Flashcards in Kingdom: Plantae Deck (64)
List six principle types of plant tissue and the function of each.
What are two types of meristem?
Apical meristem: responsible for plant primary growth; located at tips of stems and roots.
Lateral meristem: cylinders of meristematic tissue; responsible for plant secondary growth. Two types vascular cambium, cork cambium.
What are the four major layers of tissue in the leaf?
Upper and lower epidermis.
Palisade layer of mesophyll
spongy layer of mesophyll
Vascular bundles (veins)
What is a stomata?
A small opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of plant leaves and stems. Gases (Carbon dioxide and water) are exchanged through them.
What are guard cells?
Pairs of bean-shaped epidermal cells that surround a stomate and regulate its size. Guard cells possess chloroplasts.
What are upper epidermis?
The upper layer of cells on a leaf; do not contain chloroplasts.
What are the lower epidermis?
The lower layer of cells on a leaf; do not contain chloroplasts. Stomata are usually found in this layer.
What are mesophyll?
The chlorophyll-containing cells located between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf; vascular tissues (veins) run through mesophyll.
What is a cuticle?
A waxy coating secreted by the epidermis of a leaf; helps prevent water loss through evaporation.
What is the palisade layer?
The palisade layer is located in the upper mesophyll of leaf tissue; it is closely packed columnar cells that contain many chloroplasts.
What is the spongy Layer?
The spongy layer in the leaf mesophyll under the palisade layer; the loosely-packed, chlorophyll-containing cells are surrounded by air spaces.
What are the two types of vascular tissue, and what is their location?
Xylem and phloem are both organised into fibrovascular bundles in the leaf, root and stem.
What is the Xylem?
In vascular plants, the non-living transport tubes that cary water and minerals upward from the roots and stem to the rest of the plant.
What is the Phloem?
In vascular plants the living cells arranged into transport tubes that carry sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
What are cortex tissues?
Located just inside the epidermis in the plant stem or root; consists of parenchyma in young plants and includes cork in older plants.
What is Cambium?
A layer of meristem tissue in plant stems and roots that produces new xylem and phloem cells; accounts for growth in thickness of the stem.
What is the Pith?
The tissue in the centre of a plant stem or root of a vascular cylinder; usually consists of parenchyma.
What are four significant functions of the plant root?
What are the two major functions of the plant leaf?
State the our fundamental functions of the plant stem.
What is Transpiration?
The loss of water from plant leaves usually through the stomata.
What are three methods of thranslocation of water in plants?
The upward movement of a liquid in a thin tube resulting from the effect of cohesion and adhesion.
What is root pressure?
The pressure developed in root xylem as the result of osmosis.
What is a transpirational pull (Cohesion tension?)
Evaporating water from plant parts causes an upward pull on a column of water molecules in the xylem below.
What is photoperiodism?
a Physiological response to the day length such as the production of flowers by a plant depending on the daily cycle of light and dark.
What is tropism?
The response of a plant to the environment. Eg. Geotropism, thigmotropism, phototropism.
What is Geotropism?
A root growing downward (positive geotropism) or a stem growing upward (negative geotropism) in response to the stimulus of gravity.
What is phototropism?
A stem or leaves growing toward a light stimulus.