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Flashcards in Final Exam History of Psychology Deck (47):

Greek philosopher who first proposed laws of association



Philosopher of science who discussed paradigms



Philosopher who argued that people are innately good



Associationist who coined the phrase "the mind is a blank slate"



The standard view of science

Sciences are always moving to some universally agreed on 'truth'
All scientists agree on what the facts are
We do research to prove our theories correct


A drug is all you need to stop voices in your head

Materialism or epiphenominalism


Belief that human beings have free will and that their behaviors are freely chosen

Determinism, psychology is not scientific


Primary qualities

Characteristics which exist in objects whether we perceive them or not


Secondary qualities

Characteristics that exist only in our perception of objects


Harley's main contribution to associationism

To talk about mental chemistry



Senses provide us with accurate knowledge about the world


Personalistic theory

Focuses on the achievements of specific individuals


First computer was invented in

1800s by Charles Babbage


Why study history?

Use history to justify what we do today



Stories change
New information can come out
Change in word meaning
Example: moral didn't mean good or bad it meant keeping morale up back in the day


How society influences psychology?

Trends really influence
Example: political science congress eliminated funding..republicans control House of Representatives...want to limit vote,,,.political science studies by people toe but if you're trying to limit toes why study it
Controls what's published...society says child sex abuse is wrong but studies showed it was good for boys RIND 1999


Nature of science

Traditional view
Collect facts
Make up theory
Testing your theory (experiment) try to prove
Gradual evolution toward the truth
Science is completely logical and objective


The view in our course

Theory before facts
*POPPER* doctrine of factual relativity: different theory's have different facts, facts depend on theories
Theories disproven
Evolution and revolution
*Paradigm (KUHN)* a set of assumptions about the appropriate topics to study, appropriate methods to use, and the appropriate concepts to explain those findings
"The rules if the game'
Normal science: daily routine activities as a scientist
Evolution (progress)
Paradigm change (revolution): changing the way we do things
Incommensurability: incompatibility between paradigms
No necessary movement toward the absolute truth...behavior truth is different from humanistic truth
Why your in class? Can have two different truths of why
Science is not completely rational/logical and objective
Round to.05
Increase population, more trials to make work
Two IV for interaction effect


Is psychology a science?

Partially depend on determinism (idea that everything happens according to laws and rules. If we knew those laws and rules we could predict everything that is about to happen) can't di that in psych
Partially depends on determinism
What is determinism? Can be determined
Alternatives to determinism
Free will
Indeterminism and the idea of reflexivity : there are rules but were not smart enough to figure it out
Partially depends on using naturalistic explanations
IV. Is psychology a science?
1. What is determinism?
Psychology is NOT a science because we can't make predictions about what we will do,think, or say
2. Alternatives to determinism
A. Randomness: just happens can't predict it!
P value: chance
P=.05 5% of the time chance will influence results
B. Free will, not science
C. Indeterminism and the idea of reflexivity (Complex)
Molecules and chemicals are simpler
Can't predict people because humans can not explain humans
2. Partially depends on using naturalistic explanations
Not supernatural! People are not mentally ill because of the devil
Catholic Church: rare but exorcisms are still performed
Naturalistic is a more SCIENTIFIC perspective
Neuroscience is the most popular: naturalistic and observes chemicals
3. A problem for psychology- The " Black Box" issue
You can take a watch a party but not your mind. Don't know what's going on inside. Can't look inside mind to figure it out because that would involve killing you!
Behaviorism: nothing inside you influence you
Nobody believes that!
Different versions of psych have different answers for what's inside the black box
Neuroscience is so popular because they think it answers what is inside the black box


Basic conceptual issues in psychology

Every concept has to be discussed in whatever type of psychology
Is there a mind (or soul) separate from the body
1. Monism: not separate
Belief that all we have is a body: materialism
Example: neuroscience
Belief that all we have is mind: idealism
2. Dualism: both mind and body
How do mind and body influence each other?
In psych you tend to get two answers to this
Interactionism: each influence the other
Epiphenomenalism: body can influence your mind


How do we acquire knowledge of the world?

