L23 Flashcards Preview

XDF/GRE/EXPAND > L23 > Flashcards

Flashcards in L23 Deck (160):
2

abase

[ə'beis] vt. 使…谦卑;降低…的品格;降低…的地位
vt.1 archaic : to lower physically
2 : to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem

3

abash

[ə'bæʃ] vt. 使困窘;使羞愧;使局促不安
vt.: to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of : DISCONCERT
synonyms see EMBARRASS

4

abate

[ə'beit] vt. 减轻;减少;废除
vi. 减轻;失效
Transitive verb
1 a : to put an end to *abate a nuisance* b : NULLIFY 1 *abate a writ*
2 a : to reduce in degree or intensity : MODERATE *may abate their rancor to win peace* b : to reduce in value or amount : make less especially by way of relief *abate a tax*
3 : DEDUCT, OMIT *abate part of the price*
4 a : to beat down or cut away so as to leave a figure in relief b obsolete : BLUNT
5 : DEPRIVE 2
intransitive verb
1 : to decrease in force or intensity
2 a : to become defeated or become null or void b : to decrease in amount or value

5

abdicate

['æbdikeit] vi. 退位;放弃
vt. 退位;放弃
Transitive verb
1 : to cast off : DISCARD
2 : to relinquish (as sovereign power) formally
intransitive verb : to renounce a throne, high office, dignity, or function

6

abhorrent

[əb'hɔrət] adj. 可恶的;厌恶的;格格不入的
Adj.1 a archaic : strongly opposed b : feeling or showing abhorrence
2 : not agreeable : CONTRARY *a notion abhorrent to their philosophy*
3 : being so repugnant as to stir up positive antagonism *acts abhorrent to every right-minded person*

7

abject

['æbdʒekt, æb'dʒekt] adj. 卑鄙的;可怜的;不幸的
Adj.1 : sunk to or existing in a low state or condition *to lowest pitch of abject fortune thou art fallen ?John Milton*
2 a : cast down in spirit : SERVILE, SPIRITLESS *a man made abject by suffering* b : showing hopelessness or resignation *abject surrender*
3 : expressing or offered in a humble and often ingratiating spirit *abject flattery* *an abject apology*
synonyms see MEAN

8

abjure

[æb'dʒuə] vt. 发誓放弃;公开放弃;避免
vt.1 a : to renounce upon oath b : to reject solemnly
2 : to abstain from : AVOID *abjure extravagance*

9

abnegate

['æbniɡeit] vt. 放弃;舍弃;禁忌
vt.1 : DENY, RENOUNCE *abnegated their God*
2 : SURRENDER, RELINQUISH *abnegated her powers*

10

abnegation

[,æbni'ɡeiʃən] n. 拒绝;放弃;克制
Noun.: DENIAL; especially : SELF-DENIAL

11

abolish

[ə'bɔliʃ] vt. 废除,废止;取消,革除
vt.1 : to end the observance or effect of : ANNUL *abolish a law* *abolish slavery*
2 : DESTROY

12

abominate

[ə'bɔmineit] vt. 痛恨;憎恶
vt.: to hate or loathe intensely : ABHOR
synonyms see HATE

13

abortive

[ə'bɔ:tiv] adj. 失败的;流产的;堕胎的
Adj.1 obsolete : prematurely born
2 : FRUITLESS, UNSUCCESSFUL
3 : imperfectly formed or developed
4 : tending to cut short

14

abound

[ə'baund] vi. 富于;充满
vi.1 : to be present in large numbers or in great quantity : be prevalent
2 : to be copiously supplied ? used with in or with *life abounded in mysteries ?Norman Mailer* *institutions abound with evidence of his success ?Johns Hopkins Magazine*

15

aboveboard

[ə,bʌv'bɔ:d] adv. 光明正大地;率直地
adj. 光明正大的;直率的
Adv.: in a straightforward manner : OPENLY
Adj.: free from all traces of deceit or duplicity

16

abrade

[ə'breid] vt. 擦伤;磨损
vi. 经受磨损;受擦伤
Transitive verb
1 a : to rub or wear away especially by friction : ERODE b : to irritate or roughen by rubbing
2 : to wear down in spirit : IRRITATE, WEARY
intransitive verb : to undergo abrasion

17

abrogate

['æbrəuɡeit] vt. 废除;取消
vt.1 : to abolish by authoritative action : ANNUL
2 : to treat as nonexistent *abrogating their responsibilities*
synonyms see NULLIFY

18

abrupt

[ə'brʌpt] adj. 生硬的;突然的;唐突的;陡峭的
Adj.1 a : characterized by or involving action or change without preparation or warning : UNEXPECTED *came to an abrupt stop* *an abrupt turn* *an abrupt decision to retire* b : unceremoniously curt *an abrupt manner* c : lacking smoothness or continuity *an abrupt transition*
2 : giving the impression of being cut or broken off; especially : involving a sudden steep rise or drop *abrupt hills* *a high abrupt bank bounded the stream*
synonyms see PRECIPITATE, STEEP

