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Flashcards in L40 Deck (160):
1

splice

[splais] vt. 拼接;接合;使结婚
n. 接合;结婚
vt.1 a : to unite (as two ropes) by interweaving the strands b : to unite (as lengths of magnetic tape) by overlapping and securing together two ends
2 : to unite, link, or insert as if by splicing
3 : to combine or insert (as genes) by genetic engineering *spliced a human gene for insulin into a bacterium*
Noun.1 : a joining or joint made by splicing something
2 : MARRIAGE, WEDDING

2

split

[split] vt. 分离;使分离;劈开;离开
vi. 离开;被劈开;断绝关系
n. 劈开;裂缝
adj. 劈开的
Transitive verb
1 a : to divide lengthwise usually along a grain or seam or by layers b : to affect as if by cleaving or forcing apart *the river splits the town in two*
2 a (1) : to tear or rend apart : BURST (2) : to subject (an atom or atomic nucleus) to artificial disintegration by fission b : to affect as if by breaking up or tearing apart : SHATTER *a roar that split the air*
3 : to divide into parts or portions: as a : to divide between persons : SHARE b : to divide into factions, parties, or groups c : to mark (a ballot) or cast or register (a vote) so as to vote for candidates of different parties d (1) : to divide or break down (a chemical compound) into constituents *split a fat into glycerol and fatty acids* (2) : to remove by such separation *split off carbon dioxide* e : to divide (stock) by issuing a larger number of shares to existing shareholders usually without increase in total par value
4 : to separate (the parts of a whole) by interposing something *split an infinitive*
5 : LEAVE *split the party* *split town*
intransitive verb
1 a : to become split lengthwise or into layers b : to break apart : BURST
2 a : to become divided up or separated off *split into factions* *split from the group* b : to sever relations or connections : SEPARATE c : LEAVE; especially : to leave without delay *split for the coast*
3 British : to betray confidence : act as an informer ? usually used with on
4 : to apportion shares
synonyms see TEAR
Adj.1 : DIVIDED, FRACTURED
2 : prepared for use by splitting *split bamboo* *split hides*
3 : HETEROZYGOUS ? used especially by breeders of cage birds sometimes with for
Noun.1 a : a narrow break made by or as if by splitting b : an arrangement of bowling pins left standing with space for pins between them
2 : a piece split off or made thin by splitting
3 a : a division into or between divergent or antagonistic elements or forces *a cultural split* b : a faction formed in this way
4 a : the act or process of splitting (as the stock of a corporation) b : the act of lowering oneself to the floor or leaping into the air with legs extended at right angles to the trunk
5 : a product of division by or as if by splitting
6 : a wine bottle holding one quarter the usual amount or about .1875 liters (6 to 6.5 ounces); also : the quantity held by a split
7 : an ice cream sundae served over slices of fruit (as banana)
8 : the recorded time at or for a specific part of a race

3

spoilsport

['spɒɪlspɔːt] n. 专事破坏他人乐趣者
Noun. : one who spoils the sport or pleasure of others

4

spoliation

[,spəʊlɪ'eɪʃ(ə)n] n. 强夺;毁弃
Noun.1 a : the act of plundering b : the state of having been plundered especially in war
2 : the act of injuring especially beyond reclaim

5

spontaneous

[spɔn'teiniəs] adj. 自发的;自然的;无意识的
Adj.1 : proceeding from natural feeling or native tendency without external constraint
2 : arising from a momentary impulse
3 : controlled and directed internally : SELF-ACTING *spontaneous movement characteristic of living things*
4 : produced without being planted or without human labor : INDIGENOUS
5 : developing or occurring without apparent external influence, force, cause, or treatment
6 : not apparently contrived or manipulated : NATURAL

6

sport

[spɔ:t] n. 运动;游戏;娱乐;运动会;玩笑
vi. 游戏
vt. 游戏;参加体育运动;夸耀
adj. 运动的
Intransitive verb
1 a : to amuse oneself : FROLIC *lambs sporting in the meadow* b : to engage in a sport
2 a : to mock or ridicule something b : to speak or act in jest : TRIFLE
3 [2sport] : to deviate or vary abruptly from type (as by bud variation) : MUTATE
transitive verb
1 : to display or wear usually ostentatiously : BOAST *sporting expensive new shoes*
2 [2sport] : to put forth as a sport or bud variation
Noun.1 a : a source of diversion : RECREATION b : sexual play c (1) : physical activity engaged in for pleasure (2) : a particular activity (as an athletic game) so engaged in
2 a : PLEASANTRY, JEST b : often mean-spirited jesting : MOCKERY, DERISION
3 a : something tossed or driven about in or as if in play b : LAUGHINGSTOCK
4 a : SPORTSMAN b : a person considered with respect to living up to the ideals of sportsmanship *a good sport* *a poor sport* c : a companionable person
5 : an individual exhibiting a sudden deviation from type beyond the normal limits of individual variation usually as a result of mutation especially of somatic tissue
synonyms see FUN
Adj.: of, relating to, or suitable for sports; especially : styled in a manner suitable for casual or informal wear *sport coats*

7

sportive

['spɔ:tiv] adj. 运动的;嬉戏的;闹着玩的;适合运动穿戴的
Adj.1 a : FROLICSOME, PLAYFUL b : ARDENT, WANTON
2 : of or relating to sports and especially field sports

8

spout

[spaut] n. 喷口;水龙卷;水落管;水柱
vt. 喷出;喷射;[口]滔滔不绝地讲;[俚]把…典当掉
vi. 喷出;喷射;[口]滔滔不绝地讲
Transitive verb
1 : to eject (as liquid) in a stream *wells spouting oil*
2 a : to speak or utter readily, volubly, and at length b : to speak or utter in a pompous or oratorical manner : DECLAIM *a candidate spouting empty promises*
intransitive verb
1 : to issue with force or in a jet : SPURT
2 : to eject material (as liquid) in a jet
3 : DECLAIM
Noun.1 : a pipe or conductor through which a liquid is discharged or conveyed in a stream: as a : a pipe for carrying rainwater from a roof b : a projecting tube or lip from which a liquid (as water) issues
2 : a discharge or jet of liquid or moisture from or as if from a pipe: as a : WATERSPOUT b : the blowing of a whale
3 archaic : PAWNSHOP

9

sprain

[sprein] vt. 扭伤
n. 扭伤
Noun.1 : a sudden or violent twist or wrench of a joint with stretching or tearing of ligaments
2 : a sprained condition
vt.: to injure by a sudden or severe twist

10

spree

[spri:] n. 狂欢;无节制的狂热行为;欢闹
vi. 狂欢;狂饮
Noun.: an unrestrained indulgence in or outburst of an activity *went on a buying spree*; also : a drunken revel : BINGE

11

sprint

[sprint] vi. 冲刺,全速跑
n. 冲刺;短跑
vt. 全速奔跑
vi. : to run or go at top speed especially for a short distance
Noun.1 : the act or an instance of sprinting
2 a : DASH 6b b : a burst of speed

12

spur

[spə:] n. 鼓舞,刺激;马刺;山坡
vi. 骑马疾驰;给予刺激
vt. 激励,鞭策;给…装踢马刺
Noun.1 a : a pointed device secured to a rider's heel and used to urge on the horse b plural [from the acquisition of spurs by a person achieving knighthood] : recognition and reward for achievement *won his academic spurs as the holder of a chair in a university ?James Mountford*
2 : a goad to action : STIMULUS
3 : something projecting like or suggesting a spur: as a : a projecting root or branch of a tree, shrub, or vine b (1) : a stiff sharp spine (as on the wings or legs of a bird or insect); especially : one on a cock's leg (2) : a gaff for a gamecock c : a hollow projecting appendage of a corolla or calyx (as in larkspur or columbine) d : a bony outgrowth (as on the heel of the foot) e : CLIMBING IRON
4 a : an angular projection, offshoot, or branch extending out beyond or away from a main body or formation; especially : a ridge or lesser elevation that extends laterally from a mountain or mountain range b : a railroad track that branches off from a main line
5 : a reinforcing buttress of masonry in a fortification
synonyms see MOTIVE
transitive verb
1 : to urge (a horse) on with spurs
2 : to incite to action or accelerated growth or development : STIMULATE
3 : to put spurs on
intransitive verb : to spur one's horse on

13

spurt

[spə:t] vi. 冲刺;喷出;迸发
n. 冲刺;喷射
vt. 喷射;喷出
Intransitive verb : to gush forth : SPOUT
transitive verb : to expel in a stream or jet : SQUIRT *the faucet spurts water*
Noun. : a sudden gush : JET
Noun.1 : a short period of time : MOMENT
2 a : a sudden brief burst of effort, activity, or development *a spurt of work* *a growth spurt* b : a sharp or sudden increase in business activity
vi.: to make a spurt

14

squabble

['skwɔbl] vi. 发生口角;大声争吵
vt. [印]弄乱(排好的铅字)
n. 争吵;口角
Noun. : a noisy altercation or quarrel usually over petty matters
synonyms see QUARREL
vi. : to quarrel noisily and usually over petty matters

15

squall

[skwɔ:l] vi. 嚎啕;尖叫
n. 暴风;[口]麻烦;高声哭喊;尖叫
vt. 尖声叫着;大声哭喊;起风暴
Intransitive verb : to cry out raucously : SCREAM
transitive verb : to utter in a strident voice
Noun. : a raucous cry
Noun.1 : a sudden violent wind often with rain or snow
2 : a short-lived commotion
vi. : to blow a squall