Nativism: knowledge is born into you
Study babies, babies come into world with knowledge
Rationalism: knowledge acquired by thinking rationally/logically
Study thought
Empiricism: knowledge acquired through our senses
Study sensation and perception
My take: there are different beliefs on how people acquire knowledge. Those who believe that knowledge is born into you are nativists. While those who believe knowledge is acquired through logical and rational thinking are rationalists. Finally empiricists believe knowledge is acquired through senses. They find that the best route is through sensation and perception


Do we have conscious control of our life?

Yes, free will
No, determinism: laws and rules of behavior


Are people basically rational or irrational?

Cognitive behavior therapy: point out how illogical your thinking is
Logical vs emotional


How are humans related to other animals?



Are humans inherently good, bad, or neither?

Humanistic: good
Behaviorism/cognitive/neuropsych: neither
Freud: bad



all we have is a body
Basic assumptions
Monism: all we have is a body
Determinism: all we have is the mind
Empiricism: knowledge of the world comes from our senses
Reductionism: explain things by breaking them down into their smallest pieces
Eventually history, sociology, psychology EVERYTHING will be physics
Names: Democritus (Ancient Greek philosopher)
Proposed purely materialistic approach to perception
Send off copies flying off of you and climbs into your brain
Not totally wrong, light bounces off of you that's physical
Believes both that it can or can't be broken down to physics

When smelling something little particles come up and attach itself to receptor
Relevance to psych: basic idea of neuroscience has been around for years!


Empiricism and associationism

Go together but are different
Empiricism: knowledge comes from our senses
The ideas you have came for your senses
Associationism: what your mind does with your ideas
Basic assumptions:
Dualism: we have a mind, don't believe in free will but believe in determinism
Determinism: no free will
Empiricism: knowledge comes from our senses
Reductionism:don't agree with idea that everything can be broken down to physics
Sight: Colors, angles, shapes
Combination of fundamentals and functions
Names: Aristotle: First proposed laws of association
Locke: mind is a blank slate
3 laws of association
1. Resemblance similarity
2. Contiguity: space and time
3. Cause of effect
Hartley: associating stimulus with response
Bain: Theory of voluntary behavior
• You need something
• Do some random behavior
• If you get what you need do the behavior again
Similar to skinners, rewarding but Bain was first

Relevance to psychology
Cognitive psych
Psych of learning



Basic assumptions
Holism: opposite if reductionism, don't break it down!

Difference between rationalism and empiricism
Opposites in a lot of ways
Source of true knowledge
Empiricist: senses
Rationalist: thinking, senses tricking you!
Their right! Not an orange shirt being seen but in actuality it's orange the only one we don't see?
Active and passive mind
Rationalism active, interpreting rearranging, try to make sense out of it
Empiricist: passive, copies what's in outside a mirror
How much is innate: Locke said blank slate but that's not right
Empiricist: abilities are innate
Make associations
No ideas
Rationalism: abilities
Names: plato
Allegory of the cave: Plato, stuck in a cave...small opening for light to come in
Always facing the back wall not the opening, can see shadows on wall...have to
think logically can't trust senses
I think therefor I am
Petites perceptions
Perceptions below the level of conscious perception
Never make it to consciousness
Innate (inborn) categories if thought
Senses trick us
Relevance to psych
Cognitive psych


Electrical stimulation of the human brain




Method of extirpation


Weber and fechner-

The first experimental psychologists
Goal mapping the relationship between physical and psychological worlds (Psychophysics)
Experimental investigation of the mind


Wundt founder of psychology

Wilhelm Wundt
Founder because he set up the first research lab
The scientific study of human behavior
He was the first to be scientific
He was German so he needed a translator,the translator disagreed with some ideas so he changed it! Translator = Titchner
Social cultural factors: didn't like Germans cause of WWI
Changes in psychology in the US
Never wanted psych to be its own major stay part of philosophy


