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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (40):
1

Lymphocytes and Macrophages

Immune Cells

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Will attack if doesn't recognize (foreign objects).

Antigens

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Made in bone marrow then travel to thymus. Recognize small cancer (antigens) cells and destroy them.

T Lymphocytes

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Destroy the target cell by binding to antigen and releasing enzymes and chemicals which destroys cell.

Killer T Cells

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Remains in lymph nodes for years ready to activate response if invading cell returns.

Memory T Cells

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T Cells attack foreign objects such as tumor cells and virus cells.

Natural Killer Cells

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Produced in bone marrow then moved to spleen and lymphoid tissue. After exposure to antigen they become anti-body producing cells.

B Lymphoctyes

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First exposure to antigen, antibodies or T cells are developed, and takes several days to weeks.

Primary response

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Repeat exposure occurs. Memory cells stimulate production of large numbers of matching anti-bodies or T cells quickly.

Secondary response

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Immunity is acquired ____ & ____?

Actively and passively

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Antibodies developed after direct exposure to antigen.

Active natural immunity

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Antibodies stimulated by a vaccine.

Active artificial immunity

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Antibodies transferred from breastmilk or across placenta.

Passive natural immunity

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Injection of antibodies from person or animal into a second person. Example: Rabies

Passive artificial immunity

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Identical Twins

Isograft

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Body's reaction immediately during or after transplant?

Hyperacute rejection

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Body's reaction several weeks later to transplant?

Acute rejection

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Body's reaction months to years later to transplant?

Chronic rejection

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Decreases immune response to prevent rejection.

Immunosuppressant therapy

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Is a common environmental antigen which stimulates an inappropriate immune response.

Allergen

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Occurs in nasal mucosal. Sneezing, watery nose/eyes, itching, and typically seasonal.

Hay Fever

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Chronic with genetic component, typically occurs on face, trunk, and extremities.

Eczema

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Allergic reaction to bronchial mucosa.

Asthma

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Life-threatening systemic reaction. Decreased blood pressure, airway obstruction, and severe hypoxia.

Anaphylactic shock

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Block response of tissues to histamine.

Antihistamine (Benadryl)

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Decreased immune response and stabilized vascular system.

Glucocorticoids

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Primarily affects females 20 to 40 years old. Chronic inflammatory disease.

SLE. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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Butterfly rash, joint inflammation, pleurisy, and carditis.

Signs and symptoms of SLE

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How many pairs of chromosomes?

22

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How many pairs of sex chromosomes?

1

31

X linked conditions are carried on the X chromosome.

Both males and females.

32

Y linked conditions are carried on the Y chromosome.

Males

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Trisomy 21. Most common inherited chromosome disorder.

Down syndrome

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Decreased muscle tone, cognitive delay, and abnormal facial features.

Symptoms and Signs of Down Syndrome

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30 1:1000
35 1:500
40 1:100

Increases with maternal age and down syndrome.

36

More common in mothers over 35. Extra sex chromosome. 1:500-1000 male births.

Klinefleter Syndrome

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Trisomy of chromosome 13. 1 in 5,000 live births. More than 5 fingers.

Patau Syndrome

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Total or partial lack of X chromosome. Only affects females.

Turner Syndrome

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Congenital heart disease. 3000 babies are born with TOF each year.

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

40

Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, intestinal lymphoid tissue, and lymphatic circulation.

Lymph structures