19

abscond

[əb'skɔnd] vi. 逃匿,潜逃;避债
vi. : to depart secretly and hide oneself

20

absolve

[əb'zɔlv, -'sɔlv] vt. 免除;赦免;宣告…无罪
vt.1 : to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt
2 : to remit (a sin) by absolution
synonyms see EXCULPATE

21

abstemious

[æb'sti:mjəs] adj. 节约的,节省的;有节制的
Adj. : marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol; also : reflecting such restraint *an abstemious diet*

22

abstention

[æb'stenʃən] n. 弃权;节制;戒绝
Noun.: the act or practice of abstaining

23

abstentious

[æb'stenʃəs] adj. 有节制的
Adj. : ABSTINENT : self-restraining

24

abstinent

['æbstinənt] adj. 禁欲的;有节制的;饮食有度的
n. 禁欲者
Adj.: practicing abstinence : ABSTEMIOUS, CONTINENT, TEMPERATE
Noun.1 : one that abstains
2 usually capitalized : one of a 4th century Christian ascetic sect in southwestern Europe that rejected meat eating and held that the relation between the sexes should be purely spiritual ? compare PRISCILLIANIST

25

abuse

[ə'bju:z, ə'bju:s] n. 滥用;虐待;辱骂;弊端;恶习,陋习
vt. 滥用;虐待;辱骂
Noun.1 : a corrupt practice or custom
2 : improper or excessive use or treatment : MISUSE *drug abuse* *abuse of tranquilizers*
3 obsolete : a deceitful act : DECEPTION
4 : language that condemns or vilifies usually unjustly, intemperately, and angrily
5 : physical maltreatment
synonyms ABUSE, VITUPERATION, INVECTIVE, OBLOQUY, BILLINGSGATE mean vehemently expressed condemnation or disapproval. ABUSE, the most general term, usually implies the anger of the speaker and stresses the harshness of the language *scathing verbal abuse*. VITUPERATION implies fluent and sustained abuse *a torrent of vituperation*. INVECTIVE implies a comparable vehemence but suggests greater verbal and rhetorical skill and may apply to a public denunciation *blistering political invective*. OBLOQUY suggests defamation and consequent shame and disgrace *subjected to obloquy and derision*. BILLINGSGATE implies practiced fluency and variety of profane or obscene abuse *directed a stream of billingsgate at the cabdriver*.
vt.1 a : to put to a wrong or improper use *abuse a privilege* b : to use excessively *abuse alcohol*; also : to use without medical justification *abuseing painkillers*
2 obsolete : DECEIVE
3 : to use so as to injure or damage : MALTREAT
4 : to attack in words : REVILE

26

abusive

[ə'bju:siv] adj. 辱骂的;滥用的;虐待的
Adj.1 : characterized by wrong or improper use or action; especially : CORRUPT *abusive financial practices*
2 a : using harsh insulting language *an angry and abusive crowd* b : characterized by or serving for abuse *abusive language* c : physically injurious *abusive behavior*

27

acarpous

[eɪ'kɑːpəs] adj. 不结果的;[植] 无果实的

28

accessory

[ək'sesəri] n. 配件;附件;从犯
adj. 副的;同谋的;附属的
Noun.1 a : a person not actually or constructively present but contributing as an assistant or instigator to the commission of an offense ? called also accessory before the fact b : a person who knowing that a crime has been committed aids or shelters the offender with intent to defeat justice ? called also accessory after the fact
2 a : a thing of secondary or subordinate importance : ADJUNCT b : an object or device not essential in itself but adding to the beauty, convenience, or effectiveness of something else *auto accessories* *clothing accessories*
Adj.1 : assisting as a subordinate; especially : contributing to a crime but not as the chief agent
2 : aiding or contributing in a secondary way : SUPPLEMENTARY
3 : present in a minor amount and not essential as a constituent *an accessory mineral in a rock*

29

acclaim

[ə'kleim] vt. 称赞;为…喝采,向…欢呼
n. 欢呼,喝彩;称赞
vi. 欢呼,喝采
Transitive verb
1 : APPLAUD, PRAISE
2 : to declare by acclamation
intransitive verb : to shout praise or applause
Noun.1 : the act of acclaiming
2 : PRAISE, APPLAUSE

30

acclimate

[ə'klaimit] vi. 服水土;适应新环境
vt. 使适应;使服水土
Transitive verb : to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation
intransitive verb : to become acclimated

31

accolade

['ækəuleid, ækəu'leid] n. 荣誉;荣誉称号授予仪式;连谱号;称赞
Noun.1 a : a ceremonial embrace b : a ceremony or salute conferring knighthood
2 a : a mark of acknowledgment : AWARD b : an expression of praise
3 : a brace or a line used in music to join two or more staffs carrying simultaneous parts

