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Flashcards in Final Exam- Cognitive Psychology Deck (72):


Results in an inability to detect individual differences among faces


It's harder to analyze a passive voiced sentence than an active one. It is easier to analyze a sentence that makes sense than one that doesn't. This all supports..

Semantics as a guide to parsing


Top-down processing

Perceive what we expect to perceive. Influence of expectation.



Functional magnetic resonance imaging, noninvasive technique that allows cognitive neuroscientists to study processing by the intact brain


Damage to hippocampus

Results in disruption in encoding new memories


Recognition testing

Recognizing an item as being previously seen


Essential feature of parallel distributed processing (PDP)

New concepts are learned via connection weights that cause a pattern of activation


Changes in neural activity when reading can be measured by

PET (Position Emission Tomography)


Brain injury to junction of the temporal and parietal lobes results in

Grammatical speech but poor language comprehension


Sensory memory can either be..

Echoic(auditory) memory, Iconic (Auditory) memory, or when attention is applied it can become short term memory


Short term memory can become

Working memory or long term


Long term memory can become

Short term memory again


What is the capacity of short term memory?

Interference = 50% after 3 seconds
No interference + rehearsal = forever
No interference + no rehearsal = 30 s


Long term memory types

Explicit: recall/recognition consciously trying
Episodic: life experiences, life events
Semantic: meaning if words, general knowledge, people, places, things

Implicit: unconscious
Procedural: how to do physical activity


Explicit long term memory

recall/recognition consciously trying
Episodic: life experiences, life events
Semantic: meaning if words, general knowledge, people, places, things
Declarative (explicit)
Fact (semantic)
Medial temporal lobe


Implicit long term memory

Procedural: how to do physical activity
Non declarative (Implicit)
Simple classical conditioning
Emotional responses
Skeletal musculature
Procedural skills and habits
Non associative


How to test explicit long-term memory

Consciously/intentionally try to encode and remember information
Recall: essays, reiterate it, harder
Recognition: multiple choice, see the word and know it


How are memories stored?

Memories stored ventral
Hippocampus activates it
Fires together wired together
15 to 20 years don't need hippocampus


Types of Explicit Long Term Memory

Nondeclarative (Implicit)
Simple classcal conditioning
Emotional responses
Skeletal muscluator
Declarative (explicit)
Fact & Event
Medial temporal lobs



Unconsciously more likely to say something because you were made to.


Examples of mental imagery

Visual: visual spatial Sketchpad
Auditory: phonological loop
In everyday life, when do you us it?
It's difficult to study cause it's in your head
Overt: outward
Covert: hidden


5 Themes

Theme 1 Cog processes are active not passive
Passive (Behaviorists) wait until stimulus arrives then respond
Active (Cog Approach) says people look fir info 3 memory needs you to feed it information to process
Theme 2 Cog Processes are efficient and accurate
Right decision can lead to wrong outcome
Can't remember everything
Theme 3 Cog processes handle positive info better than negative info
What is vs what isn't
Theme 4 Cog processes are interrelated with one another
Requires perception, memory, knowledge + language
Theme 5 Many rely on both bottom to up and top to bottom
Bottom up and top down processing
Bottom up: input comes in goes to sensory, comes into senses being processed
Top down: what you already know, Doesn't require any input


What is the form of images?

Two theories
1. Analog code: mental imagery is like perception. Same parts if mind used. Occipital lobe to ventral. Processing what it Is ( example: would be looking at a picture if a process what it is) pictorial representation.
Steven kosslyn
2. Propositional code: mental imagery is not like perception. Language based, process picture visibly but you'd store it more as language (puppy is furry, has four legs, tail) activating. Yes you have a picture but it came from all the areas where you process language.
Zenon Pylyshyn
Encoding: Visual information to propositions to longterm memory
Retrieval: visual information from. Propositions from long term memory
Pictorial representation is Epiphenomenal (real experience but not happening how you think it's happening, underlying things)