Wundt's psychology

Is psychology in the humanities or the natural science?
Humanaties, philosophy
Nothing applied, clinical is out! All topics studied are same as now
Emotions memory Are looked at
Lower mental processes: sensation, perception, emotion
Higher mental processes: thinking, creativity, language, problem solving, attention, non experimental
Volkerpsychologie: understand and analyze as if it were history or art
Too subjective
Who are the participants? Yourself! To Wundt this was more objective, take more seriously psychologists and grad students now we see this as more subjective so we don't do this!
Did Wundt use introspection?
Introspection is analyzing yourself, back then it was a detailed evaluation of what is going on inside my mind. Not just the answer but what made you reach it!



How we explain our findings
Opposed to reductionism
Apperception: Wundt
Creative synthesis: find meaning

Slash line slash backwards slash c c u I


Fbijfknfl t just list for take home test



Titcheners psychology- Structuralism
What should psychology study?
Elements of conscious experience in adult mind
Color catalogue of what you can consciously see
Can you experience different temperatures in your stomach
Tongue, stick out and see where taste buds are and put sour and sweet drops on taste buds, 10% sugar solution vs 20%
Conscious experiences
Different sounds people consciously hear
No kids or unconscious studying
How are the elements connected?
The physiological causes of our conscious experiences...what taste bud causes you to experience sweetness
Get a catalogue of different taste buds cause you to taste salty, sweet, sour
How do we put the individual things together?
What methods should psychology use?
Participants: psychologists and grad students
How? Introspection
3870236: call
The stimulus error: not talk about stimulus
Pencil is something yellow, silver, pink
How should we explain our findings? Association
Puts together shapes, color and sizes
No creative synthesis
No active mental princesses
Reductionism: anything is brought down to basics
Things in our mind are due to physical things like eyes for sight, taste buds for taste
Philosophical background: Empiricism and associationism
The way you approach psychology is determined by your philosophy
We don't talk about him is because of his insistence that the only method you can use in psych is introspection
Criticism: It is really retrospection, telling what was on your mind in the past!
It changes your experience when asked about your experience
Unreliable: not everyone associates the same way
Can't study many things: children, animals, mentally Ill
Very artificial: not natural



First American psychology
• Social and cultural background
• Religion is very important!
• Change way you think AND behave!
• Religion is behavior modification
• Heaven: reinforcement
• Hell: punishment
• Business is the other sociocultural influence
• Money $$$, Bottom line
• Practical rather than applied
• Focus on individual differences, hardworking moral ect.
• Train/educate them
• Scientific background of functionalism
• Theory of evolution: Darwin, survival of the fittest
• Spencer: Social Darwinism, society should be set up following Darwin's principles, society should be set up so that you have survival of the fittest, no welfare, no help
Roosevelt passed new laws and changed the government so that it wasn't social Darwinism, help was given
What dies thus mean for psych?
Continuity between humans and animals: after Darwin we learned humans were just smarter now we can study animals to help understand human behavior
Thinking is adaptive: helps us survive
Individual differences: sats, tests,IQ
Research on individual differences
*Galton: first person to study individual differences*
Individual differences are innate: one person is smarter than others it was cause they were born that way
Mental testing
Selective breeding of humans: breed to be smarter, don't give charity to poor/dumb people because they will breed more idiots...give it to rich so you make more intelligent people
Went away cause if hitler, who took it too far!
Functionalist psychology
What topics should psychology study?
About the same as now
Practical applied questions
What methods should psychology use?
Participants-anybody including animals
How should we collect data?
Any way you want
How should we explain our findings?
Any way you want
Explanation not as important
No specific theory to evaluate
If it works who cares why? No one
Functionalist psychologists
William James
stream of consciousness: (conscious experiences are always changing) at this time the major version of psych was Titchner, James disagreed with him! Can't freeze thought, like introspection....ever changing!
emphasis on habit: no thinkingJames
Stream of consciousness
Emphasis on habit
Defined functionalism
Psychology: study of mental activities
Adaptive role of consciousness
Study of mind-body relationship
Both your mind and body are involved in survival
Philosopher and educator
The reflex arc
What good are reflexes?
Mental testing and individual differences
First PSYCHOLOGIST to develop an IQ test
Turn psychology into a business
Sell psychological tests
First person to systematically study kids
Applied evolution to how kids develop compared to civilization
Child study movement
Evolution as a framework for psychology
Child study movement
Application of psychology to education
Study of motivation