16

squalor

['skwɔlə, 'skwɔ:-] n. 肮脏;悲惨;卑劣;道德败坏
Noun.: the quality or state of being squalid

17

square

[skwεə] adj. 平方的;正方形的;直角的;正直的
vt. 使成方形;与…一致
vi. 一致;成方形
n. 平方;广场;正方形
adv. 成直角地
Noun.1 : an instrument having at least one right angle and two straight edges used especially to lay out or test right angles
2 : a rectangle with all four sides equal
3 : any of the quadrilateral spaces marked out on a board for playing games
4 : the product of a number multiplied by itself
5 a : an open place or area formed at the meeting of two or more streets b : BLOCK 6a
6 : a solid object or piece approximating a cube or having a square as its largest face
7 : an unopened cotton flower with its enclosing bracts
8 : a person who is conventional or conservative in taste or way of life
9 : a square meal *ate three squares a day*
Adj.1 a : having four equal sides and four right angles b : forming a right angle *square corner* c : having a square base *a square pyramid*
2 : raised to the second power
3 a : being approximately a cube *square cabinet* b : having a shape that is broad for the height and rectangular rather than curving in outline *square shoulders* *a square, thick, hard-working man ?Maria Edgeworth* c : rectangular and equilateral in section *square tower*
4 a : being or converted to a unit of area equal in measure to a square each side of which measures one unit of a specified unit of length *a square foot* ? see METRIC SYSTEM table, WEIGHT table b : being of a specified length in each of two equal dimensions *10 feet square*
5 a : exactly adjusted : precisely constructed or aligned b : JUST, FAIR *a square deal* *square in all his dealings* c : leaving no balance : SETTLED d : EVEN, TIED e : SUBSTANTIAL, SATISFYING *square meal* f : being unsophisticated, conservative, or conventional
6 : set at right angles with the mast and keel ? used of the yards of a square-rigged ship
transitive verb
1 a : to make square or rectangular *square a building stone* b : to test for deviation from a right angle, straight line, or plane surface
2 : to bring approximately to a right angle *squared his shoulders*
3 a : to multiply (a number) by itself : raise to the second power b : to find a square equal in area to *square a circle*
4 : to regulate or adjust by or to some standard or principle *square our actions by the opinions of others ?John Milton*
5 a : BALANCE, SETTLE *square an account* b : to even the score of
6 : to mark off into squares
7 a : to set right : bring into agreement *squared their goals with their beliefs* b : BRIBE, FIX
intransitive verb
1 : to agree precisely : CORRESPOND *your actions should square with your words*
2 : to settle matters; especially : to pay the bill
Adv.1 : in a straightforward or honest manner
2 a : so as to face or be face-to-face b : at right angles
3 : with nothing intervening : DIRECTLY *ran square into it*
4 : in a firm manner *looked her square in the eye*
5 : in a square shape

18

squat

[skwɔt] vi. 蹲,蹲下;蹲坐;蹲伏
vt. 使蹲坐,使蹲下
n. 蹲坐,蜷伏
adj. 蹲着的;矮胖的
Transitive verb
1 : to cause (oneself) to crouch or sit on the ground
2 : to occupy as a squatter *squat in an abandoned building*
intransitive verb
1 : to crouch close to the ground as if to escape observation *a hare squatting in the grass*
2 : to assume or maintain a position in which the body is supported on the feet and the knees are bent so that the buttocks rest on or near the heels
3 : to be or become a squatter
Adj.1 : sitting with the haunches close above the heels
2 a : low to the ground b : marked by disproportionate shortness or thickness
Noun.1 a : the act of squatting b : the posture of one that squats
2 a : a place where one squats b : the lair of a small animal *the squat of a hare*
3 : a lift in which a standing weight lifter drops to a squatting position and then rises to an upright position while holding a barbell on the shoulders; also : a competitive event involving this lift
4 chiefly British : an empty house or building that is occupied by squatters
5 slang : DIDDLY-SQUAT

19

squeamish

['skwiːmɪʃ] adj. 易呕吐的;易生气的;神经质的;过于拘谨的;洁癖的
Adj.1 a : easily nauseated : QUEASY b : affected with nausea
2 a : excessively fastidious or scrupulous in conduct or belief b : easily offended or disgusted

20

squeeze

[skwi:z] vt. 挤;紧握;勒索
vi. 压榨
n. 压榨;紧握;拥挤;佣金
Transitive verb
1 a : to exert pressure especially on opposite sides of : COMPRESS b : to extract or emit under pressure c : to force or thrust by compression
2 a (1) : to get by extortion (2) : to deprive by extortion b : to cause economic hardship to c : to reduce the amount of *squeezes profits*
3 : to crowd into a limited area
4 : to gain or win by a narrow margin
5 : to force (another player) to discard in bridge so as to unguard a suit
6 : to score by means of a squeeze play
intransitive verb
1 : to give way before pressure
2 : to exert pressure; also : to practice extortion or oppression
3 : to force one's way *squeeze through a door*
4 : to pass, win, or get by narrowly
Noun.1 a : an act or instance of squeezing : COMPRESSION b : HANDCLASP; also : EMBRACE
2 a : a quantity squeezed out from something *a squeeze of lemon* b : a group crowded together : CROWD
3 : a profit taken by a middleman on goods or transactions
4 : a financial pressure caused by narrowing margins or by shortages
5 : a forced discard in bridge
6 : SQUEEZE PLAY
7 slang : a romantic partner *she's my main squeeze*

21

squelch

[skweltʃ] vt. 消除;镇压;压碎;使…咯吱咯吱的响
vi. 嘎吱作响
n. 噪声控制;嘎吱声;压倒对方的反驳;压碎的一堆
Transitive verb
1 a : to fall or stamp on so as to crush b (1) : to completely suppress : QUELL *squelch resistance* (2) : SILENCE *squelched the protesters*
2 : to emit or move with a sucking sound
intransitive verb
1 : to emit a sucking sound
2 : to splash through water, slush, or mire
Noun.1 : a sound of or as if of semiliquid matter under suction *the squelch of mud*
2 : the act of suppressing; especially : a retort that silences an opponent

22

squint

[skwint] vi. 斜视;患斜视;倾向
n. 看
vt. 使斜视
adj. 斜视的
Adj.1 of an eye : looking or tending to look obliquely or askance (as with envy or disdain)
2 of the eyes : not having the visual axes parallel : CROSSED
intransitive verb
1 a : to have an indirect bearing, reference, or aim b : to deviate from a true line
2 a : to look in a squint-eyed manner b : to be cross-eyed c : to look or peer with eyes partly closed
transitive verb : to cause (an eye) to squint
Noun.1 : STRABISMUS
2 : an instance of squinting
3 : HAGIOSCOPE

23

stab

[stæb] vt. 刺;刺伤;戳;刺穿;直入
vi. 刺;刺伤;戳;刺痛
n. 刺;戳;[口]尝试;突发的一阵
Noun.1 : a wound produced by a pointed weapon
2 a : a thrust of a pointed weapon b : a jerky thrust
3 : EFFORT, TRY
4 : a sudden sharp feeling *stabs of regret*
transitive verb
1 : to wound or pierce by the thrust of a pointed weapon
2 : THRUST, DRIVE
intransitive verb : to thrust or give a wound with or as if with a pointed weapon

24

stagy

['steidʒi] adj. 做作的,不自然的
Adj.: of or characteristic of the stage; especially : marked by pretense or artificiality : THEATRICAL

25

staid

adj. 固定的;沉着的;沉静的
adj. 古板的,保守的
Adj.: marked by settled sedateness and often prim self-restraint : SOBER, GRAVE
synonyms see SERIOUS

26

stain

[stein] vt. 沾污;败坏;给…着色
vi. 污染;被沾污;被染污
n. 污点;瑕疵;着色剂
Transitive verb
1 : to suffuse with color
2 : DISCOLOR, SOIL
3 a : TAINT 3 *a conscience stained with guilt* b : to bring discredit on *the scandal stained his reputation*
4 : to color (as wood, glass, or cloth) by processes affecting chemically or otherwise the material itself
intransitive verb : to receive a stain
Noun.1 a : a soiled or discolored spot b : a natural spot of color contrasting with the ground
2 : a taint of guilt : STIGMA
3 : a preparation (as of dye or pigment) used in staining: as a : a dye or pigment capable of penetrating the pores of wood b : a dye or mixture of dyes used in microscopy to make visible minute and transparent structures, to differentiate tissue elements, or to produce specific chemical reactions

27

stale

[steil] adj. 陈腐的;不新鲜的
vi. 变陈旧;撒尿;变得不新鲜
vt. 使变旧;变得不新鲜
n. 尿
Adj.1 : tasteless or unpalatable from age *stale bread*
2 : tedious from familiarity *a stale routine*
3 : impaired in legal force or effect by reason of being allowed to rest without timely use, action, or demand *a stale affidavit* *a stale debt*
4 : impaired in vigor or effectiveness
transitive verb
1 : to make stale
2 archaic : to make common : CHEAPEN
intransitive verb : to become stale
vi. : URINATE ? used chiefly of camels and horses
Noun.: urine of a domestic animal (as a horse)

28

stammer

['stæmə] vi. 口吃;结结巴巴地说
vt. 口吃;结巴着说出
n. 口吃;结巴
Intransitive verb : to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking
transitive verb : to utter with involuntary stops or repetitions

29

stampede

[stæm'pi:d] n. 惊跑;人群的蜂拥;军队溃败
vi. 蜂拥;逃窜
vt. 使…惊逃;抢占
Noun.1 : a wild headlong rush or flight of frightened animals
2 : a mass movement of people at a common impulse
3 : an extended festival combining a rodeo with exhibitions, contests, and social events
transitive verb
1 : to cause to run away in headlong panic
2 : to cause (as a group of people) to act on sudden or rash impulse
intransitive verb
1 : to flee headlong in panic
2 : to act on mass impulse

30

stanza

['stænzə] n. 演出期;局;场;诗的一节
Noun.: a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines arranged together in a usually recurring pattern of meter and rhyme : STROPHE

31

Star-crossed

['stɑ:krɔst, -krɔ:st] adj. 不幸的;运气不好的;倒霉的
Adj. : not favored by the stars : ILL-FATED *a pair of star*crossed lovers take their life ?Shakespeare*

32

startle

['stɑ:tl] vt. 使吓一跳;使惊奇
vi. 惊吓;惊跳;惊奇
n. 惊愕;惊恐
Intransitive verb : to move or jump suddenly (as in surprise or alarm) *the baby startles easily*
transitive verb : to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously
Noun. : a sudden mild shock (as of surprise or alarm)

33

stationary

['steiʃənəri] adj. 固定的;静止的;定居的;常备军的
n. 不动的人;驻军
Adj.1 : fixed in a station, course, or mode : IMMOBILE
2 : unchanging in condition *a stationary population*

34

statuary

['stætjuəri, -tʃu,eri] n. 雕像;雕像艺术
adj. 雕塑的;雕像用的
Noun.1 : SCULPTOR
2 a : the art of making statues b : a collection of statues : STATUES
Adj.: of, relating to, or suitable for statues

35

stature

['stætʃə] n. 身高,身材;(精神、道德等的)高度
Noun.1 : natural height (as of a person) in an upright position
2 : quality or status gained by growth, development, or achievement

36

status

['steitəs, 'stæ-] n. 地位;状态;情形;重要身分
Noun.1 a : position or rank in relation to others *the status of a father* b : relative rank in a hierarchy of prestige; especially : high prestige
2 : the condition of a person or thing in the eyes of the law
3 : state or condition with respect to circumstances *the status of the negotiations*

37

statutory

['stætjutəri, -tʃu-] adj. 法定的;法令的;可依法惩处的
Adj.1 : of or relating to statutes
2 : enacted, created, or regulated by statute *a statutory age limit*