32

accomplished

[ə'kʌmpliʃt] adj. 完成的;熟练的,有技巧的;有修养的;有学问的
Adj.1 a : proficient as the result of practice or training *an accomplished dancer*; also : skillfully done or produced *an accomplished film* b : having many social accomplishments
2 : established beyond doubt or dispute *an accomplished fact*

33

accost

[ə'kɔst] vt. 勾引;引诱;对…说话;搭讪
vt.: to approach and speak to often in a challenging or aggressive way

34

accountability

[ə,kauntə'biləti] n. 有义务;有责任;可说明性
Noun.: the quality or state of being accountable; especially : an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one's actions *public officials lacking accountability*

35

accrete

[æ'kri:t] vi. 合生;增大生长;依附
vt. 使依附;使连接;把…吸引过来
adj. 合生的;增积的
Intransitive verb : to grow or become attached by accretion
transitive verb : to cause to adhere or become attached; also : ACCUMULATE

36

accrue

[ə'kru:] vi. 产生;自然增长或利益增加
vt. 获得;积累
Intransitive verb
1 : to come into existence as a legally enforceable claim
2 a : to come about as a natural growth, increase, or advantage *the wisdom that accrues with age* b : to come as a direct result of some state or action *rewards due to the feminine will accrue to me ?Germaine Greer*
3 : to accumulate or be added periodically *interest accrues on a daily basis*
transitive verb : to accumulate or have due after a period of time *accrue vacation time*

37

accumulate

[ə'kju:mjuleit] vi. 累积;积聚
vt. 积攒
Transitive verb : to gather or pile up especially little by little : AMASS *accumulate a fortune*
intransitive verb : to increase gradually in quantity or number

38

accurate

['ækjurət] adj. 精确的
Adj.1 : free from error especially as the result of care *an accurate diagnosis*
2 : conforming exactly to truth or to a standard : EXACT *providing accurate color*
3 : able to give an accurate result *an accurate gauge*
synonyms see CORRECT

39

acedia

[ə'siːdɪə] n. 绝望;懒惰,倦怠
Noun. : APATHY, BOREDOM

40

acerbity

[ə'sə:bəti] n. 酸,涩;刻薄
Noun.: the quality of being acerbic

41

acquiesce

[,ækwi'es] vi. 默许;勉强同意
vi. : to accept, comply, or submit tacitly or passively ? often used with in and sometimes with to
synonyms see ASSENT

42

acquisitive

[ə'kwizitiv] adj. 贪得的;想获得的;可学到的;有获得可能性的
Adj.: strongly desirous of acquiring and possessing
synonyms see COVETOUS

43

acquit

[ə'kwit] vt. 无罪释放;表现;脱卸义务和责任;清偿
vt.1 a archaic : to pay off (as a claim or debt) b obsolete : REPAY, REQUITE
2 : to discharge completely (as from an obligation or accusation) *the court acquitted the prisoner*
3 : to conduct (oneself) usually satisfactorily especially under stress *the recruits acquitted themselves like veterans*
synonyms see BEHAVE, EXCULPATE

44

acrid

['ækrid] adj. 辛辣的;苦的;刻薄的
Adj.1 : sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor : IRRITATING
2 : deeply or violently bitter : ACRIMONIOUS *an acrid denunciation*
synonyms see CAUSTIC

45

acrobat

['ækrəbæt] n. 杂技演员,特技演员;随机应变者;翻云覆雨者,善变者
Noun.1 : one that performs gymnastic feats requiring skillful control of the body
2 a : one skillful at exercises of intellectual or artistic dexterity b : one adept at swiftly changing or adapting a position or viewpoint *a political acrobat*

46

acuity

[ə'kju:əti] n. 敏锐;尖锐;剧烈
Noun.: keenness of perception : SHARPNESS

47

acumen

[ə'kju:men] n. 聪明,敏锐
Noun. : keenness and depth of perception, discernment, or discrimination especially in practical matters
synonyms see DISCERNMENT

48

adapt

[ə'dæpt] vt. 使适应;改编
vi. 适应
Transitive verb : to make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation) often by modification
intransitive verb : to become adapted

49

additive

['æditiv] n. 添加剂,添加物
adj. 附加的;加法的
Adj.1 : of, relating to, or characterized by addition *an additive process*
2 : produced by addition
3 : characterized by, being, or producing effects (as drug responses or gene products) that when the causative factors act together are the sum of their individual effects
Noun.: a substance added to another in relatively small amounts to effect a desired change in properties *food additives*

50

addle

['ædl] vt. 使腐坏;使混乱
vi. 变质;变混乱
adj. 腐坏的;糊涂的,昏乱的
Adj.1 of an egg : ROTTEN
2 : CONFUSED
transitive verb : to throw into confusion : CONFOUND
intransitive verb
1 : to become rotten : SPOIL
2 : to become confused

51

adduce

[ə'dju:s] vt. 举出;引证
vt.: to offer as example, reason, or proof in discussion or analysis