What is behaviorism?
Methodological behaviorism: idea that the methods of psychology should only involve recording observable behaviors. Can not observe the mind. Everyone is a behaviorist now! Mouse pressing lever.
Explanatory behaviorism: Explain why. Do not use thinking to explain.
Philosophical behaviorism: idea that we don't have a mind, monism, materialism. We can explain behaviors without the mind
*difference between them*
Philosophical Background
Descartes: tried to explain behavior in terms of reflexes, reflex involves no thinking
*review begaviorism*
Associationism and empiricism
Outside world influences you: empiricism
Positivism : when you're doing science you can only talk about what you can see
Scientific background
Functionalism: behavior being the result of habits, study animals, took functionalism farther in behaviorism
Thorndike: laws of effect and exercise (reinforcement and frequency)still talked about animals having feelings so
technically he wasn't a behaviorist
Pavlov: classical conditions with dogs, wasn't a behaviorist or psychologist he was a doctor. Dislike for mentalistic explanation. Conditioned reflexes
Bekhterev: classical conditioning of movements, demonstrate that it works with people
Twitmyer: classical conditioning in humans (first to do it, not Pavlov!)
Loeb: Explain complicated behaviors, more than reflexes. Tropisms: complicated behavior described without thought
Kuo: everything that people do is learned. Denial of instincts. Kittens raised with mice did not attack the mouse so the cat learns to attack a catKuo
Denial of instincts
Early behaviorism
Watson: the guy who founded behaviorism
The 1913 paper...redefine psychology...methodology: get rid of introspection. Psychology needs to study behavior! Idea of analyzing came from Watson..he said we should study people to control them and predict.
After the paper: not much happened, why not? Little data, just observe baby Albert!, he got kicked out of academia for sleeping with student, became pop psychologist sex sells came from him! Shirt skirts! Used fear to influence behavior


Commitment to logical positivism

Theory: abstract terms glued together with concrete observable things
Glue: operational definition, commitment to operationism
Example from hulls theory: in between stimulus and response, reaction potential (organism)
Reaction potential: likelihood you will perform a specific behavior
SHR: habit strength, the number of times you've performed the behavior in the past
D: drive, how long it's been since you performed that behavior



Dominant American psychology from 1930-65/70
Difference from Watson systematic theory and research. Mite sophisticated and philosophically
Mathematical sophistication: try to write figures to determine future behavior, less strict discussed organismic variables z( what's inside then), believed in mental states


*final exam, compare and contrast the neobehaviorists

* Emphasis on reinforcement
Basic learning paradigm: most people believe learning is the association between the stimulus and response...Skinner, Guthrie, and Hull
Skinner box
Tolman: believed in cognitive maps