38

staunch

[stɔ:ntʃ, stɑ:ntʃ] adj. 坚定的;忠诚的;坚固的
vt. 止住;止血
vt.1 : to check or stop the flowing of *stanched her tears*; also : to stop the flow of blood from (a wound)
2 archaic : ALLAY, EXTINGUISH
3 a : to stop or check in its course *trying to stanch the crime wave* b : to make watertight : stop up
Adj.1 a : WATERTIGHT, SOUND b : strongly built : SUBSTANTIAL
2 : steadfast in loyalty or principle *a staunch friend*
synonyms see FAITHFUL

39

stealth

[stelθ] n. 秘密;秘密行动;鬼祟
Noun.1 a archaic : THEFT b obsolete : something stolen
2 : the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly *the state moves by stealth to gather information ?Nat Hentoff*
3 : the state of being furtive or unobtrusive
4 : an aircraft-design characteristic consisting of oblique angular construction and avoidance of vertical surfaces that is intended to produce a very weak radar return
Adj.: intended not to attract attention : STEALTHY *a stealth campaign*

40

steep

[sti:p] adj. 陡峭的;不合理的;夸大的;急剧升降的
vt. 泡;浸;使…充满
vi. 泡;沉浸
n. 峭壁;浸渍
Adj.1 : LOFTY, HIGH ? used chiefly of a sea
2 : making a large angle with the plane of the horizon
3 a : mounting or falling precipitously *the stairs were very steep* b : being or characterized by a rapid and intensive decline or increase
4 : extremely or excessively high *steep prices*
Noun.: a precipitous place
transitive verb
1 : to soak in a liquid at a temperature under the boiling point (as for softening, bleaching, or extracting an essence)
2 : to cover with or plunge into a liquid (as in bathing, rinsing, or soaking)
3 : to saturate with or subject thoroughly to (some strong or pervading influence) *practices steeped in tradition*
intransitive verb : to undergo the process of soaking in a liquid
synonyms see SOAK
Noun.1 : the state or process of being steeped
2 : a bath or solution in which something is steeped

41

steer

[stiə] vt. 控制,引导;驾驶
vi. 驾驶,掌舵;行驶
n. 阉牛
Noun.1 : a male bovine animal and especially a domestic ox (Bos taurus) castrated before sexual maturity ? compare STAG 3
2 : an ox less than four years old
transitive verb
1 : to control the course of : DIRECT; especially : to guide by mechanical means (as a rudder)
2 : to set and hold to (a course)
intransitive verb
1 : to direct the course (as of a ship or automobile)
2 : to pursue a course of action
3 : to be subject to guidance or direction *an automobile that steers well*
synonyms see GUIDE
Noun. : a hint as to procedure : TIP

42

stench

[stentʃ] n. 恶臭;臭气
vt. 使…散发恶臭
vi. 发恶臭
Noun.1 : STINK
2 : a characteristic repugnant quality *the stench of corruption*

43

stentorian

[sten'tɔ:riən] adj. 声音洪亮的
Adj.: extremely loud *stentorian tones*
synonyms see LOUD

44

sterilize

['sterəlaiz] vt. 消毒,杀菌;使成不毛;使绝育;使不起作用
vt.: to make sterile: as a : to cause (land) to become unfruitful b (1) : to deprive of the power of reproducing *surgically sterilize cats and dogs* (2) : to make incapable of germination c : to make powerless or useless usually by restraining from a normal function, relation, or participation d : to free from living microorganisms

45

stickler

['stiklə] n. 坚持细节的人;顽固的人;费解的事物
Noun.1 : one who insists on exactness or completeness in the observance of something *a stickler for the rules*
2 : something that baffles or puzzles : POSER, STICKER

46

sticky

['stiki] adj. 粘的;粘性的
Adj.1 a : ADHESIVE b (1) : VISCOUS, GLUEY (2) : coated with a sticky substance *hands sticky with sap*
2 : HUMID, MUGGY; also : CLAMMY
3 : tending to stick *a sticky window*
4 a : DISAGREEABLE, UNPLEASANT *came to a sticky end* b : AWKWARD, STIFF c : DIFFICULT, PROBLEMATIC *a sticky situation*
5 : excessively sentimental : CLOYING

47

stiff

[stif] adj. 呆板的;坚硬的;严厉的;拘谨的;拘谨的
adv. 僵硬地;彻底地
n. [俚]死尸;令人讨厌者;流通票据;劳动者
vt. 亏待侍者等
vi. 在商业上惨败
Adj.1 a : not easily bent : RIGID *a stiff collar* b : lacking in suppleness or flexibility *stiff muscles* c : impeded in movement ? used of a mechanism *a truck's stiff suspension* d : DRUNK 1a
2 a : FIRM, RESOLUTE b : STUBBORN, UNYIELDING c : PROUD d (1) : marked by reserve or decorum (2) : lacking in ease or grace : STILTED
3 : hard fought : PUGNACIOUS, SHARP *drove a stiff bargain* *stiff competition*
4 a (1) : exerting great force *a stiff wind* (2) : FORCEFUL, VIGOROUS b : POTENT *a stiff dose* *poured her a stiff drink*
5 : of a dense or glutinous consistency : THICK
6 a : HARSH, SEVERE *a stiff penalty* b : ARDUOUS, RUGGED *stiff terrain*
7 : not easily heeled over by an external force (as the wind) *a stiff ship*
8 : EXPENSIVE, STEEP *paid a stiff price*
Adv.1 : in a stiff manner : STIFFLY
2 : to an extreme degree : SEVERELY *scared stiff* *bored stiff*
3 : close enough to the hole for an easy putt in golf *hit it stiff and tapped it in for an easy birdie*
Noun.1 : CORPSE
2 a : TRAMP, BUM b : a member of the working class; especially : a blue-collar worker c : PERSON *a lucky stiff*; especially : a stodgy or excessively decorous person
3 : FLOP, FAILURE
transitive verb
1 a : to refuse to pay or tip *stiffed the waiter* b : CHEAT *stiffed him in a business deal* c : STICK 7a *stiffed us with the bar bill*
2 : SNUB 3 *stiffed sportswriters after the game*
intransitive verb : to fail commercially *the movie stiffed at the box office*

48

stifle

['staifl] vt. 扼杀;使窒息;藏匿
vi. 窒息;被扼杀
n. (马等的)后膝关节;(马等的)后膝关节病
Noun.: the joint next above the hock in the hind leg of a quadruped (as a horse or dog) corresponding to the human knee ? see HORSE illustration
transitive verb
1 a : to kill by depriving of oxygen : SUFFOCATE b (1) : SMOTHER (2) : MUFFLE
2 a : to cut off (as the voice or breath) b : to withhold from circulation or expression : REPRESS *stifled our anger* c : DETER, DISCOURAGE
intransitive verb : to become suffocated by or as if by lack of oxygen : SMOTHER *stifling in the heat*

49

stigma

['stiɡmə] n. 柱头;耻辱;污名;烙印;特征
Noun.1 a archaic : a scar left by a hot iron : BRAND b : a mark of shame or discredit : STAIN *bore the stigma of cowardice* c : an identifying mark or characteristic; specifically : a specific diagnostic sign of a disease
2 a stigmata plural : bodily marks or pains resembling the wounds of the crucified Jesus and sometimes accompanying religious ecstasy b : PETECHIA
3 a : a small spot, scar, or opening on a plant or animal b : the usually apical part of the pistil of a flower which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate ? see FLOWER illustration

50

stigmatize

['stiɡmətaiz] vt. 诬蔑;玷污;给…打上烙印
vt.1 a archaic : BRAND b : to describe or identify in opprobrious terms
2 : to mark with stigmata

51

stimulant

['stimjulənt] n. 兴奋剂;刺激物;酒精饮料
adj. 激励的;使人兴奋的
Noun.1 : an agent (as a drug) that produces a temporary increase of the functional activity or efficiency of an organism or any of its parts
2 : STIMULUS
3 : an alcoholic beverage ? not used technically

52

sting

[stiŋ] n. 刺痛;讽刺,刺激;刺毛
vt. 刺;驱使;使…苦恼;使…疼痛
vi. 刺痛;被刺痛;感到剧痛
Transitive verb
1 : to prick painfully: as a : to pierce or wound with a poisonous or irritating process b : to affect with sharp quick pain or smart *hail stung their faces*
2 : to cause to suffer acutely *stung with remorse*
3 : OVERCHARGE, CHEAT
intransitive verb
1 : to wound one with or as if with a sting
2 : to feel a keen burning pain or smart; also : to cause such pain
Noun.1 a : the act of stinging; specifically : the thrust of a stinger into the flesh b : a wound or pain caused by or as if by stinging
2 : STINGER 2
3 : a sharp or stinging element, force, or quality
4 : an elaborate confidence game; specifically : such a game worked by undercover police in order to trap criminals

53

stinginess

['stindʒinis] n. 吝啬
Noun. : the quality or state of being stingy

54

stipple

['stipl] vt. (雕刻)点刻;点彩
n. (绘画)点画;点刻法
vi. 用点刻;用点画
vt.1 : to engrave by means of dots and flicks
2 a : to make by small short touches (as of paint or ink) that together produce an even or softly graded shadow b : to apply (as paint) by repeated small touches
3 : SPECKLE, FLECK
Noun.: production of gradation of light and shade in graphic art by stippling small points, larger dots, or longer strokes; also : an effect produced in this way

55

stipulation

[,stipju'leiʃən] n. 规定;约定;条款;契约
Noun.1 : an act of stipulating
2 : something stipulated; especially : a condition, requirement, or item specified in a legal instrument

56

stir

[stə:] n. 搅拌;轰动
vt. 搅拌;激起;惹起
vi. 搅动;传播;走动
Transitive verb
1 a : to cause an especially slight movement or change of position of b : to disturb the quiet of : AGITATE ? often used with up *the bear stirred up the bees*
2 a : to disturb the relative position of the particles or parts of especially by a continued circular movement *stir the pudding* *stir the fire* ? often used with up *stirred up mud from the lake bottom* b : to mix by or as if by stirring ? often used with in *stir in the spices*
3 : BESTIR, EXERT
4 : to bring into notice or debate : RAISE ? often used with up *stir up sensitive issues*
5 a : to rouse to activity : evoke strong feelings in *music that stirs the emotions* b : to call forth (as a memory) : EVOKE c : PROVOKE *stir a storm of controversy*
intransitive verb
1 a : to make a slight movement *the leaves were barely stirring* b : to begin to move (as in rousing) c : to shift to another location : BUDGE *haven't stirred since I arrived*
2 : to begin to be active *the factory stirred to life*
3 : to be active or busy *not a creature was stirring ?Clement Moore*
4 : to pass an implement through a substance with a circular movement
5 : to be able to be stirred
Noun.1 a : a state of disturbance, agitation, or brisk activity b : widespread notice and discussion : IMPRESSION *the book caused quite a stir*
2 : a slight movement
3 : a stirring movement
Noun.slang : PRISON

