Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (53):
What is the definition of hypertension?
The blood pressure at which the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks
What BP is Stage 1 hypertension in a clinical setting?
What BP is Stage 2 hypertension in a clinical setting?
What BP is severe hypertension in a clinical setting?
What gender is at a higher risk of getting hypertension?
What are 5 medical risk factors for Hypertension?
Previous MI or stroke
Left ventricular hypertrophy
How is blood pressure affected by age
BP rises with age
What effect does reducing salt intake have on hypertensive individuals?
It lowers blood pressure
What effect do small amounts of alcohol have on BP?
What effect do large amounts of alcohol have on BP?
What is the most important non-pharmacological measure that can be taken for treating hypertension?
What is the relationship between birth weight and hypertension?
The lower the birth weight, the higher risk for developing hypertension later in life
What is the racial influence on blood pressure?
Caucasians have lower BP than black population
What is the relationship between black populations and salt intake?
Black people are higher salt retainers
What are the effects of sustained hypertension?
End-organ damage (blood vessels, heart and kidney)
What are 3 organ-related areas of disease that can be a cause for secondary hypertension?
What are 3 types of drugs that can induce hypertension?
What condition in pregnancy can cause hypertension?
What night time respiratory condition can be a cause for hypertension?
What are 2 of the main endocrine conditions that can cause hypertension?
What blood pressure apparatus must be used to identify hypertension in the clinic?
ABPM (Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring)
What blood pressure apparatus must be used to identify hypertension at home?
HBPM (Home blood pressure monitoring)
What 2 actions should be taken in clinic when hypertension is identified?
Assess end organ damage
Screen for treatable causes
What is the stepped approach?
To use low doses of medication and add on to the current medication as opposed to changing it
What are the 4 main categories of drug treatments for hypertensive patients?
Calcium channel blocker
Thiazide - type diuretic
When should under 80 Stage 1 hypertensives be offered treatment?
When there is an additional problem/risk factor (i.e. organ damage/diabetes)
What drug should be used as step 1 in over 55s and black people?
What drug should be used as step 1 in under 55s? (2)
What drug should be used as a step 2 in all occasions?
What is Step 3 treatment of hypertension?
CCB, ACEI and diuretic
What is step 4 treatment if the blood potassium level is 4.5mmol/l or lower?
Further diuretic with low-dose spironolactone
What is step 4 treatment if the blood potassium level is higher than 4.5mmol/l?
High does thazide diuretic treatment
What is the the function of ACE inhibitors?
Competitively inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
What is the function of ACE?
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
What are 2 examples of ACE inhibitors?
What are 2 contraindications of ACEI?
Renal artery stenosis
What are 3 adverse drug effects of ACEI?
What is the function of ARBs?
Angiotensin II antagonists that competitively block the actions of angiotensin II
What are 2 examples of ARBs
What is a medical benefit of ARBs over ACEI?
ARBs don't produce a cough
What are the 2 types of CCB?
What are 2 examples of vasodilator CCBs?
What are 2 examples of rate limiting CCBs?
How to CCBs work?
They block L-type calcium channels which reduces cardiac output
In what demographics should vasodilating CCBs be used? (2)
Women of child bearing age
What are the contraindications for CCBs (1) and those specific to rate limiting CCBs? (2)
(Heart failure, bradycardia)
What are 4 adverse drug reactions reactions of CCBs?
What are 2 adverse drug reactions specific to rate limiting CCBs?
What are 2 examples of thiazide-type diuretics?
How do thiazide-type diuretics work?
They block reabsorption of sodium and enhave urinary sodium loss
What are 2 adverse drug reactions of thiazide-type diuretics?
What hypertension drugs should be used during pregnancy? (2)