Cognitive Psych Final 14' Flashcards Preview

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Describe Atkinson and Schiffrins 1968 3 box model
What research evidence prompted Baddeley 2000 to develop a more elaborte model that had WM as non-unitary?
Describe Baddeleys model

Information processing model of memory
Atkinson and schiffrin (1968)
-Three box model
Review model in text
-control processes (I.e., memory strategies)
Rehearsal
Soooo important, influential!

Current debate
Are WM and LTM separable?
Active status: one box of what we are thinking, everything else is dormant
Is there a sensory memory?
The influential Atkinson Shiffrin model (3 box model)
Box 1:
Sensory Memory (SR)
Humans briefly 1s capture, it is lost unless attention is applied...if attention is applied it goes to box 2 if attention is applied it goes to box 2 Working memory (Limited) Can be lost! Or if attention is applied it goes to box 3 Long term memory
Process it and can work on it
Can retrieve it
Working memory approach (Baddeley)
Pointed out that early research was just span task focused
Lacks ecological validity
Use memory to store and process information
WMis used to store and process info
88+96 in your head have to store and manipulate
WM often uses inputs from external environment and info retrieved from LTM
WM is not unitary (Baddeley, 2000) (Baddeley 2000)
WM is not unitary, has multiple components
Research shows people can handle two tasks at the same time pretty well
Handle Digit span task and spatial task with little interference
Working memory includes several components that can operate somewhat independently
Group 1
Spatial task, Letters: A, B which is closest to z
Group 2
Spatial task and digit span
Letters and 8 digit long span list
Both groups were Equally accurate
Group 2: 1 sec slow
Visuospatial sketchpad: Organizing, Create graphs and figure,Mental representation
Episodic buffer: Store visual representation as you describe it with language
Central executive: Planning what you will write, Switch from translating to reading, Inhibiting repetitive sentences, Knowledge of semantics
Long term memory: Knowledge of conventions, Knowledge of semantics and spelling
Phonological loop: Reading text so far, Translating, Revising at sentence level

1

Wilhelm Wundt used introspection:
Behaviorists ignored the "Black Box"
Modern cognitive psychologists use indirect measures:


Fully explain each statement
Why and how has cognitive psychology evolved?

1879 Wilhelm Wundt founded psychology. He used introspection to understand thinking. He tried to ask his participants to do this objectively.He was the founder/father of Psychology
Introspect: look within and say it
After some time there were some issues with this approach: some thinking is too fast, too unconscious
Eye tracking equipment reveals fixations (saccades) but we think we glance evenly left to right
So this idea that we can objectively report is subjective not objective!
We were read a transcript of hiw a revision could go...not clear thinking, easy to get side tracked. So third problem reporting interferes with the task (thinking)
Systematic analysis of inner human thought processes
1900s behaviorism arose
John Watson, a behaviorist,mag reed that the mind is unknowable and called it a black box.
1956 MIT conference was the turning point tomodern day psychology. . Psychologists were interested in looking inside the mind.
Mid 1970s looking at response time and accuracy to look at the mind indirectly
Cognitive revolution: Emergence of modern cognitive psychology
After awhile the limits of behaviorsm were noticed
Psychologists realized that unlike animals (pigeons) humans interpret the stimulus based on their own understandings...beliefs, memories, thinking and feelings guide the behavior NOT just a stimulus.
Example: one child is afraid of spiders the other lives it!
In 1956 the MIT conference (meeting of psychologists, linguistics, and computer scientists)
Noam Chomsky: language is too complex to be understood through stimulus and response Piaget: behaviorism discounted because you can't get in their mind!
People said we have to use an indirect method to look at the participants thinking
Accuracy of people's responses
Look at the mistakes: what does this reflect in their thinking?
Response time
How fast you respond
Really quick response to one word but slower on another
Mid 1970s,the cognitive approach is predominant
Computer scientists were present at the conference
Study the mind indirectly
Compare mind to computer: information processing approach
Both systems are limited
The influential Atkinson Shiffrin model (3 box model)
Box 1:
Sensory Memory (SR)
Humans briefly 1s capture, it is lost unless attention is applied...if attention is applied it goes to box 2 if attention is applied it goes to box 2 Working memory (Limited) Can be lost! Or if attention is applied it goes to box 3 Long term memory
Process it and can work on it
Can retrieve it
Emergence of cognitive neuroscience
Cognitive psych task performed while brain is being scanned or imaged
When doing a retain task what dies the pattern if activation look like
When we compare kids who are composing a story
One way is to tell a story and some writes it
One way is to type
One way is writing
Found that writing has most activity
But what dies that mean!
Correlational...how do you interpret it?
Brain lesions: how do they effect cognition
Example: tumor, blow to the head, a stroke
Try to associate the damage with a thing they can't do! (Some deficit)
This approach is not precise. Often when you have damage it is damaged in multiple locations Technology used to study activity in the brain when performing cognitive tasks: PET scan, fMRI, and EEG (ERP technique)

2

3 components of the Writting process according to Hayes and flower (1980)

Under researched
Cognitively complex
Visual processing
Use attention, memory, Metacognition, incredibly comprehensive of cognitive processes
Much more difficult than speaking
Delayed feedback
Rule bound
Learn speech first
Speaking is more automatic
Three main components of writing: planning, translating, and reviewing (revising)
Coordinated by the central executive
Recursive: no linear order, freely switch between the three

3

Is there a critical period for second language acquisition?

Is there a critical period for SLA (second language acquisition)?
It depends on what aspect of language you are talking of
Semantics: nope
Phonology: yes! If you don't learn sounds of a language early on than you have an ascent
Grammar studies suggest no. Fledge et al. (1999)
Korean to English
Not so well, got there though through education

Spanish/Dutch to English
Do pretty well
Grammar is similar

4

Problem solving heuristics

Problem solving involves moving from ones initial state to a good state by dealing with obstacles

Daily problems: we solve them without even realizing how many you have solved
Have a goal
Obstacles, goal state, initial starting state

Problem solving 4 main components
1. Define problem
Element, root, core of problem
2. Select a strategy
3. Monitor progress along the way
Not enough progress, different approach
4. Evaluate solution
Choosing a strategy
Algorithm: highly systematic, exhaustive approach that is often inefficient
"Hangman"
Heuristic: using a general rule that is efficient and likely to yield the correct answers
RSTLN : most common letters in word reach conclusion of hangman quicker
1. Heuristics: solve by analogy (think of previous, similar problem and use the same approach)
Ex: applying what you see in nature to make a robot (elephant drunk to robot arm)

Need good sense of general structure of the problem
2. Means-ends analysis: break the problem into sub problems with subgoals
Ex: Tower of Hanoi
Difficult to temporarily move further away from goal when necessary
Ex: job, volunteering doesn't seem to help with psych but it builds a resume
3. Hill-climbing strategy (make choices as you go that seem to get you closer to the goal)
Focuses on near term at possible cost of long term benefits
Ex: going to school to get a job
No clue on degree but see that school helps get you there

5

Describe what an Implicit memory task is

Explicit vs implicit
Explicit: measure intentional memory
Know memory is being tested, asked to remember
Recognition or recall tasks
Actively trying to remember

Implicit: unaware you are being tested on memory, and not trying to remember

Implicit: Shown list of words, asked to fill in blanks in a world on list or to name a certain type if word and are promed to use a list on word
Do better on implicit vs explicit
Passive vs active

In schools we are constantly stressing EXPLICIT tacks but we are not capturing all of what the students know

6

Discuss implicit association testsy

X

7

Mental set

Mental set: keep trying same solution they have used in previous problems

8

Insight problem solving

Initially problem seems impossible and then a correct approach aha experience happens
Sudden insight, knowledge
Sometimes top down interferes with it
The aha experience
-gestalt: look at as a whole
-role of incubation: sit and simmer, take a break, sleep on it and boom it comes to you
-top down processing may interfere with insight
-quit trying to make it happen just let it
Insight problems: usually you look at problems and have no idea on how yo sol it
" the aha!" Experience occurs when you have a sudden realization of the solution to the problem or how to solve the problem
It helps to look at the problem as a whole (Gestalt) or to sleep on it and face the problem with new eyes the following day (Role of incubation)
Although some psychologists disapprove of the incubation method.
Top down processing may interefere with insight problem solving

9

Representativeness heuristic used for decision making

Kaheman and tversky
Study decision making heuristics
Heuristic: efficient approach that typically gives you a good answer
We often make good decision
But its important to be aware of the errors
Representativeness heuristic: When our decision involves judging whether a sample is similar to the population from which it is drawn
-does the outcome seem likely given the population from which it's drawn
Errors can often occur because we fail to consider
Sample size: could be a fluke
Base rate: got to get the full picture 50 has car trouble but 130 didn't
That the probability of the conjunction if two events is always less than the probability of just one
Combination of two is more likely than just one trait