57

stitch

[stitʃ] n. 针脚,线迹;一针
vt. 缝,缝合
vi. 缝,缝合
Noun.1 : a local sharp and sudden pain especially in the side
2 a : one in-and-out movement of a threaded needle in sewing, embroidering, or suturing b : a portion of thread left in the material or suture left in the tissue after one stitch
3 : a least bit especially of clothing *didn't have a stitch on*
4 : a single loop of thread or yarn around an implement (as a knitting needle or crochet hook)
5 : a stitch or series of stitches formed in a particular way *a basting stitch*
transitive verb
1 a : to fasten, join, or close with or as if with stitches *stitched a seam* b : to make, mend, or decorate with or as if with stitches
2 : to unite by means of staples
intransitive verb : SEW

58

stock

[stɔk] n. 股份,股票;库存;血统;树干
adj. 存货的,常备的;平凡的
vt. 进货;备有;装把手于…
vi. 囤积;办货;出新芽
Noun.1 a archaic : STUMP b archaic : a log or block of wood c (1) archaic : something without life or consciousness (2) : a dull, stupid, or lifeless person
2 : a supporting framework or structure: as a plural : the frame or timbers holding a ship during construction b plural : a device for publicly punishing offenders consisting of a wooden frame with holes in which the feet or feet and hands can be locked c (1) : the wooden part by which a shoulder arm is held during firing (2) : the butt of an implement (as a whip or fishing rod) (3) : BITSTOCK, BRACE d : a long beam on a field gun forming the third support point in firing
3 a : the main stem of a plant : TRUNK b (1) : a plant or plant part united with a scion in grafting and supplying mostly underground parts to a graft (2) : a plant from which slips or cuttings are taken
4 : the crosspiece of an anchor ? see ANCHOR illustration
5 a : the original (as a person, race, or language) from which others derive : SOURCE b (1) : the descendants of one individual : FAMILY, LINEAGE *of European stock* (2) : a compound organism c : an infraspecific group usually having unity of descent d (1) : a related group of languages (2) : a language family
6 a (1) : the equipment, materials, or supplies of an establishment (2) : LIVESTOCK b : a store or supply accumulated or available; especially : the inventory of goods of a merchant or manufacturer
7 a archaic : a supply of capital : FUNDS; especially : money or capital invested or available for investment or trading b (1) : the part of a tally formerly given to the creditor in a transaction (2) : a debt or fund due (as from a government) for money loaned at interest; also British : capital or a debt or fund bearing interest in perpetuity and not ordinarily redeemable as to principal c (1) : the proprietorship element in a corporation usually divided into shares and represented by transferable certificates (2) : a portion of such stock of one or more companies (3) : STOCK CERTIFICATE
8 : any of a genus (Matthiola) of Old World herbs or subshrubs of the mustard family with racemes of usually sweet-scented flowers
9 : a wide band or scarf worn about the neck especially by some clergymen
10 a : liquid in which meat, fish, or vegetables have been simmered that is used as a basis for soup, gravy, or sauce b (1) : raw material from which something is manufactured (2) : paper used for printing c : the portion of a pack of cards not distributed to the players at the beginning of a game
11 a (1) : an estimate or evaluation of something *take stock of the situation* (2) : the estimation in which someone or something is held *his stock with the electorate remains high ?Newsweek* b : confidence or faith placed in someone or something *put little stock in his testimony*
12 : the production and presentation of plays by a stock company
13 : STOCK CAR 1
transitive verb
1 : to make (a domestic animal) pregnant
2 : to fit to or with a stock
3 : to provide with stock or a stock : SUPPLY *stock a stream with trout*
4 : to procure or keep a stock of *our store stocks that brand*
5 : to graze (livestock) on land
intransitive verb
1 : to send out new shoots
2 : to put in stock or supplies *stock up on canned goods*
Adj.1 a : kept regularly in stock *comes in stock sizes* *a stock model* b : commonly used or brought forward : STANDARD *the stock answer*
2 a : kept for breeding purposes : BROOD *a stock mare* b : devoted to the breeding and rearing of livestock *a stock farm* c : used or intended for livestock *a stock train* d : used in herding livestock *a stock horse* *a stock dog*
3 : of or relating to a stock company
4 : employed in handling, checking, or taking care of the stock of merchandise on hand *a stock clerk*

59

stodgy

['stɔdʒi] adj. 平凡的;塞满的;庸俗的
Adj.1 : having a rich filling quality : HEAVY *stodgy bread*
2 : moving in a slow plodding way especially as a result of physical bulkiness
3 : BORING, DULL *out on a peaceful rather stodgy Sunday boat trip ?Edna Ferber*
4 : extremely old-fashioned : HIDEBOUND *received a pompously Victorian letter from his stodgy father ?E. E. S. Montagu*
5 a : DRAB b : DOWDY

60

stoke

[stəuk] vi. 烧火;做司炉工;大吃大喝
vt. 拨旺火;使饱吃一顿
Transitive verb
1 : to poke or stir up (as a fire) : supply with fuel
2 : to feed abundantly
3 : to increase the activity, intensity, or amount of *limiting the number of cars availableTwill help stoke demand for the car ?Keith Naughton*
intransitive verb : to stir up or tend a fire (as in a furnace) : supply a furnace with fuel

61

stolid

['stɔlid] adj. 迟钝的;缺乏热情的;冷漠的
Adj.: having or expressing little or no sensibility : UNEMOTIONAL
synonyms see IMPASSIVE

62

stomach

['stʌmək] n. 胃;腹部;胃口
vt. 忍受;吃下
vi. 忍受
Noun.1 a (1) : a dilatation of the alimentary canal of a vertebrate communicating anteriorly with the esophagus and posteriorly with the duodenum (2) : one of the compartments of a ruminant stomach *the abomasum is the fourth stomach of a ruminant* b : a cavity in an invertebrate animal that is analogous to a stomach c : the part of the body that contains the stomach : BELLY, ABDOMEN
2 a : desire for food caused by hunger : APPETITE b : INCLINATION, DESIRE *had no stomach for an argument*; also : COURAGE, GUTS
3 obsolete a : SPIRIT, VALOR b : PRIDE c : SPLEEN, RESENTMENT
vt.1 archaic : to take offense at
2 : to bear without overt reaction or resentment : put up with *couldn't stomach office politics*

63

stonewall

[,stəun'wɔ:l] vt. 妨碍;阻碍;小心翼翼地打球
vi. 妨碍;阻碍;小心翼翼地打球
Intransitive verb
1 chiefly British : to engage in obstructive parliamentary debate or delaying tactics
2 : to be uncooperative, obstructive, or evasive
transitive verb : to refuse to comply or cooperate with

64

stooge

[stu:dʒ] n. 喜剧里的配角或丑角;助手;傀儡;密探
vi. 充当配角;[英俚]巡航
Noun.1 a : one who plays a subordinate or compliant role to a principal b : PUPPET 3
2 : STRAIGHT MAN
3 : STOOL PIGEON 1
vi.: to act as a stooge *congressmen who stooge for the oil and mineral interests ?New Republic*

65

stoop

[stu:p] vi. 弯腰;屈服;堕落
n. 弯腰,屈背;屈服
vt. 辱没,堕落;俯曲
Intransitive verb
1 a : to bend the body or a part of the body forward and downward sometimes simultaneously bending the knees b : to stand or walk with a forward inclination of the head, body, or shoulders
2 : YIELD, SUBMIT
3 a : to descend from a superior rank, dignity, or status b : to lower oneself morally *stooped to lying*
4 a archaic : to move down from a height : ALIGHT b : to fly or dive down swiftly usually to attack prey
transitive verb
1 : DEBASE, DEGRADE
2 : to bend (a part of the body) forward and downward
Noun.1 a : an act of bending the body forward b : a temporary or habitual forward bend of the back and shoulders
2 : the descent of a bird especially on its prey
3 : a lowering of oneself
Noun.: a porch, platform, entrance stairway, or small veranda at a house door

66

stouthearted

['staut'hɑ:tid] adj. 大胆的;刚毅的
Adj.: having a stout heart or spirit: a : COURAGEOUS b : STUBBORN

67

straggle

['stræɡl] vi. 迷路;落伍,掉队;四散,蔓延
n. 散乱
vi.1 : to wander from the direct course or way : ROVE, STRAY
2 : to trail off from others of its kind *little cabins straggling off into the woods*
Noun.: a straggling group (as of persons or objects)

68

straightforward

[,streit'fɔ:wəd] adj. 简单的;坦率的;明确的;径直的
adv. 直截了当地;坦率地
Adj.1 a : free from evasiveness or obscurity : EXACT, CANDID *a straightforward account* b : CLEAR-CUT, PRECISE
2 : proceeding in a straight course or manner : DIRECT, UNDEVIATING
Adv.: in a straightforward manner

69

straiten

['streitən] vt. 限制;使…穷困;使…为难
vi. 变窄;变紧
vt.1 a : to make strait or narrow b : to hem in : CONFINE
2 archaic : to restrict in freedom or scope : HAMPER
3 : to subject to distress, privation, or deficiency *in straitened circumstances*

70

strand

[strænd] n. 线;串;海滨
vt. 使搁浅;使陷于困境;弄断;使落后
vi. 搁浅
Noun.: the land bordering a body of water : SHORE, BEACH
transitive verb
1 : to run, drive, or cause to drift onto a strand : run aground
2 : to leave in a strange or an unfavorable place especially without funds or means to depart
3 : to leave (a base runner) on base at the end of an inning in baseball
intransitive verb : to become stranded
Noun.1 Scottish & dialect England : STREAM
2 Scottish & dialect England : SEA
Noun.1 a : fibers or filaments twisted, plaited, or laid parallel to form a unit for further twisting or plaiting into yarn, thread, rope, or cordage b : one of the wires twisted together or laid parallel to form a wire rope or cable c : something (as a molecular chain) resembling a strand *a strand of DNA*
2 : an element (as a yarn or thread) of a woven or plaited material
3 : an elongated or twisted and plaited body resembling a rope *a strand of pearls*
4 : one of the elements interwoven in a complex whole *one strand of the novel's plot*
vt.1 : to break a strand of (a rope) accidentally
2 a : to form (as a rope) from strands b : to play out, twist, or arrange in a strand

71

stranded

['strændid] adj. 搁浅的;陷于困境的;有…股的(常用来构成复合词)
v. 搁浅(strand的过去式和过去分词)
Adj.: having a strand or strands especially of a specified kind or number ? usually used in combination *double-stranded DNA*

72

strangulation

[,stræŋɡju'leʃən] n. [医] 绞窄;勒杀;钳制;压缩
Noun.1 : the action or process of strangling or strangulating
2 : the state of being strangled or strangulated; especially : excessive or pathological constriction or compression of a bodily tube (as a blood vessel or a loop of intestine) that interrupts its ability to act as a passage

73

stray

[strei] vi. 流浪;迷路;偏离
adj. 迷路的;离群的;偶遇的
n. 走失的家畜;流浪者
Noun.1 a : a domestic animal that is wandering at large or is lost b : a person or thing that strays
2 [Middle English, from straien to stray] archaic : the act of going astray
vi.: WANDER: as a : to wander from company, restraint, or proper limits b : to roam about without fixed direction or purpose c : to move in a winding course : MEANDER d : to move without conscious or intentional effort *eyes straying absently around the room* e : to become distracted from an argument or chain of thought *strayed from the point* f : to wander accidentally from a fixed or chosen route g : ERR, SIN
Adj.1 : having strayed or escaped from a proper or intended place *a stray dog* *hit by a stray bullet* *fixed a few stray hairs*
2 : occurring at random or sporadically *a few stray thoughts*
3 : not serving any useful purpose : UNWANTED *stray light*

74

stretch

[[stretʃ]] vt. 伸展,张开
vi. 伸展
adj. 可伸缩的
n. 伸展,延伸
Transitive verb
1 : to extend (as one's limbs or body) in a reclining position
2 : to reach out : EXTEND *stretched out her arms*
3 : to extend in length *stretched his neck to see what was going on*
4 : to fell with or as if with a blow
5 : to cause the limbs of (a person) to be pulled especially in torture
6 : to draw up (one's body) from a cramped, stooping, or relaxed position
7 : to pull taut *canvas stretched on a frame*
8 a : to enlarge or distend especially by force b : to extend or expand as if by physical force *stretch one's mind with a good book* c : STRAIN *stretched his already thin patience*
9 : to cause to reach or continue (as from one point to another or across a space) *stretch a wire between two posts*
10 a : to amplify or enlarge beyond natural or proper limits *the rules can be stretched this once* b : to expand (as by improvisation) to fulfill a larger function *stretching a dollar*
11 : to extend (a hit) to an extra base usually by fast or daring running *stretch a single into a double*
intransitive verb
1 a : to become extended in length or breadth or both : SPREAD *broad plains stretching to the sea* b : to extend over a continuous period *the dynasty stretches back several centuries*
2 : to become extended without breaking
3 a : to extend one's body or limbs *stretched before jogging* *wanted to stretch out on the sofa* b : to lie down at full length
Noun.1 a : an exercise of something (as the understanding or the imagination) beyond ordinary or normal limits *their conclusion seemed like a bit of a stretch* b : an extension of the scope or application of something *a stretch of language*
2 : the extent to which something may be stretched
3 a : the act of stretching : the state of being stretched *a good stretch for legs* b : the position of a pitcher standing sideways to home plate so as to keep a runner close to a base *pitching from the stretch*
4 a : an extent in length or area *an open stretch of road* b : a continuous period of time *can write for eight hours at a stretch*
5 : a walk to relieve fatigue
6 : a term of imprisonment *served a 10-year stretch*
7 a : either of the straight sides of a racecourse; especially : HOMESTRETCH b : a final stage (as of a contest or season) *won some crucial games down the stretch*
8 : the capacity for being stretched : ELASTICITY *a waistband with lots of stretch*
9 : a stretch limousine
Adj.1 : easily stretched : ELASTIC *a stretch wig*
2 : longer than the standard size *a stretch limousine*

75

strew

[stru:] vt. 散播;撒满
vt.1 : to spread by scattering
2 : to cover by or as if by scattering something *strewing the highways with litter*
3 : to become dispersed over as if scattered
4 : to spread abroad : DISSEMINATE

76

striate

['straiit, -eit, 'straieit] adj. 有条纹的
vt. 加条纹,加条痕
vt.: to mark with striations or striae
Adj.: STRIATED

77

striated

['straieitid] adj. 有条纹的;有线纹的
v. 加条纹(striate的过去分词)
Adj.1 : marked with striations or striae
2 : of, relating to, or being striated muscle

78

stricture

['striktʃə] n. 狭窄;苛评;非难
Noun.1 a : an abnormal narrowing of a bodily passage; also : the narrowed part b : a constriction of the breath passage in the production of a speech sound
2 : something that closely restrains or limits : RESTRICTION *moral strictures*
3 : an adverse criticism : CENSURE

79

strident

['straidənt] adj. 刺耳的;尖锐的;吱吱尖叫的;轧轧作响的
Adj.: characterized by harsh, insistent, and discordant sound *a strident voice*; also : commanding attention by a loud or obtrusive quality *strident slogans*
synonyms see LOUD, VOCIFEROUS

80

strife

[straif] n. 冲突;争吵;不和
Noun.1 a : bitter sometimes violent conflict or dissension *political strife* b : an act of contention : FIGHT, STRUGGLE
2 : exertion or contention for superiority
3 archaic : earnest endeavor
synonyms see DISCORD

81

striking

['straikiŋ] adj. 显著的,突出的,惊人的;打击的;罢工的
v. 打(strike的ing形式)
Adj.: attracting attention or notice through unusual or conspicuous qualities *a place of striking beauty*
synonyms see NOTICEABLE

82

stroke

[strəuk] n. 中风;冲程;笔画;打击;尝试;轻抚
vt. 抚摸;敲击;划尾桨;划掉
vi. [体]击球;作尾桨手;敲击键盘
vt.1 : to rub gently in one direction; also : CARESS
2 : to flatter or pay attention to in a manner designed to reassure or persuade
Noun.1 : the act of striking; especially : a blow with a weapon or implement
2 : a single unbroken movement; especially : one of a series of repeated or to-and-fro movements
3 a : a controlled swing intended to hit a ball or shuttlecock; also : a striking of the ball b : such a stroke charged to a player as a unit of scoring in golf
4 a : a sudden action or process producing an impact *a stroke of lightning* b : an unexpected result *a stroke of luck*
5 : sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain ? called also apoplexy, cerebrovascular accident
6 a : one of a series of propelling beats or movements against a resisting medium *a stroke of the oar* b : a rower who sets the pace for a crew
7 a : a vigorous or energetic effort by which something is done, produced, or accomplished *a stroke of genius* *a brilliant diplomatic stroke* b : a delicate or clever touch in a narrative, description, or construction
8 : HEARTBEAT
9 : the movement in either direction of a mechanical part (as a piston) having a reciprocating motion; also : the distance of such movement
10 : the sound of a bell being struck *at the stroke of twelve*; also : the specific time indicated by or as if by such a sound
11 [1stroke] : an act of stroking or caressing
12 a : a mark or dash made by a single movement of an implement b : one of the lines of a letter of the alphabet
transitive verb
1 a : to mark with a short line *stroke the t's* b : to cancel by drawing a line through *stroked out his name*
2 : to set the stroke for (a rowing crew); also : to set the stroke for the crew of (a rowing boat)
3 : HIT; especially : to propel (a ball) with a controlled swinging blow
intransitive verb
1 : to execute a stroke
2 : to row at a certain number of strokes a minute

83

stroll

[strəul] n. 漫步;闲逛;巡回演出
vi. 散步;闲逛;巡回演出
vt. 散步;闲逛
Intransitive verb
1 : to go from place to place in search of work or profit *strolling players* *strolling musicians*
2 : to walk in a leisurely or idle manner : RAMBLE
transitive verb : to walk at leisure along or about

84

strut

[strʌt] vt. 炫耀;在…上趾高气扬地走;给…加支撑
n. 支柱;高视阔步
vi. 高视阔步;趾高气扬地走
Intransitive verb
1 : to become turgid : SWELL
2 a : to walk with a proud gait b : to walk with a pompous and affected air
transitive verb : to parade (as clothes) with a show of pride
Noun.1 : a structural piece designed to resist pressure in the direction of its length
2 : a pompous step or walk
3 : arrogant behavior : SWAGGER
vt. : to provide, stiffen, support, or hold apart with or as if with a strut

85

stubborn

['stʌbən] adj. 顽固的;顽强的;难处理的
Adj.1 a (1) : unreasonably or perversely unyielding : MULISH (2) : justifiably unyielding : RESOLUTE b : suggestive or typical of a strong stubborn nature *a stubborn jaw*
2 : performed or carried on in an unyielding, obstinate, or persistent manner *stubborn effort*
3 : difficult to handle, manage, or treat *a stubborn cold*
4 : LASTING *stubborn facts*
synonyms see OBSTINATE

86

stubby

['stʌbi] adj. 短而粗硬的;又短又秃的;断株样的
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Adj.1 : abounding with stubs
2 a : resembling a stub : being short and thick *stubby fingers* b : being short and thickset : SQUAT c : being short, broad, or blunt (as from use or wear) *an old stubby pencil*

87

studied

['stʌdid] adj. 有计划的;故意的
v. 学习(study的过去式)
Adj.1 : carefully considered or prepared : THOUGHTFUL *a studied response*
2 : KNOWLEDGEABLE, LEARNED *studied in the craft of blacksmithing*
3 : produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation : CALCULATED *studied indifference* *spoke with a studied accent*

88

stuffy

['stʌfi] adj. 闷热的;古板的;不通气的
Adj.1 : ILL-NATURED, ILL-HUMORED
2 : lacking in vitality or interest : STODGY, DULL
3 a : oppressive to the breathing : CLOSE *a stuffy room* b : stuffed up *a stuffy nose*
4 a : narrowly inflexible in standards of conduct : SELF-RIGHTEOUS b : stiffly conventional : PRIGGISH *stuffy formalities*

89

stultify

['stʌltifai] vt. 使变无效;使显得愚笨;使无价值
vt.1 archaic : to allege or prove to be of unsound mind and hence not responsible
2 : to cause to appear or be stupid, foolish, or absurdly illogical
3 a : to impair, invalidate, or make ineffective : NEGATE b : to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on

90

stun

[stʌn] vt. 使震惊;打昏;给以深刻的印象
n. 昏迷;打昏;惊倒;令人惊叹的事物
vt.1 : to make senseless, groggy, or dizzy by or as if by a blow : DAZE
2 : to shock with noise
3 : to overcome especially with paralyzing astonishment or disbelief
Noun.: the effect of something that stuns : SHOCK