52

adherent

[əd'hiərənt] n. 信徒;追随者
adj. 附着的;粘着的
Adj.1 : able or tending to adhere
2 : connected or associated with especially by contract
3 : ADNATE
Noun.: one that adheres: as a : a follower of a leader, party, or profession b : a believer in or advocate especially of a particular idea or church
synonyms see FOLLOWER

53

adjourn

[ə'dʒə:n] vi. 休会;延期;换地方
vt. 推迟;使…中止;使…延期
Transitive verb : to suspend indefinitely or until a later stated time
intransitive verb
1 : to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place
2 : to move to another place

54

adjudicate

[ə'dʒu:dikeit] vi. 裁定;宣判
vt. 裁定;宣判
Transitive verb : to settle judicially
intransitive verb : to act as judge

55

adjunct

['ædʒʌŋkt] n. 附属物;助手;修饰语
adj. 附属的
Noun.1 : something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it
2 a : a word or word group that qualifies or completes the meaning of another word or other words and is not itself a main structural element in its sentence b : an adverb or adverbial (as heartily in *They ate heartily* or at noon in *We left at noon*) attached to the verb of a clause especially to express a relation of time, place, frequency, degree, or manner ? compare DISJUNCT 2
3 a : an associate or assistant of another b : an adjunct faculty member at a college or university
4 : ADJUVANT b
Adj.1 : added or joined as an accompanying object or circumstance
2 : attached in a subordinate or temporary capacity to a staff *an adjunct professor*

56

adolescent

[,ædəu'lesnt] adj. 青春期的;未成熟的
n. 青少年 adolescent health 青少年健康 adj.青春期的;未成熟的 pubertal, hebetic n.[人类]青少年 youths, teener
Noun.: one that is in the state of adolescence
Adj.1 : of, relating to, or being in adolescence
2 : emotionally or intellectually immature

57

adroit

[ə'drɔit] adj. 敏捷的,灵巧的;熟练的
Adj.: having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations *an adroit leader* *adroit maneuvers*
synonyms see CLEVER, DEXTEROUS

58

adulate

['ædjuleit] vt. 过分称赞;谄媚;奉承
vt.1 a : to praise effusively and slavishly : flatter excessively : fawn upon *sheepish fools that adulate every decision of their leaders* b : to pay homage to without exercising a critical sense of values *a man who respects science without adulating it*
2 : to admire or be devoted to abjectly and excessively *teen-agers adulating the newest movie star*

59

adulterate

[ə'dʌltəreit] adj. 通奸的;搀杂的
vt. 搀假
vt.: to corrupt, debase, or make impure by the addition of a foreign or inferior substance or element; especially : to prepare for sale by replacing more valuable with less valuable or inert ingredients
Adj.1 : being adulterated : SPURIOUS
2 : tainted with adultery : ADULTEROUS

60

advent

['ædvənt] n. 到来;出现;基督降临;基督降临节
Noun.1 : the period beginning four Sundays before Christmas and observed by some Christians as a season of prayer and fasting
2 a : the coming of Christ at the Incarnation b : SECOND COMING
3 not capitalized : a coming into being or use *the Advent of spring* *the Advent of pasteurization* *the Advent of personal computers*

61

adventitious

[,ædv(ə)n'tɪʃəs] adj. 外来的,偶然的
Adj.1 : coming from another source and not inherent or innate *a Federal house without adventitious later additions*
2 : arising or occurring sporadically or in other than the usual location *adventitious roots*

62

advert

[əd'və:t] vi. 注意;谈到
n. 广告
vi.1 : to turn the mind or attention ? used with to *adverted to the speaker*
2 : to call attention in the course of speaking or writing : make reference ? used with to *adverted to foreign-language sources*
Noun. chiefly British : ADVERTISEMENT

63

advisable

[əd'vaizəbl] adj. 明智的,可取的,适当的
Adj. : fit to be advised or done : PRUDENT
synonyms see EXPEDIENT

64

advocate

['ædvəkeit, 'ædvəkət] vt. 提倡,主张,拥护
n. 提倡者;支持者;律师
Noun.1 : one that pleads the cause of another; specifically : one that pleads the cause of another before a tribunal or judicial court
2 : one that defends or maintains a cause or proposal
3 : one that supports or promotes the interests of another
vt.: to plead in favor of
synonyms see SUPPORT

65

aerate

['eiəreit] vt. 充气;让空气进入;使暴露于空气中
vt.1 : to supply or impregnate (as the soil or a liquid) with air
2 : to supply (the blood) with oxygen by respiration
3 a British : CARBONATE 2 b : to make light or sparkling

