotional response to faces


Part if brain responsible for eye blink

Eye blink: cerebellum


Latent inhibition occurs when

the conditioned stimulus predicts the a sense of the unconditioned stimulus before pairings between the CS and UA are given



after a conditioned response has been extinguished it will sometimes reappear in response to another stimulus


Hulse and Campbell:

Found rats ran more slowly down the alley when the amount of food was reduced


CS association learned is between CS and US, while these three associations are learned differently



Persons ability to classify these morphed faces into a category is based on their

familiarity with faces


The brain is composed of separate neurons that are essentially

units on information processing


Long term depression

The neural process that helps to constrain. The effects of long term potential ionic which neurons can no longer increase the strength of neural communication is Long term depression


New stimulus is then introduced the individual recovers their behavioral response is



Importance of Hippocampus

Both the formation and recall of recent memories (~15 to 20 years old) rely on hippocampus

Visual, auditory, olfactory, sensory all link together to form a memory

On e memory is formed it stores in CA3 if you want to re-experience it by reactivating same areas

After you recall something numerous times the connections get strong enough that need for hippocampus is lessened and those memories from those 20 years moves to cortex
Form direct corticles (stored in cortex): corticle consolidation
Able to remember things from distant past because it's stored in cortex not hippocampus
This process happens every night it's called Sleep consolidation
Memories you have stored are Reactivated
Brain tries to make sense of the memories from the visual olfactory auditory and sensory and form a story



Shifting storage from short term processing into long term storage
4 hrs after you've learned something


Any time we are engaging in cognitive learning
Learning that this is a water bottle is cognitive learning
As it comes in it is processed by

working memory first (30seconds)





Memory formation and recall

Working memory to STM to (consolidation) LTM

Recall: reconsolidation


Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex:

Non-spatial working memory: maintenance of incoming information
Ex: Learning about water bottle: non-spatial


Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex:

Spatial working memory; processing recalled memory


Short and long-term memory: Both happen in

medial temporal lobe
Hippocampus: memory formation


Damage to MTL results in both

retrograde and anterograde amnesia
Retrograde: can't remember before accident
Anterograde: can't form new memories
In most cases, it's both!


The hippocampus is the center structure for

processing cognitive learning


1. Entorhinal cortex:

in the MTL receives input from sensory and frontal cortices
processes neutral information
Things that we experience that dint produce change in behavior
Most things!


Dentrate gyrus:

protruding area for teeth









doesn't do anything


Memory formation in hippocampus

1. Entorhinal cortex: in the MTL receives input from sensory and frontal cortices
processes neutral information
Things that we experience that dint produce change in behavior
Most things!

Dentrate gyrus: protruding area for teeth

CA3: processing
CA1: output
CA2: doesn't do anything

New memories were forming right now
All sensory info: sight, sound, sensations of this event is all being sent to entorhinal cortex
2. Neurons in entorhinal cortex synapse onto neurons in the dentate gyrus
3. Neurons in dentate gyrus synapse onto neurons in CA3 region of the hippocampus
Both long term storage and short term processing
4. Neurons in the CA3 region synapse back onto other neurons in the CA3 region
5. Neurons in CA3 region synapse onto neurons in the CA1 region
Memory forms in CA3
Memory: connection of neurons that process all this infirmation
Memory doesn't do us any good if we can't retrieve it
Retrieving it :
6. Neurons in CA1 region synapse back onto neurons in the Entorhinal cortex which send the signal back out to the sensory cortex


These CA3 to CA3 connections are the location where

S-S associations are formed and store temporarily
15 to 20 years


Spatial learning

Processed by specialized neurons
Let rat wander around in an open field
Record activities of place cells and grid cells
Each square us the entire open field
Neuron is only active when subject is in exact place
Only time this neuron will be read as active is in that place
Neurons active always are not place cells
Place cells: hippocampus
Grid cells: entorhinal cortex
Different grid cell active in different environment
In this room a place cell is active (class place cell)
Stairs (stair place cell)
Spatial learning happens because each cell works as a team
Process every part of spatial environment
Specialized neurons in the entorhinal cortex (grid cells) and in the hippocampus (place cells) that only fire in very specific locations in the environment