91

stunt

[stʌnt] n. 噱头,手腕;绝技
vt. 阻碍…的正常生长或发展
vi. 表演特技;作惊人表演
vt. : to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of
Noun.1 : one (as an animal) that is stunted
2 : a check in growth
3 : a plant disease in which dwarfing occurs
Noun.1 : an unusual or difficult feat requiring great skill or daring; especially : one performed or undertaken chiefly to gain attention or publicity
2 : a shifting or switching of the positions by defensive players at the line of scrimmage in football to disrupt the opponent's blocking efforts
vi.: to perform or engage in a stunt

92

stupefy

['stju:pifai] vt. 使惊呆;使昏迷
vt.1 : to make stupid, groggy, or insensible
2 : ASTONISH, ASTOUND

93

stupendous

[stjuː'pendəs] adj. 惊人的;巨大的
Adj.1 : causing astonishment or wonder : AWESOME, MARVELOUS
2 : of amazing size or greatness : TREMENDOUS
synonyms see MONSTROUS

94

stupor

['stju:pə] n. 昏迷,恍惚;麻木
Noun.1 : a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended sense or sensibility *a drunken stupor*
2 : a state of extreme apathy or torpor resulting often from stress or shock : DAZE
synonyms see LETHARGY

95

sturdy

['stə:di] adj. 坚定的;强健的;健全的
n. [医]羊晕倒病
Adj.1 a : firmly built or constituted : STOUT b : HARDY *sturdy plants* c : sound in design or execution : SUBSTANTIAL
2 a : marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor b : FIRM, RESOLUTE c : RUGGED, STABLE
synonyms see STRONG

96

stutter

['stʌtə] vi. 结结巴巴地说话
n. 口吃,结巴
vt. 结结巴巴地说出
Intransitive verb
1 : to speak with involuntary disruption or blocking of speech (as by spasmodic repetition or prolongation of vocal sounds)
2 : to move or act in a halting or spasmodic manner *the old jalopy bucks and stutters uphill ?William Cleary*
transitive verb : to say, speak, or sound with or as if with a stutter
Noun.1 : an act or instance of stuttering
2 : a speech disorder involving stuttering

97

stygian

['stidʒiən] adj. 阴暗的,幽暗的;地狱的
Adj.1 : of or relating to the river Styx
2 : extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding *the stygian blackness of the cave*

98

suavity

noun.1 : the quality or state of being suave: as a (1) : mildness and pleasantness to the sense of smell or taste : FRAGRANCE *eggs and ['swɑ:vəti, 'swæ-] n. 柔和,温和;愉快
Butter and perhaps a bit of onion give both flavor and suavity?Scott Seegers* (2) : pleasing sweetness (as of sound or expression) *music performed with great suavity* b : the condition of being blandly pleasing to the mind : superficial and urbane agreeableness *replied with suavity* *the suavity of their manners*
2 : something that is suave : AMENITY ? usually used in plural *the suavities of polite society*

99

subcelestial

adj.世俗的,尘世的(worldly)

100

subjugate

['sʌbdʒəɡeit, -dʒu-] vt. 征服;使服从;克制
vt.1 : to bring under control and governance as a subject : CONQUER
2 : to make submissive : SUBDUE

101

sublimate

['sʌblɪmet] n. 升华物
vt. 使升华;使高尚
vi. 升华;纯化
adj. 纯净化的;理想化的;高尚的
vt.1 a : SUBLIME 1 b archaic : to improve or refine as if by subliming
2 : to divert the expression of (an instinctual desire or impulse) from its unacceptable form to one that is considered more socially or culturally acceptable
Noun.: a chemical product obtained by sublimation

102

sublime

[sə'blaim] adj. 庄严的;令人崇敬的;极端的;超群的
n. 崇高;顶点
vt. 使…纯化;使…升华;使…变高尚
vi. 升华;纯化;变高尚
Transitive verb
1 : to cause to pass directly from the solid to the vapor state and condense back to solid form
2 [French sublimer, from Latin sublimare] a (1) : to elevate or exalt especially in dignity or honor (2) : to render finer (as in purity or excellence) b : to convert (something inferior) into something of higher worth
intransitive verb : to pass directly from the solid to the vapor state
Adj.1 a : lofty, grand, or exalted in thought, expression, or manner b : of outstanding spiritual, intellectual, or moral worth c : tending to inspire awe usually because of elevated quality (as of beauty, nobility, or grandeur) or transcendent excellence
2 a archaic : high in place b obsolete : lofty of mien : HAUGHTY c capitalized : SUPREME ? used in a style of address d : COMPLETE, UTTER *sublime ignorance*
synonyms see SPLENDID

103

submit

[səb'mit] vt. 使服从;主张;呈递
vi. 提交;服从
Transitive verb
1 a : to yield to governance or authority b : to subject to a condition, treatment, or operation *the metal was submitted to analysis*
2 : to present or propose to another for review, consideration, or decision *submit a question to the court* *submit a bid on a contract* *submit a report*; also : to deliver formally *submitted my resignation*
3 : to put forward as an opinion or contention *we submit that the charge is not proved*
intransitive verb
1 a : to yield oneself to the authority or will of another : SURRENDER b : to permit oneself to be subjected to something *had to submit to surgery*
2 : to defer to or consent to abide by the opinion or authority of another
synonyms see YIELD

104

suborn

[sʌ'bɔ:n] vt. 唆使;收买;使作伪证
vt.1 : to induce secretly to do an unlawful thing
2 : to induce to commit perjury; also : to obtain (perjured testimony) from a witness

105

subpoena

[səb'pi:nə] vt. 传唤,传审;传讯
n. 传票
Noun.: a writ commanding a person designated in it to appear in court under a penalty for failure
vt. : to serve or summon with a writ of subpoena

106

subreption

[səb'repʃən] n. 歪曲事实;隐匿事实;作虚伪的申辩
Noun. : a deliberate misrepresentation; also : an inference drawn from it

107

subscribe

[səb'skraib] vi. 订阅;捐款;认购;赞成;签署
vt. 签署;赞成;捐助
Transitive verb
1 : to write (one's name) underneath : SIGN
2 a : to sign (as a document) with one's own hand in token of consent or obligation b : to attest by signing c : to pledge (a gift or contribution) by writing one's name with the amount
3 : to assent to : SUPPORT
intransitive verb
1 : to sign one's name to a document
2 a : to give consent or approval to something written by signing *unwilling to subscribe to the agreement* b : to set one's name to a paper in token of promise to give something (as a sum of money); also : to give something in accordance with such a promise c : to enter one's name for a publication or service; also : to receive a periodical or service regularly on order *subscribed to many magazines* d : to agree to purchase and pay for securities especially of a new offering *subscribed for 1000 shares*
3 : to feel favorably disposed *I subscribe to your sentiments*
synonyms see ASSENT

108

subsequent

['sʌbsikwənt] adj. 后来的,随后的
Adj.: following in time, order, or place *subsequent events* *a subsequent clause in the treaty*

109

subsidiary

[səb'sidiəri] adj. 附属的;辅助的
n. 子公司;辅助者
Adj.1 a : furnishing aid or support : AUXILIARY *subsidiary details* b : of secondary importance *a subsidiary stream*
2 : of, relating to, or constituting a subsidy *a subsidiary payment to an ally*
Noun. : one that is subsidiary; especially : a company wholly controlled by another

110

subsidy

['sʌbsidi] n. 补贴;津贴;补助金
Noun.: a grant or gift of money: as a : a sum of money formerly granted by the British Parliament to the crown and raised by special taxation b : money granted by one state to another c : a grant by a government to a private person or company to assist an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public

111

subsistence

[səb'sistəns] n. 生活;生存;存在
Noun.1 a (1) : real being : EXISTENCE (2) : the condition of remaining in existence : CONTINUATION, PERSISTENCE b : an essential characteristic quality of something that exists c : the character possessed by whatever is logically conceivable
2 : means of subsisting: as a : the minimum (as of food and shelter) necessary to support life b : a source or means of obtaining the necessities of life

112

substance

['sʌbstəns] n. 物质;实质;资产;主旨
Noun.1 a : essential nature : ESSENCE b : a fundamental or characteristic part or quality c Christian Science : GOD 1b
2 a : ultimate reality that underlies all outward manifestations and change b : practical importance : MEANING, USEFULNESS *theTbill*which will be without substance in the sense that it will authorize nothing more than a set of ideas ?Richard Reeves*
3 a : physical material from which something is made or which has discrete existence b : matter of particular or definite chemical constitution c : something (as drugs or alcoholic beverages) deemed harmful and usually subject to legal restriction *possession of a controlled substance* *substance abuse*
4 : material possessions : PROPERTY *a family of substance*

113

substantial

[səb'stænʃəl] adj. 大量的;实质的;内容充实的
n. 本质;重要材料
Adj.1 a : consisting of or relating to substance b : not imaginary or illusory : REAL, TRUE c : IMPORTANT, ESSENTIAL
2 : ample to satisfy and nourish : FULL *a substantial meal*
3 a : possessed of means : WELL-TO-DO b : considerable in quantity : significantly great *earned a substantial wage*
4 : firmly constructed : STURDY *a substantial house*
5 : being largely but not wholly that which is specified *a substantial lie*

114

substratum

[sʌb'strɑːtəm; -'streɪtəm] n. 基础;根据;下层
Noun. : an underlying support : FOUNDATION: as a : substance that is a permanent subject of qualities or phenomena b : the material of which something is made and from which it derives its special qualities c : a layer beneath the surface soil; specifically : SUBSOIL d : SUBSTRATE 2

115

subsume

[səb'sju:m] vt. 把……归入;把……包括在内
vt.: to include or place within something larger or more comprehensive : encompass as a subordinate or component element *red, green, and yellow are subsumed under the term *color**

116

subterfuge

['sʌbtəfjuːdʒ] n. 托词;借口;诡计
Noun.1 : deception by artifice or stratagem in order to conceal, escape, or evade
2 : a deceptive device or stratagem
synonyms see DECEPTION

117

subvention

[səb'venʃən] n. 津贴;补助金;援助
Noun.: the provision of assistance or financial support: as a : ENDOWMENT b : a subsidy from a government or foundation

118

suckle

['sʌkl] vt. 给…哺乳;吮吸;养育
vi. 吃奶
Transitive verb
1 a : to give milk to from the breast or udder *a mother suckling her child* b : to nurture as if by giving milk from the breast *was suckled on pulp magazines*
2 : to draw milk from the breast or udder of *lambs suckling the ewes*
intransitive verb : to draw milk from the breast or udder

119

sufficient

[sə'fiʃənt] adj. 足够的;充分的
Adj.1 a : enough to meet the needs of a situation or a proposed end *sufficient provisions for a month* b : being a sufficient condition
2 archaic : QUALIFIED, COMPETENT