66

aerial

['εəriəl] adj. 空中的,航空的;空气的;空想的
n. 天线
Adj.1 a : of, relating to, or occurring in the air or atmosphere b : existing or growing in the air rather than in the ground or in water c : high in the air *aerial spires* d : operating or operated overhead on elevated cables or rails *an aerial tram*
2 : suggestive of air: as a : lacking substance b : FANCIFUL, ETHEREAL *visions of aerial joy ?P. B. Shelley*
3 a : of or relating to aircraft *aerial navigation* b : designed for use in, taken from, or operating from or against aircraft c : effected by means of aircraft *aerial transportation*
4 : of, relating to, or gained by the forward pass in football
Noun.1 : ANTENNA 2
2 : FORWARD PASS
3 : an acrobatic maneuver performed (as by skiers and gymnasts) in the air; also plural : a ski event featuring aerials

67

affected

[ə'fektid] adj. 受到影响的;做作的;假装的
vt. 影响;假装;使…感动(affect的过去式和过去分词)
Adj.1 : INCLINED, DISPOSED *was well affected toward her*
2 a : given to or marked by affectation *spoke in an affected manner* b : assumed artificially or falsely : PRETENDED *an affected interest in art*

68

affiliate

[ə'filieit, ə'filiit, -eit] n. 联号;隶属的机构等
vt. 使附属;接纳;使紧密联系
vi. 参加,加入;发生联系
Transitive verb
1 a : to bring or receive into close connection as a member or branch b : to associate as a member *affiliates herself with the local club*
2 : to trace the origin of
intransitive verb : to connect or associate oneself : COMBINE
Noun.: an affiliated person or organization

69

affiliation

[ə,fili'eiʃən] n. 友好关系;加入;联盟;从属关系
Noun.: the act of affiliating : the state or relation of being affiliated

70

affix

[ə'fiks, 'æfiks] vt. 粘上;署名;将罪责加之于
n. [语]词缀;附加物
vt.1 : to attach physically *affix a stamp to a letter*
2 : to attach in any way : ADD, APPEND *affix a signature to a document*
3 : IMPRESS *affixed my seal*
synonyms see FASTEN
Noun.1 : one or more sounds or letters occurring as a bound form attached to the beginning or end of a word, base, or phrase or inserted within a word or base and serving to produce a derivative word or an inflectional form
2 : APPENDAGE

71

affliction

[ə'flikʃən] n. 苦难;苦恼;折磨
Noun.1 : the state of being afflicted
2 : the cause of persistent pain or distress
3 : great suffering

72

aftermath

['ɑːftəmæθ] n. 后果;余波
Noun.1 : a second-growth crop - called also rowen
2 : CONSEQUENCE, RESULT *stricken with guilt as an aftermath of the accident*
3 : the period immediately following a usually ruinous event *in the aftermath of the war*

73

agape

[ə'ɡeip] adj. 张开著;张口惊视的
adv. 目瞪口呆
Noun.1 : LOVE FEAST
2 : LOVE 4a
Adj or adv.1 : wide open : GAPING *with mouth agape*
2 : being in a state of wonder *tourists agape at the scenery*

74

agenda

[ə'dʒendə] n. 议程;日常工作事项
Noun.1 : a list or outline of things to be considered or done *agendas of faculty meetings*
2 : an underlying often ideological plan or program *a political agenda*

75

aggregate

['æɡriɡət, 'æɡriɡeit] vi. 集合;聚集;合计
vt. 集合;聚集;合计
n. 合计;集合体;总计
adj. 聚合的;集合的;合计的
Adj. : formed by the collection of units or particles into a body, mass, or amount : COLLECTIVE: as a (1) : clustered in a dense mass or head *an aggregate flower* (2) : formed from several separate ovaries of a single flower *aggregate fruit* b : composed of mineral crystals of one or more kinds or of mineral rock fragments c : taking all units as a whole *aggregate sales*
vt.1 : to collect or gather into a mass or whole
2 : to amount in the aggregate to : TOTAL
Noun.1 : a mass or body of units or parts somewhat loosely associated with one another
2 : the whole sum or amount : SUM TOTAL
3 a : an aggregate rock b : any of several hard inert materials (as sand, gravel, or slag) used for mixing with a cementing material to form concrete, mortar, or plaster c : a clustered mass of individual soil particles varied in shape, ranging in size from a microscopic granule to a small crumb, and considered the basic structural unit of soil
4 : SET 21
5 : MONETARY AGGREGATE

76

aggrieve

[ə'ɡri:v] vt. 使悲痛;冒犯;侵害…的合法权利
vt.1 : to give pain or trouble to : DISTRESS
2 : to inflict injury on
synonyms see WRONG

77

agile

['ædʒail] adj. 敏捷的;机敏的;活泼的
Adj.1 : marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace *an agile dancer*
2 : having a quick resourceful and adaptable character *an agile mind*

78

agitated

['ædʒiteitid] adj. 激动的;焦虑的;表现不安的
v. 焦虑;鼓动(agitate的过去分词)
Adj.1 : moving to and fro : QUIVERING, SHAKING *his agitated hand always gliding over the network of fine nerves about his mouth?Charles Dickens*
2 : troubled in mind : DISTURBED, EXCITED *Wickham's alarm now appeared in a heightened complexion and agitated look?Jane Austen*
3 : kept before the public by extended discussion or debate *the long agitated plan for a new high school*

