Flashcards in Immunology Deck (40):
Lymphocytes and Macrophages
Will attack if doesn't recognize (foreign objects).
Made in bone marrow then travel to thymus. Recognize small cancer (antigens) cells and destroy them.
Destroy the target cell by binding to antigen and releasing enzymes and chemicals which destroys cell.
Killer T Cells
Remains in lymph nodes for years ready to activate response if invading cell returns.
Memory T Cells
T Cells attack foreign objects such as tumor cells and virus cells.
Natural Killer Cells
Produced in bone marrow then moved to spleen and lymphoid tissue. After exposure to antigen they become anti-body producing cells.
First exposure to antigen, antibodies or T cells are developed, and takes several days to weeks.
Repeat exposure occurs. Memory cells stimulate production of large numbers of matching anti-bodies or T cells quickly.
Immunity is acquired ____ & ____?
Actively and passively
Antibodies developed after direct exposure to antigen.
Active natural immunity
Antibodies stimulated by a vaccine.
Active artificial immunity
Antibodies transferred from breastmilk or across placenta.
Passive natural immunity
Injection of antibodies from person or animal into a second person. Example: Rabies
Passive artificial immunity
Body's reaction immediately during or after transplant?
Body's reaction several weeks later to transplant?
Body's reaction months to years later to transplant?
Decreases immune response to prevent rejection.
Is a common environmental antigen which stimulates an inappropriate immune response.
Occurs in nasal mucosal. Sneezing, watery nose/eyes, itching, and typically seasonal.
Chronic with genetic component, typically occurs on face, trunk, and extremities.
Allergic reaction to bronchial mucosa.
Life-threatening systemic reaction. Decreased blood pressure, airway obstruction, and severe hypoxia.
Block response of tissues to histamine.
Decreased immune response and stabilized vascular system.
Primarily affects females 20 to 40 years old. Chronic inflammatory disease.
SLE. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Butterfly rash, joint inflammation, pleurisy, and carditis.
Signs and symptoms of SLE
How many pairs of chromosomes?
How many pairs of sex chromosomes?
X linked conditions are carried on the X chromosome.
Both males and females.
Y linked conditions are carried on the Y chromosome.
Trisomy 21. Most common inherited chromosome disorder.
Decreased muscle tone, cognitive delay, and abnormal facial features.
Symptoms and Signs of Down Syndrome
Increases with maternal age and down syndrome.
More common in mothers over 35. Extra sex chromosome. 1:500-1000 male births.
Trisomy of chromosome 13. 1 in 5,000 live births. More than 5 fingers.
Total or partial lack of X chromosome. Only affects females.
Congenital heart disease. 3000 babies are born with TOF each year.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)