120

suffocate

['sʌfəkeit] vi. 受阻,受扼制;窒息
vt. 压制,阻碍;使……窒息
Transitive verb
1 a (1) : to stop the respiration of (as by strangling or asphyxiation) (2) : to deprive of oxygen b : to make uncomfortable by want of fresh air
2 : to impede or stop the development of
intransitive verb
1 : to become suffocated: a (1) : to die from being unable to breathe (2) : to die from lack of oxygen b : to be uncomfortable through lack of fresh air
2 : to become checked in development

121

suggestive

[səɡ'dʒestiv] adj. 暗示的;提示的;影射的
Adj.1 a : giving a suggestion : INDICATIVE *suggestive of a past era* b : full of suggestions : stimulating thought *provided a suggestiveTcommentary on the era ?Lloyd Morris* c : stirring mental associations : EVOCATIVE
2 : suggesting or tending to suggest something improper or indecent : RISQUE

122

sulky

['sʌlki] adj. 生气的;阴沉的
Adj.1 a : sulking or given to spells of sulking b : relating to or indicating a sulk *a sulky expression*
2 [2sulky] : having wheels and usually a seat for the driver *a sulky plow*
synonyms see SULLEN
Noun.: a light 2-wheeled vehicle (as for harness racing) having a seat for the driver only and usually no body

123

sullen

['sʌlən] adj. 愠怒的,不高兴的;(天气)阴沉的;沉闷的
Noun.1 a : gloomily or resentfully silent or repressed *a sullen crowd* b : suggesting a sullen state : LOWERING *a sullen countenance*
2 : dull or somber in sound or color
3 : DISMAL, GLOOMY *a sullen morning*
4 : moving sluggishly *a sullen river*

124

summation

[sʌ'meiʃən] n. 和;总和;合计
Noun.1 : the act or process of forming a sum : ADDITION
2 : SUM, TOTAL
3 : cumulative action or effect; especially : the process by which a sequence of stimuli that are individually inadequate to produce a response are cumulatively able to induce a nerve impulse
4 : a final part of an argument reviewing points made and expressing conclusions

125

summon

['sʌmən] vt. 召唤;召集;鼓起;振作
vt.1 : to issue a call to convene : CONVOKE
2 : to command by service of a summons to appear in court
3 : to call upon for specified action
4 : to bid to come : send for *summon a physician*
5 : to call forth : EVOKE ? often used with up

126

sunder

['sʌndə] vt. 切开;切断
vi. 分离;断开
Transitive verb : to break apart or in two : separate by or as if by violence or by intervening time or space
intransitive verb : to become parted, disunited, or severed
synonyms see SEPARATE

127

sundry

['sʌndri] adj. 杂的;各式各样的
n. 杂货;杂项
Adj. : MISCELLANEOUS, VARIOUS *sundry articles*
pronoun, plural in construction.: an indeterminate number *recommended for reading by all and sundry ?Edward Huberman*

128

superannuated

[suːpə'rænjʊeɪtɪd; 'sjuː-] adj. 过时的;退休的;老朽的
v. 退休;变陈旧(superannuate的过去分词)
Adj.1 : OUTMODED, OLD-FASHIONED *superannuated slang* *superannuated planes*
2 a : incapacitated or disqualified for active duty by advanced age b : older than the typical member of a specified group *a superannuated graduate student*

129

supererogatory

[,sjuːprə'rɒɡətɔːrɪ] adj. 额外的,多余的;职责以外的
Adj.1 : observed or performed to an extent not enjoined or required
2 : exceeding what is needed : SUPERFLUOUS *attending three long-winded meetings in a row on the same subject was supererogatory*

130

superfluity

[,sju:pə'fluiti] n. 奢侈品;额外;过剩
Noun.1 a : EXCESS, OVERSUPPLY b : something unnecessary or superfluous
2 : immoderate and especially luxurious living, habits, or desires

131

superimpose

[,sju:pərim'pəuz] vt. 添加;重叠;附加;安装
vt.: to place or lay over or above something *superimposed images* *superimposed a formula on the stories*

132

superiority

[sju:,piəri'ɔriti, sə-] n. 优越,优势;优越性
Noun. : the quality or state of being superior; also : a superior characteristic

133

superlative

[suː'pɜːlətɪv; sjuː-] n. 最高级;最好的人;最高程度;夸大话
adj. 最高的;最高级的;过度的
Adj.1 : of, relating to, or constituting the degree of grammatical comparison that denotes an extreme or unsurpassed level or extent
2 a : surpassing all others : SUPREME b : of very high quality : EXCELLENT *superlative work*
3 : EXCESSIVE, EXAGGERATED
Noun.1 a : the superlative degree of comparison in a language b : a superlative form of an adjective or adverb
2 : the superlative or utmost degree of something : ACME
3 : a superlative person or thing
4 : an admiring sometimes exaggerated expression especially of praise

134

supervise

['sju:pəvaiz] vt. 监督,管理;指导
vi. 监督,管理;指导
vt.: SUPERINTEND, OVERSEE

135

supine

[sju:'pain, 'sju:pain] adj. 仰卧的;懒散的;掌心向上的;向后靠的
Noun.1 : a Latin verbal noun having an accusative of purpose in -um and an ablative of specification in -u
2 : an English infinitive with to
Adj.1 a : lying on the back or with the face upward b : marked by supination
2 : exhibiting indolent or apathetic inertia or passivity; especially : mentally or morally slack
3 archaic : leaning or sloping backward
synonyms see PRONE, INACTIVE

136

supplicate

['sʌplikeit] vt. 恳求,哀求;恳请
vi. 哀求;恳请;祈求
Intransitive verb : to make a humble entreaty; especially : to pray to God
transitive verb
1 : to ask humbly and earnestly of
2 : to ask for earnestly and humbly
synonyms see BEG

137

supreme

[sju'pri:m, sə-] adj. 最高的;至高的;最重要的
n. 至高;霸权
Adj.1 : highest in rank or authority *the supreme commander*
2 : highest in degree or quality *supreme endurance in war and in labour ?R. W. Emerson*
3 : ULTIMATE, FINAL *the supreme sacrifice*

138

surfeit

['sə:fit] n. 过度;饮食过度;恶心(由于饮食过度所引起)
vt. 使饮食过度;使厌腻;使过度沉溺于
vi. 饮食过度;过分放纵
Noun.1 : an overabundant supply : EXCESS
2 : an intemperate or immoderate indulgence in something (as food or drink)
3 : disgust caused by excess
transitive verb : to feed, supply, or give to surfeit
intransitive verb , archaic : to indulge to satiety in a gratification (as indulgence of the appetite or senses)
synonyms see SATIATE

139

surge

[sə:dʒ] n. 大浪;汹涌澎湃;巨涌
vi. 激增;汹涌
vt. 使颠簸
Intransitive verb
1 : to rise and fall actively : TOSS *a ship surging in heavy seas*
2 : to rise and move in waves or billows : SWELL *the sea was surging*
3 : to slip around a windlass, capstan, or bitts ? used especially of a rope
4 : to rise suddenly to an excessive or abnormal value *the stock market surgeed to a record high*
5 : to move with a surge or in surges *felt the blood surging into his face ?Harry Hervey* *she surged past the other runners*
transitive verb : to let go or slacken gradually (as a rope)
Noun.1 : a swelling, rolling, or sweeping forward like that of a wave or series of waves *a surge of interest*
2 a : a large wave or billow : SWELL b (1) : a series of such swells or billows (2) : the resulting elevation of water level
3 a : a movement (as a slipping or slackening) of a rope or cable b : a sudden jerk or strain caused by such a movement
4 : a transient sudden rise of current or voltage in an electrical circuit

140

surplus

['sə:plʌs, -pləs] n. 剩余;顺差;盈余;过剩
adj. 剩余的;过剩的
Noun.1 a : the amount that remains when use or need is satisfied b : an excess of receipts over disbursements
2 : the excess of a corporation's net worth over the par or stated value of its stock

141

suspect

[sə'spekt, 'sʌspekt] n. 嫌疑犯
adj. 可疑的;不可信的
vt. 怀疑;猜想
vi. 怀疑;猜想
Adj.1 : regarded or deserving to be regarded with suspicion : SUSPECTED *investigates suspect employees*
2 : DOUBTFUL, QUESTIONABLE *whose skills are suspect ?Peter Vecsey*
Noun.: one that is suspected; especially : a person suspected of a crime
transitive verb
1 : to imagine (one) to be guilty or culpable on slight evidence or without proof *suspect him of giving false information*
2 : to have doubts of : DISTRUST *suspects her motives*
3 : to imagine to exist or be true, likely, or probable *I suspect he's right*
intransitive verb : to imagine something to be true or likely

142

suspicion

[sə'spiʃən] n. 怀疑;嫌疑;疑心;一点儿
vt. 怀疑
Noun.1 a : the act or an instance of suspecting something wrong without proof or on slight evidence : MISTRUST b : a state of mental uneasiness and uncertainty : DOUBT
2 : a barely detectable amount : TRACE *just a suspicion of garlic*
synonyms see UNCERTAINTY
vt. chiefly dialect : SUSPECT

143

sustained

[sə'steind] adj. 持续的;持久的;持久不变的
v. 维持(sustain的过去式和过去分词);承受
Adj. : maintained at length without interruption, weakening, or losing in power or quality : PROLONGED, UNFLAGGING *sustained reasoning* *sustained comedy* *sustained flight* *sustained performance* *sustained verse* *sustained piece of music*

144

svelte

[svelt, sfelt] adj. 苗条的;线条清晰的;和蔼的
Adj.1 a : SLENDER, LITHE b : having clean lines : SLEEK
2 : URBANE, SUAVE

145

swagger

['swæɡə] vt. 吓唬;趾高气扬地行走或行事
vi. 大摇大摆;吹牛;虚张声势吓人
n. 大摇大摆;吹牛;威吓;下摆散开状的女式短大衣
adj. 炫耀的;时髦的
Intransitive verb
1 : to conduct oneself in an arrogant or superciliously pompous manner; especially : to walk with an air of overbearing self-confidence
2 : BOAST, BRAG
transitive verb : to force by argument or threat : BULLY
Noun.1 a : an act or instance of swaggering b : arrogant or conceitedly self-assured behavior c : ostentatious display or bravado
2 : a self-confident outlook : COCKINESS
Adj.: marked by elegance or showiness : POSH