First mental imagery study

(Shepard and Metzler, 1971)
Accuracy and reaction time
Say if two images are same or are different, measure reaction time
How many degrees did participants rotate the image
Can't be 360or above
Angle of rotation increases so does the reaction time
First way to get in peoples mind
More evidenced
Kosslyn 1978
Reaction time measured
Picture black spec going to beach part if map
Blue and green lights don't make green! That's just PROPOSITIONAL. Use language blue and yelped is thought of as green
Examine cu
Whs. go use r
Charles and reisberg 1985
Evidence for propositional
Images looking lie two animals
Imagery more difficult
Perception easier: seeing what it is
Are perception and imagery giving the same results?
Reinterpreting ambiguous images
Evidence against analog, for propositional
The compromise
....check hand out
Paivio: dual coding theorist..we have a non verbal system
VSSP and phonological loop
Direct visual and ah sulfide: wirds spelt back ways kHz
Neuroscience evidence: visual
If the analog theory is true, what neuroscience evidence would you expect when comparingercpion and imagery?
What areas are active with prepositional:
How do neuroscience techniques avoid demand characteristics?maybe participants are doing what they think is wanted of them rNeuropsych evidence: lesion data
Patient C.K.
Car accident
Damage to occipital lobe. Both hemispheres left and right
Normally with one side the other makes up for it
Perception test results: shown picture of rhino, beaver and tennis racket and classified them as wrong
Similar to object egnosia Semantic dementia
Ventral stream damaged
Could perceive letters and write them but he had alexia he can copy the words but doesn't know the semantics of it
A B flipped 90 degrees to the left...triangle underneath, take line away, he knows its a heart but not if he sees it just in his head
Perceptio damaged
Imagery not
Fires together wired together
Hippocampus still intact


Problem solving:

start at initial state and get to goal state by overcoming obstacles



problem solving that is: novel,high quality, useful



use the laws of logic to make a conclusion based on given information


Decision making:

assess and choose among several alternatives



Applied to problem solving, whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Ah hah phenomenon: look at two vases then ah hah! See two faces too(insight)
Ambiguous images
Studied by behaviorists, trial and error (non insight)
Insight: riddles, ah hah moment
Model of problem solving (Newell and Simon 1972)
GPS model
Read/ hear/ think of problem
Encode problem: interpret
Search for strategies
Execute strategies
Compare current state with goal state
Match: done
Mismatch: go back
Is the problem well defined at all stages? Did you have enough info to solve it? Do have strategies? Do you know the goals?
Two main strategies: algorithms and heuristics
Algorithm: set if rules that if used correctly lead to the correct solution. Figuring someone's PIN by going through all combinations, systematic
Problems: slow, labor intensive
Heuristics: quick, but diesnt always lead to correct solutions. Evidence against theme 2, not always accurate, used birthday to figure out pin
Problems: get to a good estimation but it's not perfect


Five types of heuristic strategies

1. Trial and Error heuristics
Doesn't always work
Works bt wen there's a final end state
2. Hill climbing heuristic
Choose short term solutions to get to goal rather than alternative long term solution
Get a good job, and get a good job
3. Means-ends Heuristic
Determine sub problems "ends"
Good one to use
Can help with long term goals
4. Work backward
Lost keys
5. Analogy approach
Problem isomorphs: surface features are different and deep features are the same


Three reasons why heuristics don't always lead to correct solution

Over active top down processing: based on previous experiences use same heuristic but it's not the best to use
In words they are alphabetical
Stick to mental set
Functional fixedness
Box can hold a candle but it can also be a shelf
Impose non-existent constraints


What makes experts so good at problem solving?

Read/hear problem > encode problem > search for strategies > execute appropriate strategies > compare current state with goal state > done or if it's mismatch go back to one if the previous step
Only helps if it has meaning, one domain is better but not all
Example: Chess players



It's novel, high quality, useful
Remote association test: how do words associate with eachother
The more remote the elemements the more creative the process


Eyewitness testimony

Misinformation effect: loftus et al 1978)
Saw series of pictures, half had stop half yield
Give testimony
Did another car pass the red Datsun while it was stopped at the stop sign?
Yield sign? Stopped at the yield? Inconsistent!