Retrograde amnesia

Inability to consciously remember previously stored memories


Anterograde amnesia

Inability to form new long term memories


Both memory disorders are result of

Damage to hippocampus or areas surrounding hippocampus
Anterograde and retrograde amnesia is caused by damage to CA3 where memories are formed and stored



stores motor skills so playing music is still an ability of his


Clive wearing

Damage to CA3 and hippocampus
All he had was prefrontal cortex
He has semantic memory, (cheers before a drink, knew diary is called a diary), and procedural
As if he never existed before 30 seconds
Every 30 seconds it's like be is opening his eyes for the first time
Emotional memory is stored in Amygdala
So still loves wife


Emotional memory is stored in

So still loves wife



Most common
Progressive starts out with deterioration of brain areas (episodic memory) as it spreads then it damages all forms of cognitive memory (lose emotional memory which spreads to basal ganglia so they can't perform basic memory tasks like tying a shoe)
Can be sparks of memory because it's stored in cortex which is the last part of brain to deteriorate


Working memory

The information that exists in your "stream of consciousness" that it is used to guide behaviors appropriately lasts 30 to 60 s


Short term memory

Memories that are stored/processed for a very short time period
Lasts approximately 4 hours


Long term memory

Memories that are stored are relatively permanent


Transition from short term to long term storage is called

memory consolidation


Memory reconsolidation

Once you've finished reliving it you store it again in hippocampus for shirt term memory
Karin Nader:
Once long term memories are recalled they move back into working memory and short term memory
Must undergo memory reconsolidation
Can stop memory reconsolidation but it stops that memory from being restored
(Lose memory)
Connections that firmed are whiled away
Before reconsolidation takes place, memories can be changed (by adding new information or taking information away) or even disrupted
Process of updating memories is adaptive however the fact that the information can be altered and restored as a true memory is what underlies false memory syndrome


Can tell a difference between a real and false memory

Real: reactivation of original sensations (olfactory, auditory, sensory)
False: reactivation doesn't happen


Typical reconsolidation experiment

1. Rats given normal fear conditioning training ( placed in chamber and shocked)
2. Rats associate chamber cues (CS) with shock (US), which produces fear response (UR)
3. Eventually the chamber cues alone produce fear response (CR)
4. When tat is displaying CR (memory recall), inject it with chemical that stops reconsolidation (stops restorage back into LTM)
Chemical injected: protein synthesis inhibitor
Inhibit proteins you need to restore memory
Can't reconsolidate so memory is lost
5. Rat no longer shows a CR which placed in context
Not afraid of shock because forgot context

Utilizes fear conditioning task
Contextual makes it cognitive
Foot shock associate shock with context

Even though these rats went under same procedure those given drug don't act afraid in context
Useful if applied to PTSD
Works and can be applied to humans now

When reconsolidation processes stopped synaptic connection goes away


Too much emotion or too much stress is bad for memory

Amygdala: processes emotional reactions
Most vivid memories have emotion


Long term potentiation and a little emotion

Calcium dependent proteins activates other proteins
MAP kinase: protein that helps continue on long term potentiation
Short term moderate increases in cortisol = increased MAP kinase activity
More dendrites
More receptors
More neurotransmitters being sent
Leads to increased AMPA receptors (part of LTP)
Cortisol release: cortisol helped long term potentiation
If something is important then it probably has a lil stress reaction
Eye blink conditioning: Air hose pointed at persons eye, tone with puff of air following (association between puff and tone, classical conditioning)
Just like rat water maze but for humans and virtual
Stress group was better!A lil stress strengthened connection in hippocampus

Dunked persons hand in ice water, increased cortisol levels which helped memory
Connections in Amygdala are stronger
May be why emotional stressful events can produce highly detailed memories


A lot if stress and memory

Problem occurs whenever cortisol release is high (high stress)

High dose/long term increase in cortisol = neuron malfunction/death
individuals with long term anxiety their memory performance is bad
Finals: decrease cortisol levels to moderate you will remember better
High: stop neurons from using glucose for energy
Restrict blood flow and therefor oxygen to neurons


3 forms of cognitive learning

Latent learning
Observational learning
Transitive learning


Latent learning

S-S associations where each of the stimuli are considered "neutral"
Neutral: don't change behavior, no reaction
Requiring S-S association where each stimuli is neutral
Neutral: dies not immediately influence behavior
Yet you can still recall that information once it becomes relative to you
Passively acquiring info but when you need it it guides your behavior of east you like to do
Pay attention and it's passively processed
Have to pay attention to it to process it
Not expressed until it needs to be