Emphasis on internal causes of behavior
Internal things necessary: have to talk about things going on inside you to explain behavior
Tolman: cognitive maps are inside you
Hull: drives
Guthrie: movement induced stimuli, bad back if you get up to move it makes your back hurt so you sleep
Internal things unnecessary
Skinner: SNR
Role of reinforcement in learning
All use the word reinforcement but empahsixe, is it necessary learning occur? tooccur? Skinner-yes...always. Doesn't have to be immediate
Hull: originally yes, changed to no
Walk around saw dinning hall, didn't go in..later on you're hungry so you go to the dinning hall according to skinner you wouldn't have learned because you didn't get reinforced....hull says you do know where it is it's called latent learning
Tolman and Guthrie:no
If reinforcement isn't necessary, for learning, what does it do?
Tolman: increases performance
Hull: make learning stronger, changes strength of S-R bond
Guthrie: changes stimulus situation...situation with reinforcement us different then one without it fans in stadium are reinforcement
Level of analysis: how reductionistic were they?
Molar: the mouse learned to press the bar, a whole behavior not parts, Tolman and Skinner
Molecular: a sequence of movements that together press the bar, Guthrie and Hull
According to them they believe if you didn't walk to that building on campus you don't know where it is
Rate of learning
Gradual: hull and skinner
All at once: Guthrie, all the pieces together
Both: Tolman
Historical trends in behaviorism
1920-1930 behaviorism and functionalism were fighting it out
Behaviorism won 1930-1960 Hull vs. Tolman
1960-1970: skinner vs. Cognitive psychology
Cognitive won


Basic principles of gestalt psychology

1. Holism
The whole is more than the sum of the parts
Emergent properties: when you put the parts together. The whole has different properties that the parts don't have. Vanilla tastes gross by itself
The whole determines the nature of the parts. An o could be a circle or the letter o.
Top down processing
Le cough islature: heard as legislatureTop down processing
2. Isomorphism
Structural similarity
Psych: What exactly is similar?
Electrical activity in brain and conscious experience
Ph: phenomenon: put into dark room
Step 1: vertical line flashes on and off monitor screen
1/10th of a second in between
Fffcccfmfffh fftjfhhhju hfjf fjjtr
Conscious experience: looks like vertical line is moving to horizontal position
Your conscious is wrong! It's two different steps!
Your brain is too slow!
How about a 1/2 a second? You do see two separate lines because there's no overlap of receiving information
Think of cartoon paper books
They believe this happens all the time!
Brain is important not your mind
Very neuro approach to psychology
Determinism: Environment forces brain to react in a certain way (no free will)
3. Closure: spark jumping across
Never made up with your best friend, need closure
Neurons are out of balance, some neurons represent your friend
Your brain is a very complicated device
Chimpanzees are presented with an open circle they fill it in!
4. Other principles
Perceptual organization (proximity, figure/ground)
Vase or two faces, we can see both at different times....perception. Different neurons active

II. Important individuals
Wertheimer: founder of gestalt psychology and phi phenomenon
Insight learning
Chicken pecks at lighter paper
Supposed to show behaviorism was wrong

Applied gestalt principles to child development


What happened to gestalt psychology?

Very influential In Germany until Hitler
Little bits here and there
General psychology books : perception chapter
Memory chapter: the Zeigarnik effect
Half allowed to complete task half did not
The people who complete did not remember as much as those who didn't
This goes back to what we discussed earlier, closure
Why we don't remember info from ceases completed


Insight and transposition learning

social psychology:
Basic idea of gestalt is holisim. Social psych the whole is society.
*Lewin-field theory*
Cognitive dissonance research (closure)
Complete simple task for hours, get paid 50 cents after,.justify that the task was more fun than it was
Social conformity: whole influencing the part
Can't answer what kind of person you are....only what you are in that situation


Reasons for the cognitive revolution

A. Death of logical positivism
B. Empirical problems with behaviorism
1. Biological constraints on animal learning
a. Garcia
b. The brelands
Instead if putting coin in piggy bank, pushed it around with nose. This is his instinctive behavior!

Raccoon didn't either, just rubbed it with his paws . Same thing!

Can't learn about people by studying animals
2. The role of consciousness in human learning
Don't need to be conscious to learn.
a. Classical conditioning
We're told that shock comes from top, place finger in, in reality the shock comes from bottom, what counts is what really is happening so you move your finger up! Behaviorists believe that this is what really happens...but in reality you still don't touch top
b. Greenspoon
Uh huh (reinforcer) to certain words. (Plural nouns)
Acquisition and extinction (stop being reinforced and it declines) nobody knew what he was doing. He lied! 10/75 did!git rid of outliers! What they thought affected the results!
C. Creation of computers
Do a lot of what we do without reinforcement and punishment, don't need it in cognitive psych. Ap is a computer program. Key is the program. Program is inside you too! Not the environment it's what we do withit!
D. The new look in perception
a. Bruner
Flash words on screen. Press key when you identify the word. Not the stimulus that affects speed but your mind.cognitive idea. Behaviorists believe there's no thinking. Punishment changes behavior. Cognitive thinks it's your thoughts that adjusts response speed
E. Problems with behaviorists explanation of language
Chomsky: criticized behaviorists accounts for language the way to explain it is in cognitive terms not behaviorist terms,