Retrograde amnesia vs anterograde amnesia

Retrograde: past information can't be remembered because of lesion hippocampus
Anterograde: future information can't be remembered because of lesion in
Retrograde interference: new letters interfere with the old
Proactive: old information interferes with the new, release from proactive interference in which the introduction of new information makes new info easier to remember
Prospective: what we will do is trying to be remembered
Retrospective: trying to remember past


Ways to improve LTM

Chapter 3 attention
Selective, focused
Chapter 4 working memory
Different types of info, categories
Phonological loop, Broco Vernoqie
Episodic bunker: bear juggling
Chapter 5 long term memory
deep processing like:
Self reference
Shallow like:
Serial position: primacy (long term) and recency (working memory)
Distributed practice vs mass
Levels of process
Deeper process
Encoding specificity
Encode and retrieve it in the same emotional and physical state Mnemonics using imagery
Keyword method
Use imagery to try to learn new words
Prospective memory
Internal memory aids:
External memory: write it!


Ways to test creativity

divergent thinking
Alternative uses task (Divergent production)
Name as many uses of a shoe, iron, brick
Fluency: smoothly thinking
Originality: not common in comparison to others
Flexibility: different categories


Logical reasoning:

deductive: decrease in your conclusion. Start from general statement and apply to specific conclusion
Can make guaranteed conclusion based on assumptions
Example: all animals are alive, a dog is alive
inductive: specific observations expands to general conclusion
Can make probable conclusion based on observations
Abductive: observe a conclusion and infer the probable explanation
Bob failed the exam because he didn't study


Deductive reasoning:

conditional statement
Conditional statement: if you have a PhD In psychology, then you must know a lot about psychology
Antecedent. Consequent
Affirm.Person has PhD,know a lot about psych Person knowpsych, no logical conclusion
Deny. No phd, no logical conclusionDoesn't know about psych, no phd
If there is an A, there is a 3 on the other side
Flip A, affirm antecedent
3, affirm consequent
Flip 7, deny consequent
D, deny antecedent
Confirmation bias: less likely to occur with concrete, real life examples
Functional fixedness: see one thing and can only see one function
Framing effect, if you say 15 off for a 30 calculator is seems more appealing then 15 off 130 because it's no longer half off


Three heuristics ( mental shortcuts)

Base decision on how well we think a sample represents the population from where it came
50% chance in roulette, if you keep getting red then you think it has to be one or the other for some reason but it's still the same odds!
2. Availability heuristic
Base decision on ability to call examples to mind
What you have heard about more
3. Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Base decision on anchor (single starting point) and adjustment from that value


What is cognitive psych?

Study of mental processes
Conscious thought processes
Low level mental processes -> high level mental processes
Perception. Working memory General knowledge Mental imagery
Attention. Long term memory. Language comprehension. Problem solving
Memory strategies Language production Decision making


6 main approaches to psychology

Watson and skinner
Reinforcements and punishment
Super ego
Best self
Hierarchy of mallows needs
Carl Rodgers


How do we recognize objects that we see?

Difficult task because objects:
Example: chairs
Viewing angle
Separate objects from each other and from the background
Gestalt principles of organization (Germany, 1935)
Things that at close together are grouped as an object
Good continuation
Even where it's cut off you know there's more
Illusory contours
Object recognition
Influential theory
Irving Biederman (late 1980s)
Recognition by components theory: just the are 26 letters that make up many different words there are 33 geons that make up many different objects
Example: Single cell recording on animals,one in ventral stream of monkey...the what it is
Ventral stream processes what we see
Higher bars : more active
Different geons are active depending on what's being processed
There is so much variety in shape if geon
influence if top down processing on perception
Reading misspelled words into the correct words based on past experience
Not true if words you don't see often
change blindness
Da- both
Ba- sound
Ga- visual


Working memory(1974-current)

Evidence for different WM components
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Method similar to Brown/Peterson &Petterson
Method similar to Brown/Peterson & Peterson
Present series of numbers (0 to 8)
Follow with T/F spatial reasoning task
Accuracy: 5% error rate regardless of how many numbers
Reaction Time: only 1/2 sec longer for T/F task with 8 numbers compared to 0 numbers
How does this differ from George Miller (1956)

WM model: Baddeley & Hitch, 1974
Visuospatial Sketchpad (what you see in your mind) -> central executive -> phonological loop, acoustic confusions: tend to make confusions more when sounds in their phonological loop sound similar
Interference: hold series of words in mind but are asked to say something at the same tine

Neurological evidence: PL (1980s,1990s)
Brocas: produce and imagining language
Visuospatial Sketchpad: croak block test miller & Corsi
Experiment: point to series of blocks, experimenter remembers block number using Phonological loop, the participant doesn't know number, tests theirs spatial memory
Corsi block spatial -> visual pattern test, no interference..which suggests that two stores in VSSPP
Visual form, visual cache
Spatial, innerscribe
Neurological evidence: VSSP
What: ventral
Where: dorsal
Courtney et al, 1996
WM for faces vs location
faces - ventral,
location- dorsal, occital into parietal
Central executive
What allows us to switch attention, attending to one inhibiting the other...planning goals
Frontal lobe
Refer to loose leaf paper


4 approaches to studying cognitive psychology

Temporal: what time
Spatial: where
Ett: measures electric activity of skull
Erp: stimulus
Single cell recordings: on,y done in nonhumans, drilling hole in brain (v1) placed in visual cortex ( first place whe info goes) what do those neurons respond to? Lines
2. Cognitive neuroscience approach
Determine brain activity (spatial and temporal aspects) during normal human cognition
EEG (1929) to study event related potentials (ERPs)
Single cell recordings
Positron emission topography PET (1979)
Invasive because you inject radioactive substance, less than smoker
Neurons use oxygen (used (neurons have been active) and not used) blood (to brain)(radioactive) carries oxygen
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 1985
Activate or deactivate small portion of the brain
Any wire also has a magnetic field
What happens when you take away a brain area
People with depression have an under active portion if brain
Dies what ECT did but without electrocuting them :)
TMS can help with depression but only up to 2 weeks
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) 1990
Decade of the brain
spatial aspects
Temporal: how well can we see? At what point of time are they active?
Single cell recording: hear firing of the cell..tells specifics of tuning
Pet: where active
How quickly neurons fire
ERPs: poor spatial resolution; simple cognitive tasks
Single cell: on,y single neuron; mostly animals
PET: invasive; indirect measure; poor temporal resolution
Pet: only looki gat oxygen that is used in the blood
TMS: safety, on,y outer brain; unclear spatial resolution
FMRI is also indirect
Can resolve some of the controversies in cognitive psych
Example: visual imagery debate (analog vs. propositional) ch 7
3. Cognitive neuropsychology approach
Pattern of cognitive performance in patients Braun lesions
Assume anatomical modularity and uniformity
Uniformity: same areas in same spot
Modularity: do the same activity
Seek double dissociations: find different person with same lesion but different affect
Example: broca warninicks
Lesion in frontal lobe but can
Paul Broca (1861) brocas area
Brenda Miller (1957) HM
Removed frontal lobe so can't form new memories
Lesions are rarely perfect: can affect different parts
Compensation through plasticity
When blind people read brail they recruite visual cortex
Other individual differences: age, gender, and experience
Sill very powerful tool for understanding human cognition
Clive wearing: lose short term memory
4. Computational cognitive science approach
Program computers to mimic human cognition
Different from artificial intelligence
Deep Blue (chess); Watson (jeopardy)
Processing a lot of info just trying to beat humans!
They do one thing and can do it really wel
You Had Me At Hello ( watch good movie)
Examples of computer programs mimicking human cognition
Simon and Newell (1959)
Anderson (1993)
ACT: Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational
Connecticut models (1980s) PDP models
Parallel distributed processing
Connection of models
Characteristics: Nodes; Connections that excite/inhibit, pattern of activation (distributed) leads to outcome
Precursor: DO Hebb (1949) hebbian learning
What fires together, wires together
4. Computational cognitive science approach
Rarely make predictions (just model behavioral and brain data)
Connectionist models not really like brain
1000 nodes in model vs. 100 billion neurons in human brain
De-emphasizes motivation/emotion factors
still provide overarching framework to make sense of cognitive processes
Best approach
Most research involves 2 or more
Eachapproach has strengths and weaknesses
Best approach: converging (come together) operations
Use several approaches to study an issue
Exams: ADHD..uses neuropsych, computational, experimental, cog neuro


Basic steps of perception

Perception: acquisition and processing of sensory information (sight, touch, taste, hear, smell)
Reception > tansduction > coding



what allows us to take in light from our environment?
Retina takes it in and the rising cone process it
Inner ear (cochlea)
axons, without which you'd never know what your sensing
V1: orientation and movement
V2 and v3: form
MT/V5: motion
Lacking color vision
akinetoposa: can't feel


Ventral and dorsal visual processing streams

Ventral stream damage
Lacking the ability to understand people's face
Visual object agnosia
Lacking the ability to recognize objects
Dorsal stream damage
Can only process one thing at a time, don't see the story or connections between what is being seen
Optic ataxia
Not able to see object and grab it


Visual cortex: the binding problem

The binding problem: how do all of these distributed features get grouped into coherent objects separated from other objects and separated from other objects and separated from the background?
May be synchronization of neural activity across cortical areas
Not the whole story...still unknown


History of cog psych

Late 1800s
Father if experimental psychology- Wilhelm Wundt, Germany
Introspection, problem because its subjective
What pieces are need? What are the parts?

First US psychologist- William James
Principles of psychology
Functionist- not what the parts are but what can they do? What is the purpose?
First memory exam-Herman Ebbinghavs
Used nonsense words to test his memory to connections
20 minutes lose half memory of them
Quick decrease in memory on nonsense words


History of Working Memory


Sensory memory: lost, stops here
Attention: leads to...
Short term (passive, unitary) working memory (active multiple components)
Long term
What is the difference between STM and WM in cognitive psychology?
1974 is the dividing line
Before 1974: Short term
George Miller, Atchinson-Shiffrin
1974: Baddeley WM model influential
George Miller: capacity, how much you can store
7+or - 2
based on work of pollack, 1953
Assign numbers to pitches
Identify pitches by number
2: 4 tones, 3: 8 tones (Handout)
Level out at about 6
Based on work of Garner, 1953
Assign numbers to varying loudness
Identify loudness by number
2 loudness is about 5, and that fits the model!
Based on Beebe, 1955
Assign numbers to varying saltiness
Identify by number
Level at 4
Hake and Garner, 1951
Assign numbers to pts on line
10 bits of info leveled out


Double dissociations in memory

Could HM complete implicit
Procedural memories
Retrograde amnesia
Clive wearing
Viral encephalitis in head, virus
Has his language, memories before


More about episodic memories: Autobiolographical memories

Flashbulb memories: vivid memory about an emotional memory
Memories are not always accurate
Constructed constructivist: Bartlett don't have perfect memories we change our memories to fit schemes
Challenge explosion, Flashbulb memories just as accurate as ordinary memories
Recent memories vs looking back two years later
Difference in details, flashbulb memory not accurate
Flashulb memories are not different from ordinary
Rehearsal, self reference, distinct for those ther


Mental imagery

Visual: how to get to class or where you put your keys
Auditory: listen to song and imagine it in your head
Have to recreate the experience in your mind
Olfactory: smell making you nostalgic
Not present all in mind
Gustatory: tasting, imagine tasting a lemon
Somatosensory: think of how the suns warmth feels


What is general knowledge?

Factual, semantic information


Gaining general knowledge requires formation of categories and concepts

Child has a schematic of his mom
Bathes him
Hugs him
When he sees something new he will use his schemas
Assimilation: using your previous knowledge and doing best you can
Babysitter being called a mom
Accommodation: forming the new schema
Sees a new babysitter and now recognizes as a babysitter
Category: group of objects we consider similar
Used for survival
Concept: mental representation of category
Uses past experiences


How are categories and concepts stored in the mind?

Five theories (all probably true)
1. Feature comparison model
We store lists of features of categories in semantic memory
A canary is a bird
Bird is the category
Birds have
Canary is a bird because it has the features of a bird
Typicality effect: categorized quicker because it has more features and is a typical common example of category
Penguin doesn't fly so takes longer to categorize
Sentence verification technique
DV: Reaction time
Prediction: penguin will take longer
Low similarity: false, fast reaction time
High similarity: true, fast reaction time
Intermediate similarity: slow reaction time
2. Prototype approach
Eleanor Rosch
Instead of list of features, store a prototype of a category
Prototype: typical representative item
Graded structure
Within a category
Continuum from prottypical to non prototypical
Ice cream: Chocolate
Beer: yuengling (hop
Pizza topping: pepperoni
Prototypes are special
Supplied as examples of categories
Greatest family resemblance to other members (Ludwig Wittgenstein used the example of games, 1900s)
Games: monopoly is a good prototype
Up to 4 players
More easily primed
See the word Red and have an image of what it looks like so when you see it you are quicker to recognize it as red
Prototype model
Vertical structure: category levels
Superordinate-level category
Ice cream is Dessert
Basic-level category
Ice cream
Subordinate-level category
Ben and Jerry's
Basic level category is special too!
Quickly identify object
More easily primed
Different levels activate different brain regions
PFC/Frontal lobe
Superordinate -> basic
subordinate -> basic
Experts vs. Novices
Problems with prototype model
Change over time
Store abstract concepts rather than specifics
3. Exemplar approach
Stores specific examples of a category
Requires too much info so used for specific categories
Tropical fruits instead of storing ALL fruits
When people decide if something is part of a Superordinate category, do they use specific examples (exemplars) or prototypes?
From 1 to 10 is this an animal
Bird: 10
Fish: 8
Insect: 5
How do we make this judgement?
Do we use exemplars or prototypes to make our decision?
Evidence for exemplar view
Parts given basic category -> asked to give example
Bird: robin, blue jay, eagle 8
Fish: trout, gold fish, bass 7
Insect: ant, mosquito, bee 3
Do we use examplars to judge category membership (animals)?
Linear regression
Y = mx + b
X: GRE, GPA, work effort
Can only look at one at a time
Multiple linear regression
Has more than one x variable
Y = variable 1 + variable 2 + B
Y: prediction (is a bird a typical animal?)
M1x1: variable 1 (Exemplars of birds)
M2x2: variable 2 (typicality of exemplar of animals)
4. Network models (PDP)
5. Distributed plus hub theory (cog neuro)
Anterior (frontal) lobe
Evidence from people with semantic dementia (SD)
Categorized pictures?
Animal? (Superordinate)
Dog? (Basic)
Normal: fastest and easiest
Lab? (Subordinate)
Normal can do all of this
Severe SD: Superordinate, basic okay and subordinate great difficulty
Mild: lower basic rate
Hub: grabs scattered details, fall back on prototype
Hippocampus: medial temporal lobe, inner part if temporal lobe...important to mane connections for memories..makes sense that next to it the extraction of



Dysgraphia and agraphia
Dys: difficulty
A: no


How do other cognitive processes contribute to language?

Object recognition (visual and auditory)
Attention Selective attention
Executive functioning needed
Distributed/divided attention
Reading: orienting network
parietal lobe needed
Working memory: read hold entire sentence
Phonological loop, when reading
Auditory component
Episodic buffer: phonological loop, visual Sketchpad
Long term memory
Semantic info: word meanings
Metacognition: listening or reading but don't understand
Memory strategies
Semantic memory
Theme: interrelated
Chapter review 1, 5, 10


History of psycholinguistic: study of language processing in mind

Acquisition: how it is learned
Noam Chomsky
BF Skinner: "verbal behavior" 1957
External environment
Tabula rosa: blank slate
John Locke: blank slate
Behaviorist: observable, overt


Empirical evidence

Bradshaw and nettleton , 1974
Read first silently, second aloud
Said- braid
Tough- rough
Love- move

Luo et al. , 1998
Are 2 semantically related?. (Similar meaning)
Made more errors with homophones (testing sound route, things sound similar so you think they are)
Dual access hypothesis: characteristics of material, long words sounded out...shirt words sight words,,,familiar ones go by sight
Characteristics of the reader: second graders would sound out, skilled use sight


Chapter 10: language production and bilingualism

Bilingualism: allows better progression and deter alteheimers
How many languages in the world? 7,000, most in South America and Africa...isolation. Australia the same thing all these tribes have their own language
3 most common: mandarin, Spanish, English,
What languages are spoken in USA? Native American, French, Spanish, creole, Gullah island


Dialect vs. Accent

Dialect includes different phonology, grammar, vocabulary, prosody (rhythm and intonation)
Accent includes only phonology
Prosody: tone
Rhythm: speed
Parapraxes: Freudian slip
Phonology and phonetics -> morphology -> syntax -> Discourse



Phonological slips: anticipation (landma getter)
preservation phone phlan
spoonerism Blake fruid
Morphological slips: were.not the only one with screw loses
Lexical slip: switching words either phonologically mediated or semantically
What are you incinerating?


History of Psychologistics

B.F. Skinner "verbal behavior" 1957
Noam Chomsky critique 1959
Mind contains rules for language
Universal language innate
Disagreed with behaviorists
Observable (not mind)
Tabula rosa
Chomskys transformational grammar
Rules in our mind that allow us to move from surface structute language (words on page) to deep (kernel) structure meaning (the words meaning)
Transformation based on rules
Cognitive revolution
How does the mind process language
Surface structure
The chicken is ready to eat
Two meanings: the chicken is hungry vs. The chicken is the meal
Deep (Kenel) structure
The boy kissed the girl
The girl was kissed by the boy
Passive vs active


Psychololinguistics: level of analysis

Sound > words
Words > combing words (sentences)
Sentences > paragraph/story telling

Discourse (first, middle, last of the paragraphs)
Syntax (sentences created) (rules
Phonology: study of how we use sound in language
Phonetics: objective qualities of sound
has two morphemes
S, plural
4 sounds
Combining sentences
Combining words
Choosing your words, length, ect based on social rules
Chomsky is interested in syntax (rules of grammar)


Factors that influence comprehension

Four things that influence comprehension
Clark and Chase (1972)
Letters on top of each other
B is above A
Above and below has a negative connotation to it
D isn't above A
Anything with "not" is negative
Longer to process
Passive voice
The car was driven by Mia
Working memory
More info to hold
Wait till end to see who
Not how we learned it, working memory
More accurate and faster at comprehending active
Active > subject > verb > object
Mia dove the car = active
Nested structure
"This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that jack built"
Clearest writing, easy words, easy sentence structure
One sentence structure but two deep alternative structures
The chicken is ready to eat
Hungry chicken or dinner?
Saccadic eye movements
Saccade data
Increased fixation time (how long you focus) and regressions (going back to a previously seen word)
Usually focus on ambiguous word
Local high school drop outs cut in half
PDP model?
Cold cuts


Model of reading

Printed letters -> sound -> Meaning
For some words we see the letters, access sounds, from sounds we access meaning (indirect access hypothesis)
Some words go right to meaning (Direct access hypothesis)
Dual route hypothesis: printed letters to meaning and oriented words to sound to meaning
Tough said because= sight words
Cataonic sadistic malignant: sound words



Mental activity, describes the acquisition, storage, transformation, and use of knowledge


Cognitive psychology

Refers to perception, memory, imagery, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making. The cognitive approach is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes people's mental process and their knowledge


Approaches to psychology (Thinking)

William James: theorized about our everyday psychological experiences, principles of psychology: detailed description about people's everyday experiences
Perception, attention, memory, reasoning, and tip of the tongue phenomenon
Ecological validity
Behaviorism: psychology must focus on objective, observable reaction to stimuli in the environment controlled experiment
John B Watson
Observable behavior
Rejected Wundt's introspection approach
Operational definition: definition that specifies exactly how a concept is measured
Gestalt psychology: emphasizes that humans have basic tendencies to actively organize what we see
Whole is greater than sum of its parts
Unity and organization
Object Wundt's introspective technique of abalyzing experiences into separate components
Criticized behaviorists emphasizes on breaking behavior into individual stimulus=response units and ignoring the context of behavior
Fredric Bartletts approach: human memory
Remembering an experiment and social study-rejected the carefully controlled research of Ebbinghaus
Lengthy stories were used: systematic errors when trying to read stories
Human memory is an active, constructive process, in which we interpret and transform the information so that it us consistent with our own experiences
Schema based approach to memory
Cognitive approach: cognitive revolution
Came about because of breakthrough in linguistics, memory, and developmental psychology
Disagreed with behaviorism- structure of language was too complex to be explained in behaviorism, clearly contradicted the behaviorist perspective that language can be explained by learning principles,Ecological validity
Chomsky-inborn ability to master as the complicated and varied aspects of language, organization of memory (proposed memory models), material was altered during memory by people's previous knowledge, behaviorism was disagreed with due to reinforcements couldn't explain this
Piaget- developmental psychology (the idea that children cognitive strategies change as they mature)
In the past was along with Aristotle focussing on perception, memory, mental imagery, and how humans acquire knowledge through experience...empirical evidence came about which is when scientific evidence is obtained by observation and experimentation aka a controlled experiment. Presently it is ecologically valid
Ebbinghaus approach: factors that influence human memory, 2,000 nonsense syllables were attempted to be memorized, amount of time between list presentations, carefully controlled


Several reasons fir increased interest in cognitive psych and decrease in behaviorism

5 cognitive neuroscience research techniques
1. Brain lesions: destruction of tissue in the Braun by strokes, tutors, or accidents
Humans? Yes
Precise? No, can not associate cog deficit w/ specific brain structure
Questions answered? Organization of brain
2. Position emission tomography: measure brain activity indirectly, blood in different regions when people perform cognitive task, inject radioactive chemical
Humans? Yes
Precise? No, scars require several seconds to produce data, not precise
Questions answered? Which regions of brain are responsible for that cognitive talk
3. Function Magnetic Resonance Imaging: takes photo of oxygen atoms while the participant performs cognitive task, measure brain activity that occurs
Humans? Yes
Precise? Yes, relatively less than 1 second, the sequence of cognitive tasks
Questions answered? Examine regions of brain that process visual info, specific locations in brain respond to letters more than numbers
4. Event-related potential technique: records brief fluctuations in brains electrical activity in response to stimulus
Precise? Yes, reasonably. Changes in the brains electrical potential
Questions answered? Identify electrical changes over brief period in specific region of the brain
5. Single-cell recording technique: study characteristics of animals brain and nervous system by inserting thin electrode into/next to single neuron
Humans? No
Precise? Yes
Questions answered? Some cells in visual cortex respond to line when presented in particular orientation
Recognizing specific patterns
Visual pattern recognition