Immunology - infections in the immunocompromised host Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology - infections in the immunocompromised host Deck (22):
1

What's part of the innate defence system?

1) skin
2) complement
3) mucous membranes
4) Inteferons
5) Gut flora

2

What's part of the innate defence system?

1) skin
2) complement
3) mucous membranes
4) Inteferons
5) Gut flora

3

Explain how the can be a qualitative defect in the chemotaxis of neutrophils

Qualitative (lose function) e.g. chemotaxis can be defective due to
- inadequate signalling
-abnormality in receptors
-abnormal neutrophil movement

4

Explain how there can be a qualitative defect in the killing power of neutrophils

-chronic granulomatous disease.
-deficient in enzymes

5

Give examples of where there may be quantitative defects in neutrophils

-cancer treatment
-bone marrow malignancy
-aplastic anaemia caused by drugs

6

At what level does neutropenia occur?

7

What can cause T cell deficiencies

Acquired:
-drugs e.g. ciclosporin after transpant
-steroids
-HIV

8

What drug that is given after tranplant causes T cell deficiencies?

ciclosporin

9

What opportunistic pathogens may infect during T cell deficiencies?

Bacterial:
-Listeria Monocytogenes
-Mycobacteria

Viral:
-HSV
-CMV

Fungal:
-candida spp.
-cryptococcus spp.

Parasite:
-cryptospoidium parvum
-toxoplasma gondii
-Strongyloides stercoralis (nematode)

10

When can we see hypogammaglobulinaemias?

Acquired:
-multiple myeloma
-chronic lypmphocytic leukaemia,
-s.pneumoniae
-Giardia lamblia
-cryptosporidium

11

What is the role or the spleen?

-source of complement
-antibody producing B cells
-removed opsonised bacteria

12

What infection arise after splenectomy?

-streptococcus pneumoniae
-haemophilus influenza
-N.meningitidis
-malaria

13

Explain how the can be a qualitative defect in the chemotaxis of neutrophils

Qualitative (lose function) e.g. chemotaxis can be defective due to
- inadequate signalling
-abnormality in receptors
-abnormal neutrophil movement

14

Explain how there can be a qualitative defect in the killing power of neutrophils

-chronic granulomatous disease.
-deficient in enzymes

15

Give examples of where there may be quantitative defects in neutrophils

-cancer treatment
-bone marrow malignancy
-aplastic anaemia caused by drugs

16

At what level does neutropenia occur?

17

What can cause T cell deficiencies

Acquired:
-drugs e.g. ciclosporin after transpant
-steroids
-HIV

18

What drug that is given after tranplant causes T cell deficiencies?

ciclosporin

19

What opportunistic pathogens may infect during T cell deficiencies?

Bacterial:
-Listeria Monocytogenes
-Mycobacteria

Viral:
-HSV
-CMV

Fungal:
-candida spp.
-cryptococcus spp.

Parasite:
-cryptospoidium parvum
-toxoplasma gondii
-Strongyloides stercoralis (nematode)

20

When can we see hypogammaglobulinaemias?

Acquired:
-multiple myeloma
-chronic lypmphocytic leukaemia,
-s.pneumoniae
-Giardia lamblia
-cryptosporidium

21

What is the role or the spleen?

-source of complement
-antibody producing B cells
-removed opsonised bacteria

22

What infection arise after splenectomy?

-streptococcus pneumoniae
-haemophilus influenza
-N.meningitidis
-malaria

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