history of clinical psychology

1. Prehistoric times- religious views
Some were respected for being mentally Ill...a shaman (native American)
2. Greek and roman times- more scientific
3. Hippocrates: father of medicine
-clinical descriptions of postpartum depression, phobias, hysteria
Explanation in terms of humors
-Humors: body fluids
-Blood, bile, mucus
-Imbalances in body fluids
Hysteria: wandering uterus
Guys can not be hysterical
Treatment: bloodletting, sex (hysteria)
Galen: personality in terms of humors
Phlegmatic- too much snot so your personality is slow, deliberate
When you have a cold you do slow down
3. Dark and Middle Ages- back to religious views
Demonic possession or witchcraft
There was sone distinction between possession and mentally Ill
They had a book which told them if they were a witch or depressed. Malleus Maleficarum (their dsm)
These people were schizophrenic by our terms now bipolar etc
Didn't drink water back then was beer and wine, alcoholic dementia
Put lead in wine, lead poisoning
They were tripping!
Salem witch trials: tripping on LSD a fungus on the corn
4. 1600s and 1700s return to scientific explanations
Going back to the idea that it was bodily fluids
Galen's view again!
Most did nothing, some put in institution
Mental institutions developed
Worked with bipolar manic episodes, starving lowers energy
Whirling cure: spin you around
Cupping: create blisters and welts with a hot cup
Tranquilization with drugs
Mesmerism (during the mid 1700s)
Hypnosis is only for the richaV.
The 1800s
Big shift!
Stopped being mean to mentally ill
Treatment: Tuke (moral therapy) keep spirits (moral) up
The maddness of king george (good movie)
Locked up
Pinel (Humane Treatment) took off the shackles, nice treatment
Todd (Moral Therapy in the US) nonviolent,positive
If you are mildly ill moral therapy helps
For others tho hNging out in the country won't work!
Dix (state mental hospitals) if it didn't work, lock you up
Doctors treat them! Not psychiatrists
Development if psychiatry, specializing in psychistry to be psychiatrist,bhave it work In asylum,
pinel-started keeping case records, optimism that people will get better
Kraeplin: classification scheme (paranoia,phobias, bipolar, schizophrenia)
Charcot and Janet: hysteria and hypnosis deal with it psychologically not just drugs
Freud: influences on Freud (he stole his ideas from others)
Theories of the unconscious
Use of hypnosis : therapy used hypnosis he wasn't the first to do that!
Ideas about sexuality
Stole it all from his mentor Breuer
NR. Y ebb,,mmbb bb,


Changes in freuds approach to therapy

Hypnosis, dreams, unconscious
Physical treatments when he started out
Shock therapy for general depression, anxiety, and hysteria
Burns, loose bowl control
Hysteria: beat them with wet towels Ridicule Insert tubes into rectumHot irons on spine Remove ovaries

Hypnosis: he tried this, dropped it after a year cause it didn't work

Free association: talk freely

Dream analysis:


Why did psych move from behaviorism to cognitivism?

Changes in freuds approach to therapy
Hypnosis, dreams, unconscious
Physical treatments when he started out
Shock therapy for general depression, anxiety, and hysteria
Burns, loose bowl control
Hysteria: beat them with wet towels Ridicule Insert tubes into rectumHot irons on spine Remove ovaries

Hypnosis: he tried this, dropped it after a year cause it didn't work

Free association: talk freely

Dream analysis: