Ischemic Stroke Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Ischemic Stroke > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ischemic Stroke Deck (45):

Stroke is

Injury to the brain caused by interruption of bloodflow or by bleeding into or around. Produces teh abrupt onset of focal neurologic defects that frequently result in permanent disability or death.


Transient Ischemic attack

abrupt onset of focal neurological deficits that resolve in less than an hour.


What percentage of strokes are hemorrhagic and describe a hemorrhagic stroke

about 20%... Hemorrhagic strokes may be caused by bleeding into the parenchyma of the brain or around the surface of the brain.


Bleeding into parenchyma of brain called

Intracerebral hemorrhage


Bleeding around the surface of the brain called

subarachnoid hemorrhage


Ischemic stroke may have what 4 potential underlying causes?

1) Atherosclerotic occlusion of an intra/extracerebral blood vessel

2) Embolus

3) Lacunar infarcts ( disease of the lumen of small arterioles

4) 30% are cryptogenic (unknown cause)


Stroke risk factors

- Age: doubles each decade
- Gender: male at one and a half times higher risk
- Race: african americans
- Family Hx


Modifiable stroke risk factors

- Diabetes
- Hyperlipidemia
- Smoking
- Carotid Artery Stenosis
- Atrial Fib
- Obesity
- Physical inactivity


In the absence of blood supplying glucose to the brain, each 100gm of brain has sufficient energy stores to last how long?

two and a half minutes. The brain has very little energy storage. Thus, important to keep blood flowing to it.


Hyperthermia and hyperglycemia accelerate and worse stroke brain injury



Under normal conditions, neurons metabolize glucose delivered by the blood almost exclusively through what type of metabolism



Within minutes of the loss of blood supply, brain energy stores are depleted through the metabolism of glucose via glycolytic pathways with the accumulation of lactic acid.

Lactic acid is bad. High temps will accelerate glycolytic lactic acid production as will high blood glucose levels. Body temperature and blood glucose should be brought down asap.


Ischemic core

The central area downstream of an embolus most affected by loss of bloodflow, fewer collaterals providing circulation.


Ischemic Prenumbra

Peripheral areas with less severe ischemia.


Ischemic core suffers irreversible injury how fast?

Within 1 hour or less


Ischemic prenumbra may survive for how long?



Therapeutic window for stroke intervention is generally recognized as being

4-6 hours


slide 15



CBF (Cerebral blood flow) in norma individuals?

around 55ml/100gm brain/ minute


Neurologic signs and symptoms produced by stroke include

- weakness or paralysis
- loss of sensation
- loss of vision in one eye
- difficulty talking or understanding what is being said
- difficulty with organization or perception
- clumsiness


Anterior circulation stroke involves occlusion of:

Internal Carotid Artery
ANterior Cerebral
Middle Cerebral


Posterior Circulation stroke involves occlusion of:

Posterior Cerebral
Vertebral artery
Superior Cerebellar Artery
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery


Besides vessel location, what is the other way to classify ischemic stroke?

Vessel sze


Middle Cerebral Artery



Small penetrating branches of the MCA called

Lenticulostriate arteries


Know slide 21...anterior and middle cerebral and what parts of the brain they provide vasculature to



What are the three clinical brainstem stroke syndromes?

- Lateral Medullary Syndrome
- Pontine syndrome
- Midbrain syndrome


Medullary Stroke Syndrome features

- Loss of pain and temperature from the ipsilateral side of the face due to lesion of the trigeminal nucleus and tract
- Dysarthria and Dysphagia due to lesion of nucleus ambigus
- Loss of pain and temperature on the contralateral side of the body due to lesion of spinothalamic tract
- Gait ataxia on the ipsilateral side of the body due to lesion of the spinocerebellar tract


Medullary stroke syndrome due to

occlusion of the PICA or vertebral artery?


Pontine Stroke Syndrome

- Gaze disorders due to a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasiculous
- Loss of epicritic sensation and proprioception on the contralateral side of the body due to a lesion of the medial lemniscus.
- Cerebellar lesions on both sides of the body due to lesion of the pontine nuclei and transverse cerebellar fibers
- Contralateral hemiparesis due to lesion of corticospinal tract


Midbrain stroke syndrome

see slide 27 for symptoms


Anterior Circulation Stroke

- Ipsilateral blindness or contralateral inferior quadrantanopsia ( blindness in 1 quarter of the visual field)
- Contralateral gaze paresis
- contralateral mono/hemiparesis and/or mono/hemisensory deficit
- Aphasia in the dominant hemisphere or neglect in the non-dominant


Posterior Circulation Stroke

-unlateral, bilateral, or crossed weakness or sensory deficits
- contralateral homonymous hemianopsi or superior quadrantanopsia
- vertigo, nausea/vomitting, gait ataxia, diplopia, dysphagia, horner's syndrome
- Altered consciousness and amnesia


The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to what functional brain areas

- Obviously the pre and post central gyri- so motor and sensory to just about every part of the body

- The frontal eye fields (field of vision)

- Broca's area (speech)

- Wernicke's area (comprehension)

- Visual Radiations (visual)


Anterior Cerebral Artery supplies blood to what functional parts of the brain

Supplies to the motor and sensory portions (pre and post central) for the hip, leg, and foot


Posterior Cerebral

Visual radiations of occipital lobe


Wallenberg syndrome

occlusion of vertebral and PICA
- Loss of pain and temperature from ipsilateral side of face due to lesion of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract
- Dysarthria and Dysphagia: lesion to nucelus ambiguus
- Loss of pain and temperature on teh contralateral side of the body- spinothalamic tract
- Gait ataxia on the ipsilateral side of the body- spinocerebellar tract


Important to distinguish cerebral infarction from selective ischemic necrosis.

Cerebral infarction- Focal brain ischemia leading to focal necrosis of all cellular elements

Selective Ischemic Necrosis- Only brain neurons injured. Most frequently seen in pts suffering from cardiac arrest and cardiac resuscitation. Affects only specific populations of highly vulnerable neurons...Like the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus or the cerebellar purkinjee cells


Common sites for atherothrombotic plaque buildup

- Origins or carotid and vertebral arteries
- Bifurcation of common carotid artery
- Internal carotid arteries at the carotid siphon
- M1 segment of the middle cerebral
- Basilar


Most common cause of cardiogenic emboli affecting the brain is

atrial fibrillation

Other causes include: mitral stenosis, bacterial endocarditis, and prosthetic heart valves


CNS vaculitis presentation

multiple cerebral blood vessels involved so typicaly pts present with multiple focal defects


Giant cell temporal arteritis

causes unilateral headaches over the temoral artery. Untreated can lead to strokes and blindness. Respondes well to steroids so catch it early


Polycythemia and multiple myeloma are examples of

hyperviscosity syndromes (blood becomes thick)


Also be on the look out for hypercoagulable conditions such as

antiphospholipid syndrome, protein C and S deficiency, cancer, pregnancy, thrombocytosis



sickle cell