Edward Tolman produced a latent learning task (unseen/hidden learning). He used a standard rat maze and measured the number of mistakes the rats made (into dead-ends)
​Latent Learning Task:
​Group 1: food is never present. The rat is placed into the maze, they wander around, eventually ​reach the goal, and never get food (no reinforcer). Behaviorists say: no improvement in errors ​(behavior), means no learning
​Group 2: food present in goal box (reinforced). There is an ever increasing performance and the ​number of errors is reduced. Behaviorists say: improved performance = learning
​Group 3: food is never included in the goal box until day 11. Day 1-10 = no food, Day 11= food. ​The first 10 days, performance is exactly like group 1. Behaviorists expected to see a gradual ​decrease in mistakes made, but instead the rats displayed an instant decrease in mistakes made as ​if the rats have been learning all along and this is the first time they could show they were ​learning. Their learning all along has been hidden.
​-This is where latent learning is coined.
​-As the rats were wandering they were learning the layout of the maze.
​-Day 11 they get a reinforcement. So Day 12 they know where the goal box is and they go ​straight there.
​-Behaviorists couldn’t explain this so it gave birth to cognitive theory of learning.


Observational learning

Information acquired through observation of a behavior rather than performance of the behavior
McNamara, long Not just imitation learn function


Transitive learning

Being able to apply old S-S association to a new situation
Things you e learned applied to something new
Inference: conclusion
Transitive: next to next
Green cup: banana
Red: grapes
1. Monkey learns green cup is better than red cup
2. Monkey learns red cup that had grapes is better than yellow wit peanuts
3. Monkey learns yellow cup with peanut is better than purple with lettuce
4. Presented with purple and red cup
Monkey has never been given a choice between these two CS but it chooses the red cup because it has learned that red cup was better than yellow and yellow was better than purple


In animals: there are two basic latent learning paradigms

1. Spatial latent learning
2. Irrelevant-incentive latent learning: something you want to have but it's irrelevant (not needed)


Spatial latent learning

Experimental: Food never present till day 11
Immediately improved performance
At first passively acquiring spatial environment
Once it was relevant they used that spatial map
1. Rats given several "preexposure" trials, in which they explore the maze with no food present
Looks like they're not learning but they are passively
2. During this time, they form spatial map that dies not change behavior
3. Once food is placed in the maze they can recall this spatial map to guide their path to food


Irrelevant incentive latent learning task

Exposed to incentive (irrelevant, not in deprivation state)
Ex: water
Three compartment box
Each have a cue to allow it to be distinguished
Stripped, grey, black
Food is available in one side
Rat is allow to sample from water but is not thirsty1. During training rat is exposed to water in one sued of box and no water in other sued; rat is not thirsty during training
2. During testing
If rat is. It thirsty: shows no preference
If rat is thirsty: shows preference fir sued that previously had water
Communicate that they want water


Latent learning and entorhinal cortex

Damage to the entorhinal cortex disrupts
Medial: Spatial latent learning
Lateral: Irrelevant incentive latent learningLatent inhibition of fear conditioning
Damage to entorhinal: can't learn information
No latent inhibition


*Interaction of learning systems*

Fowler and Milner (1963) study: cooperation and competition between classical conditioning and operant learning
Two factor theory of avoidance learning: cooperation between classical conditioning and operant learning
Contextual conditioning (contextual fear conditioning, conditioned place preference): cooperation between cognitive learning and classical conditioning
Latent inhibition of fear conditioning competition between latent and classical
Sensory cortical areas filtered through thalamus to Amygdala, striatum (basal ganglia, and entorhinal cortex and hippocampus to thalamus again
Not retrieving information in isolation
In any learning situation it's not just going to Amygdala but is going everywhere
Output signals go through the thalamus

Fowler and Milner 1963 interaction of learning systems
Straight alley maze
Operant learning: Run forward
Happens first
Straight alley maze (as) running to goal box (R) eating food (reinforcer)
Classical conditioning front foot shock
Straight alley maze (CS) shock (US) and rat jumps back (UR)
Straight alley maze, rat jumps back
Competing between two learning systems, Goes forward and one says jump back
Classical conditions back foot shock
Straight alley maze + shock -> jump forward
Two learning systems cooperate with eachother
Runs down alley
Don't just run forward but also hop and jump forward
As soon as he has that idea down he will run to end of maze and one of two things happen
1. Shock front paw
2. Shock back paw


Anytime you experience anything at all in your environment it will be processed by your

sensory cortical areas


Solomon and wynne 1953 and the shuttle box

Not avoiding anything, he is still escaping
First classical conditioning
Light (CS) -> shock (US) -> fear reaction-(UR)
Light (CS) -> fear (CR)
Next operant learning occurs
Light (CS) produces fear (CR) -> removal of fear (reinforcer) by jumping into box before shock
Dog isn't avoiding fear, he is removing the fear
Avoidance isn't avoidance at all
"Avoidance" is really just escape from the fear that the light produces


Two factor theory of avoidance learning

First classical conditioning
Light (CS) -> shock (US) -> fear reaction-(UR)
Light (CS) -> fear (CR)
Next operant learning occurs
Light (CS) produces fear (CR) -> removal of fear (reinforcer) by jumping into box before shock


Contextual fear conditioning

Associating stimuli in chamber= cognitive learning
Stimuli: olfactory, sensory, tactile all bind together to firm a CONTEXT

1. Placed in context
Cognitive learning/hippocampus
2.shocked in context
Classical conditioning/Amygdala


Conditioned place preference

Same process except it's not shock it's a reward
Preference test: conditioned approach to the room with food
Associating stimuli in chamber = cognitive learning


Latent inhibition of fear conditioning

1. Rat is given several "preexposure" sessions in chamber, no shock is given
2. Rat forms an association among all stimuli in chamber (the context)
3. Rat forms an association between context and " no shock"
4. Rat is later placed back into the same chamber and is given shock
5. Rat forms a CS-US association
6. Testing: rat placed back inside chamber, the two associations compete with eachother fir expression, and rat demonstrates less startle (CR) than normal

1. Preexposure
Context = no shock
Neural info sent to Entorhinal cortex
Says: Don't be afraid
2. Shock in context sent to Amygdala says to be afraid, it hurt you!
Competing, cancel eachother out sooo not afraid :D


Cognitive learning:

the associating 2 + environmental stimuli with each other. The association is used to guide voluntary behavior it is not learning a behavior.


McNamara, Long, and Wike (’56)

further separated learning from performance:
​Using a T-Maze (left food, right no food)
​Control group: physically ran the maze and received food at the end of one of the arms
​Experimental group: transported by a pulley system in a basket and received food at the end of ​one of the arms. They are not doing any physical behavior, therefore the behaviorists would say ​they aren’t learning because they aren’t doing the behavior
​During testing, both groups showed equal performance in choosing the arm that previously had ​food.
Findings led researchers to adopt the idea of cognitive learning:
1. Several environmental stimuli are associated together to form a representation of an event or an environment (a memory: a piece of information you can consciously recall)
2. Association is not bonded to any specific behavior


Spatial learning:

integration of environmental stimuli that are encountered over time
-Ex: University campus, we form a spatial or cognitive map
Contextual learning: integration of environmental stimuli that are encountered at the same time
-Ex: size is relative, a room would be huge to a rat but could be small to us


Win-shift task (spatial)- radial arm

-Win-stay = operant learning
-Win-shift= cognitive/spatial learning- the rat wins the food by constantly shifting responses
1. Food is placed at the end of each arm
2. The rat is placed in the middle of the maze and has to enter each arm only once to get the food
3. The rat must use the room cues to determine which arms he has been in before
4. Over several trials, the rat is able to form an accurate spatial map of the room. As the spatial map gets better the number of mistakes decrease


Water maze task (spatial)

1. Visual cue on platform= operant learning
2. Platform is hidden =cog learning


Contextual learning:

the integration of environmental stimuli (usually multi-modal: vision, scent, auditory) that are encountered at the same time
-Most often illustrated when used with contextual tasks (cog learning and classical conditioning)


Contextual fear conditioning:

associating stimuli in chamber= cog learning à CS ßà US (shock)
​​​​​​​​CS à CR (startle)
Conditioned place preference: preference for place with food
​​​Associating stimuli in chamber = cog learning à CS ßà US (food/drug)
​​​CSà CR (approach)