146

swallow

['swɔləu] vt. 忍受;吞没
vi. 吞下;咽下
n. 燕子;一次吞咽的量
Noun.1 : any of numerous small widely distributed oscine birds (family Hirundinidae, the swallow family) that have a short bill, long pointed wings, and often a deeply forked tail and that feed on insects caught on the wing
2 : any of several birds that superficially resemble swallows
transitive verb
1 : to take through the mouth and esophagus into the stomach
2 : to envelop or take in as if by swallowing : ABSORB *swallow the financial loss* *watch night swallow the valley*
3 : to accept without question, protest, or resentment *swallow an insult* *a hard story to swallow*
4 : TAKE BACK, RETRACT *had to swallow my words*
5 : to keep from expressing or showing : REPRESS *swallowed my anger*
6 : to utter (as words) indistinctly
intransitive verb
1 : to receive something into the body through the mouth and esophagus
2 : to perform the action characteristic of swallowing something especially under emotional stress
Noun.1 : the passage connecting the mouth to the stomach
2 : a capacity for swallowing
3 a : an act of swallowing b : an amount that can be swallowed at one time

147

swamp

[swɔmp, swɔ:mp] n. 沼泽;湿地
vt. 使陷于沼泽;使沉没;使陷入困境
vi. 下沉;陷入沼泽;陷入困境;不知所措(过去式swamped,过去分词swamped,现在分词swamping,第三人称单数swamps,名词swampiness,形容词swampy)
Noun.1 : a wetland often partially or intermittently covered with water; especially : one dominated by woody vegetation
2 : a tract of swamp
3 : a difficult or troublesome situation or subject
transitive verb
1 a : to fill with or as if with water : INUNDATE, SUBMERGE b : to overwhelm numerically or by an excess of something : FLOOD *swamped with work*
2 : to open by removing underbrush and debris
intransitive verb : to become submerged

148

swank

[swæŋk] n. 出风头;虚张声势
vi. 炫耀;出风头
adj. 爱打扮的,华丽的
vi. : SHOW OFF, SWAGGER; also : BOAST 1
Adj.Scottish : full of life or energy : ACTIVE
Adj.1 : characterized by showy display : OSTENTATIOUS *a swank limousine*
2 : fashionably elegant : SMART *a swank restaurant*
Noun.1 : arrogance or ostentation of dress or manner : PRETENTIOUSNESS, SWAGGER
2 : ELEGANCE, FASHIONABLENESS

149

swarthy

['swɔːðɪ] adj. 黝黑的;黑皮肤的
Adj. : of a dark color, complexion, or cast

150

swathe

[sweið, swɔð] vt. 包围;紧绑;裹
n. 带子,绷带;包装品
Noun.1 : a band used in swathing
2 : an enveloping medium
vt.1 : to bind, wrap, or swaddle with or as if with a bandage
2 : ENVELOP *a mountain swathed by clouds*

151

sway

[swei] vt. 影响;统治;使摇动
vi. 影响;摇摆
n. 影响;摇摆;统治
Noun.1 : the action or an instance of swaying or of being swayed : an oscillating, fluctuating, or sweeping motion
2 : an inclination or deflection caused by or as if by swaying
3 a : a controlling influence b : sovereign power : DOMINION c : the ability to exercise influence or authority : DOMINANCE
synonyms see POWER
intransitive verb
1 a : to swing slowly and rhythmically back and forth from a base or pivot b : to move gently from an upright to a leaning position
2 : to hold sway : act as ruler or governor
3 : to fluctuate or veer between one point, position, or opinion and another
transitive verb
1 a : to cause to sway : set to swinging, rocking, or oscillating b : to cause to bend downward to one side c : to cause to turn aside : DEFLECT, DIVERT
2 archaic a : WIELD b : GOVERN, RULE
3 a : to cause to vacillate b : to exert a guiding or controlling influence on
4 : to hoist in place *sway up a mast*
synonyms see SWING, AFFECT

152

swear

[swεə] vt. 发誓;咒骂
vi. 发誓,宣誓;诅咒
n. 宣誓;诅咒
Transitive verb
1 : to utter or take solemnly (an oath)
2 a : to assert as true or promise under oath *a sworn affidavit* *swore to uphold the Constitution* b : to assert or promise emphatically or earnestly *swore he'd study harder next time*
3 a : to put to an oath : administer an oath to b : to bind by an oath *swore them to secrecy*
4 obsolete : to invoke the name of (a sacred being) in an oath
5 : to bring into a specified state by swearing *swore his life away*
intransitive verb
1 : to take an oath
2 : to use profane or obscene language : CURSE
Noun. : OATH, SWEARWORD

153

swell

[swel] vi. 膨胀;[病理]肿胀;隆起
vt. 使膨胀;使隆起
n. 肿胀;隆起
adj. 漂亮的;一流的
Intransitive verb
1 a : to expand (as in size, volume, or numbers) gradually beyond a normal or original limit *the population swelled* b : to become distended or puffed up *her ankle is badly swollen* c : to form a bulge or rounded elevation
2 a : to become filled with pride and arrogance b : to behave or speak in a pompous, blustering, or self-important manner c : to play the swell
3 : to become distended with emotion
transitive verb
1 : to affect with a powerful or expansive emotion
2 : to increase the size, number, or intensity of *swell the applicant pool*
synonyms see EXPAND
Noun.1 : a long often massive and crestless wave or succession of waves often continuing beyond or after its cause (as a gale)
2 a : the condition of being protuberant b : a rounded elevation
3 a : the act or process of swelling b (1) : a gradual increase and decrease of the loudness of a musical sound; also : a sign indicating a swell (2) : a device used in an organ for governing loudness
4 a archaic : an impressive, pompous, or fashionable air or display b : a person dressed in the height of fashion c : a person of high social position or outstanding competence
Adj.1 a : STYLISH b : socially prominent
2 : EXCELLENT ? used as a generalized term of enthusiasm

154

sweltering

['sweltəriŋ] adj. 闷热的;热得难受的
Adj. : oppressively hot *sweltering summer days*

155

swerve

[swə:v] vi. 转弯;突然转向;背离
vt. 使转弯;使突然转向;使背离
n. 转向;偏离的程度
Intransitive verb : to turn aside abruptly from a straight line or course : DEVIATE
transitive verb : to cause to turn aside or deviate

156

swig

[swiɡ] vi. 牛饮;大喝特喝
n. 痛饮,大喝;牛饮
vt. 牛饮;大喝特喝,豪饮
Noun.: a quantity drunk at one time
transitive verb : to drink in long drafts *swig cider*
intransitive verb : to take a swig : DRINK

157

swill

[swil] n. 泔水;冲洗;痛饮;涮
vt. 冲洗;痛饮;涮;倒出
vi. 大口地喝;发激荡声
Transitive verb
1 : WASH, DRENCH
2 : to drink great drafts of : GUZZLE *swill beer*
3 : to feed (as a pig) with swill
intransitive verb
1 : to drink or eat freely, greedily, or to excess
2 : SWASH
Noun.1 : something suggestive of slop or garbage : REFUSE
2 a : a semiliquid food for animals (as swine) composed of edible refuse mixed with water or skimmed or sour milk b : GARBAGE

158

swindle

['swindl] n. 欺诈;骗局
vt. 诈骗;骗取
vi. 诈骗
Intransitive verb : to obtain money or property by fraud or deceit
transitive verb : to take money or property from by fraud or deceit
synonyms see CHEAT
Noun.: an act or instance of swindling : FRAUD

159

swine

[swain] n. 猪;卑贱的人
Noun.1 : any of various stout-bodied short-legged omnivorous artiodactyl mammals (family Suidae) with a thick bristly skin and a long flexible snout; especially : a domesticated one descended from the wild boar
2 : a contemptible person

160

swing

[swiŋ] n. 摇摆;摆动;秋千;音律;涨落
vi. 摇摆;转向;悬挂;大摇大摆地行走
vt. 使旋转;挥舞;悬挂
adj. 旋转的;悬挂的;强节奏爵士音乐的
Transitive verb
1 a : to cause to move vigorously through a wide arc or circle *swing an ax* b : to cause to sway to and fro c (1) : to cause to turn on an axis (2) : to cause to face or move in another direction *swing the car into a side road*
2 : to suspend so as to permit swaying or turning
3 : to convey by suspension *cranes swinging cargo into the ship's hold*
4 a (1) : to influence decisively *swing a lot of votes* (2) : to bring around by influence b : to handle successfully : MANAGE *wasn't able to swing a new car on his income* *swing a deal*
5 : to play or sing (as a melody) in the style of swing music
intransitive verb
1 : to move freely to and fro especially in suspension from an overhead support
2 a : to die by hanging b : to hang freely from a support
3 : to move in or describe a circle or arc: a : to turn on a hinge or pivot b : to turn in place c : to convey oneself by grasping a fixed support *swing aboard the train*
4 a : to have a steady pulsing rhythm b : to play or sing with a lively compelling rhythm; specifically : to play swing music
5 : to shift or fluctuate from one condition, form, position, or object of attention or favor to another *swing constantly from optimism to pessimism and back ?Sinclair Lewis*
6 a : to move along rhythmically b : to start up in a smooth vigorous manner *ready to swing into action*
7 : to hit or aim at something with a sweeping arm movement
8 a : to be lively, exciting, and up-to-date b : to engage freely in sex
Noun.1 : an act or instance of swinging : swinging movement: as a (1) : a stroke or blow delivered with a sweeping arm movement *a batter with a powerful swing* (2) : a sweeping or rhythmic movement of the body or a bodily part (3) : a dance figure in which two dancers revolve with joined arms or hands (4) : jazz dancing in moderate tempo with a lilting syncopation b (1) : the regular movement of a freely suspended object (as a pendulum) along an arc and back (2) : back and forth sweep *the swing of the tides* c (1) : steady pulsing rhythm (as in poetry or music) (2) : a steady vigorous movement characterizing an activity or creative work d (1) : a trend toward a high or low point in a fluctuating cycle (as of business activity) (2) : an often periodic shift from one condition, form, position, or object of attention or favor to another
2 a : liberty of action b (1) : the driving power of something swung or hurled (2) : steady vigorous advance : driving speed *a train approaching at full swing*
3 : the progression of an activity, process, or phase of existence *the work is in full swing*
4 : the arc or range through which something swings
5 : something that swings freely from or on a support; especially : a seat suspended by a rope or chains for swinging to and fro on for pleasure
6 a : a curving course or outline b : a course from and back to a point : a circular tour
7 : jazz that is played (as by a big band) with a steady beat and that uses the harmonic structures of popular songs and the blues as a basis for improvisations and arrangements
8 : a short pass in football thrown to a back running to the outside
Adj.1 : of or relating to musical swing *a swing band* *swing music* *swing dancing*
2 : that may swing often decisively either way on an issue or in an election *swing voters* *a swing state*