79

agnostic

[æɡ'nɔstik] n. [哲]不可知论者
adj. [哲]不可知论的
Noun.1 : a person who holds the view that any ultimate reality (as God) is unknown and probably unknowable; broadly : one who is not committed to believing in either the existence or the nonexistence of God or a god
2 : a person unwilling to commit to an opinion about something *political agnostics*
Adj.1 : of, relating to, or being an agnostic or the beliefs of agnostics
2 : NONCOMMITTAL, UNDOGMATIC

80

agog

[ə'ɡɔɡ] adj. 兴奋的;有强烈兴趣的
adv. 热切地;渴望地
Adj. : full of intense interest or excitement : EAGER *kids all agog over new toys*

81

agreeable

[ə'ɡri:əbl] adj. 令人愉快的;适合的;和蔼可亲的
Adj.1 : pleasing to the mind or senses especially as according well with one's tastes or needs *an agreeable companion* *an agreeable change*
2 : ready or willing to agree or consent *I'm agreeable to their proposal*
3 : being in harmony : CONSONANT

82

ague

['eiɡju:] n. [医]疟疾;发冷;寒颤
Noun.1 : a fever (as malaria) marked by paroxysms of chills, fever, and sweating that recur at regular intervals
2 : a fit of shivering : CHILL

83

ail

[eil] vt. 使苦恼,使烦恼
vi. 生病
n. 病痛,苦恼
Transitive verb : to give physical or emotional pain, discomfort, or trouble to
intransitive verb : to have something the matter; especially : to suffer ill health
Noun. : AILMENT

84

airtight

['εətait] adj. 密闭的,密封的;无懈可击的
Adj.1 : impermeable to air or nearly so *an airtight seal*
2 a : having no noticeable weakness, flaw, or loophole *an airtight argument* b : permitting no opportunity for an opponent to score *an airtight defense*

85

albeit

[ɔ:l'bi:it] conj. 虽然;即使
Conjunction.: conceding the fact that : even though : ALTHOUGH

86

aleatory

['eɪlɪət(ə)rɪ; 'æl-] adj. 偶然的;即兴的
Adj.1 : depending on an uncertain event or contingency as to both profit and loss *an aleatory contract*
2 : relating to luck and especially to bad luck
3 : ALEATORIC

87

alert

[ə'lə:t] vt. 警告;使警觉,使意识到
adj. 警惕的,警觉的;留心的
n. 警戒,警惕;警报
Adj.1 a : watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency b : quick to perceive and act
2 : ACTIVE, BRISK
synonyms see WATCHFUL, INTELLIGENT
Noun.1 : a state of careful watching and readiness especially for danger or opportunity *on 24-hour alert*
2 a : an alarm or other signal of danger b : an urgent notice *an alert to parentsTabout new immunization requirements ?Ann Schrader*
3 : the period during which an alert is in effect
vt.1 : to call to a state of readiness : WARN
2 : to make aware of *alerted the public to the dangers of pesticides*

88

allay

[ə'lei] vt. 减轻;使缓和;使平静
Transitive verb
1 : to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity : ALLEVIATE *expect a breeze to allay the heat*
2 : to make quiet : CALM *trying to allay their fears*
intransitive verb , obsolete : to diminish in strength : SUBSIDE
synonyms see RELIEVE

89

allergic

[ə'lə:dʒik] adj. 对…过敏的;对…极讨厌的
Adj.1 : of, relating to, affected with, or caused by allergy
2 : having an aversion *allergic to work*

90

alleviate

[ə'li:vieit] vt. 减轻,缓和
vt. : RELIEVE, LESSEN: as a : to make (as suffering) more bearable *her sympathy alleviated his distress* b : to partially remove or correct *measures taken to alleviate a labor shortage*
synonyms see RELIEVE

91

allocate

['æləukeit] vt. 分配;拨出;使坐落于
vi. 分配;指定
vt.1 : to apportion for a specific purpose or to particular persons or things : DISTRIBUTE *allocate tasks among human and automated components*
2 : to set apart or earmark : DESIGNATE *allocate a section of the building for special research purposes*

92

allowance

[ə'lauəns] n. 津贴,零用钱;允许;限额
vt. 定量供应
Noun.1 a : a share or portion allotted or granted b : a sum granted as a reimbursement or bounty or for expenses *salary includes cost-of-living allowance*; especially : a sum regularly provided for personal or household expenses *each child has an allowance* c : a fixed or available amount *provide an allowance of time for recreation* d : a reduction from a list price or stated price *a trade-in allowance*
2 : an imposed handicap (as in a horse race)
3 : an allowed dimensional difference between mating parts of a machine
4 : the act of allowing : PERMISSION
5 : a taking into account of mitigating circumstances or contingencies *the plan makes no allowance for bad weather*
vt.1 archaic : to put on a fixed allowance (as of food and drink)
2 archaic : to supply in a fixed or regular quantity

93

alluring

['ə'ljuəriŋ] adj. 诱惑的,诱人的;迷人的,吸引人的
Adj. : marked by allure : ATTRACTIVE, ENTICING, TEMPTING *not an alluring prospect* *declines any path, however alluring, that does not commend itself to his intellect?Brand Blanshard* *a land of mystery, remote and alluring*

94

alter

['ɔ:ltə] vt. 改变,更改
vi. 改变;修改
Transitive verb
1 : to make different without changing into something else
2 : CASTRATE, SPAY
intransitive verb : to become different
synonyms see CHANGE

95

amalgamate

[ə'mælɡəmeit] vi. 合并;汞齐化;调制汞合金
vt. 合并;使(金属)汞齐化;混合
vt.: to unite in or as if in an amalgam; especially : to merge into a single body
synonyms see MIX

96

amass

[ə'mæs] vt. 积聚,积累
Transitive verb
1 : to collect for oneself : ACCUMULATE *amass a great fortune*
2 : to collect into a mass : GATHER *must select rather than simply amass details*
intransitive verb : to come together : ASSEMBLE

97

ambience

['æmbiəns] n. 气氛,布景;周围环境
Noun. : a feeling or mood associated with a particular place, person, or thing : ATMOSPHERE

98

ambush

['æmbuʃ] n. 埋伏,伏击;伏兵
vt. 埋伏,伏击
vi. 埋伏
Transitive verb
1 : to station in ambush
2 : to attack from an ambush : WAYLAY
intransitive verb : to lie in wait : LURK
Noun.1 : a trap in which concealed persons lie in wait to attack by surprise
2 : the persons stationed in ambush; also : their concealed position
3 : an attack especially from an ambush

99

amiable

['eimjəbl] adj. 和蔼可亲的,亲切的
Adj.1 archaic : PLEASING, ADMIRABLE
2 a : generally agreeable *an amiable comedy* b : being friendly, sociable, and congenial

100

amity

['æməti] n. 友好;亲善关系;友好关系
Noun. : FRIENDSHIP; especially : friendly relations between nations

101

amnesia

noun.1 : loss of memory due usually to brain injury, shock, fatigue, repression, or illness
2 : a gap in one's memory
3 : the selective overlooking or ignoring of events or acts that are not favorable or useful to one's purpose or position

102

amnesty

['æmnisti] n. 大赦,特赦
vt. 对…实行大赦
Noun.: the act of an authority (as a government) by which pardon is granted to a large group of individuals

103

ample

['æmpl] adj. 丰富的;足够的;宽敞的
Adj.1 : generous or more than adequate in size, scope, or capacity *there was room for an ample garden*
2 : generously sufficient to satisfy a requirement or need *they had ample money for the trip*
3 : BUXOM, PORTLY *an ample figure*
synonyms see SPACIOUS, PLENTIFUL

104

amplify

['æmplifai] vt. 放大,扩大;增强;详述
vi. 详述
Transitive verb
1 : to expand (as a statement) by the use of detail or illustration or by closer analysis
2 a : to make larger or greater (as in amount, importance, or intensity) : INCREASE b : to increase the strength or amount of; especially : to make louder c : to cause (a gene or DNA sequence) to undergo amplification
intransitive verb : to expand one's remarks or ideas
synonyms see EXPAND

105

amuse

[ə'mju:z] vt. 娱乐;消遣;使发笑;使愉快
Transitive verb
1 a archaic : to divert the attention of so as to deceive b obsolete : to occupy the attention of : ABSORB c obsolete : DISTRACT, BEWILDER
2 a : to entertain or occupy in a light, playful, or pleasant manner *amuse the child with a story* b : to appeal to the sense of humor of *the joke doesn't amuse me*
intransitive verb , obsolete : MUSE

106

analgesia

[,ænæl'dʒi:zjə] n. 止痛;无痛法
Noun.: insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness

107

analogy

[ə'nælədʒi] n. 类比;类推;类似
Noun.1 : inference that if two or more things agree with one another in some respects they will probably agree in others
2 a : resemblance in some particulars between things otherwise unlike : SIMILARITY b : comparison based on such resemblance
3 : correspondence between the members of pairs or sets of linguistic forms that serves as a basis for the creation of another form
4 : correspondence in function between anatomical parts of different structure and origin ? compare HOMOLOGY
synonyms see LIKENESS

108

ancillary

[æn'siləri] adj. 辅助的;副的;从属的
n. 助手;附件
Adj.1 : SUBORDINATE, SUBSIDIARY *the main factory and its ancillary plants*
2 : AUXILIARY, SUPPLEMENTARY *the need for ancillary evidence*

109

anesthetic

[,ænis'θetik] adj. 麻醉的;感觉缺失的
n. 麻醉剂,麻药
Adj.1 : of, relating to, or capable of producing anesthesia
2 : lacking awareness or sensitivity *unmoved and quite anesthetic to his presence –S. J. Perelman*
Noun.1 : a substance that produces anesthesia
2 : something that brings relief : PALLIATIVE

110

anguish

['æŋɡwiʃ] n. 痛苦;苦恼
vt. 使极度痛苦
vi. 感到极度的痛苦
Noun.: extreme pain, distress, or anxiety
synonyms see SORROW
intransitive verb : to suffer anguish
transitive verb : to cause to suffer anguish

111

animadvert

[,ænimæd'və:t] vi. 批判;非难;责备
Transitive verb archaic : NOTICE, OBSERVE
intransitive verb : to make an animadversion

112

animate

['ænimeit, 'ænimət] vt. 使有生气;使活泼;鼓舞;推动
adj. 有生命的
Adj.1 : possessing or characterized by life : ALIVE
2 : full of life : ANIMATED
3 : of or relating to animal life as opposed to plant life
4 : referring to a living thing *an animate noun*
vt.1 : to give spirit and support to : ENCOURAGE
2 a : to give life to b : to give vigor and zest to
3 : to move to action *a criminal animated by greed*
4 a : to make or design in such a way as to create apparently spontaneous lifelike movement *animate a cartoon* b : to produce in the form of an animated cartoon *animate a story*
synonyms see QUICKEN

113

animation

[,æni'meiʃən] n. 活泼,生气;激励;卡通片绘制
Noun.1 : the act of animating : the state of being animate or animated
2 : ANIMATED CARTOON
3 : the preparation of animated cartoons

114

animus

['æniməs] n. 敌意;意图;基本态度;[心]女性的男性意向
Noun.1 : basic attitude or governing spirit : DISPOSITION, INTENTION
2 : a usually prejudiced and often spiteful or malevolent ill will
3 : an inner masculine part of the female personality in the analytic psychology of C. G. Jung ? compare ANIMA
synonyms see ENMITY

115

anneal

[ə'ni:l] vt. 使退火,韧炼;锻炼
n. 退火;锻炼,磨练
Transitive verb
1 a : to heat and then cool (as steel or glass) usually for softening and making less brittle; also : to cool slowly usually in a furnace b : to heat and then cool (double-stranded nucleic acid) in order to separate strands and induce combination at lower temperature with complementary strands
2 : STRENGTHEN, TOUGHEN
intransitive verb : to be capable of combining with complementary nucleic acid by a process of heating and cooling

116

annihilate

[ə'naiə,leit] vt. 歼灭;战胜;废止
vi. 湮灭;[核]湮没
Transitive verb
1 a : to cause to be of no effect : NULLIFY b : to destroy the substance or force of
2 : to regard as of no consequence
3 : to cause to cease to exist; especially : KILL
4 a : to destroy a considerable part of *bombs annihilated the city* : to vanquish completely : ROUT *annihilated the visitors 56*0*
5 : to cause (a particle and its antiparticle) to vanish by annihilating
intransitive verb , of a particle and its antiparticle : to vanish or cease to exist by coming together and changing into other forms of energy (as photons)

117

announce

[ə'nauns] vt. 宣布;述说;预示;播报
vi. 宣布参加竞选;当播音员
Transitive verb
1 : to make known publicly : PROCLAIM *announced the appointment*
2 a : to give notice of the arrival, presence, or readiness of *announce dinner* b : to indicate beforehand : FORETELL
3 : to serve as an announcer of *announce a football game*
intransitive verb
1 : to serve as an announcer
2 a : to declare one's candidacy *announce for president* b : to declare oneself politically *announce against a nominee*
synonyms see DECLARE

118

annoy

[ə'nɔi] vt. 骚扰;惹恼;打搅
vi. 惹恼;令人讨厌;打搅
n. 烦恼(等于annoyance)
Transitive verb
1 : to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts
2 : to harass especially by quick brief attacks
intransitive verb : to cause annoyance

119

annul

[ə'nʌl] vt. 取消;废除;宣告无效
vt.1 : to reduce to nothing : OBLITERATE
2 : to make ineffective or inoperative : NEUTRALIZE *annul the drug's effect*
3 : to declare or make legally invalid or void *wants the marriage annulled*
synonyms see NULLIFY

120

anonymity

[,ænə'niməti] n. 匿名;匿名者;无名之辈
Noun.1 : the quality or state of being anonymous
2 : one that is anonymous

121

antecedence

[,æntɪ'siːdəns] n. 先行;居先;在先
Noun. : PRIORITY, PRECEDENCE

122

anthem

['ænθəm] n. 赞美诗;圣歌
vt. 唱圣歌庆祝;唱赞歌
Noun.1 a : a psalm or hymn sung antiphonally or responsively b : a sacred vocal composition with words usually from the Scriptures
2 : a song or hymn of praise or gladness
3 : a usually rousing popular song that typifies or is identified with a particular subculture, movement, or point of view *anthems of teenage angst*

123

antic

['æntik] adj. 古怪的;滑稽可笑的
n. 滑稽动作;丑角
vi. 扮小旦;做滑稽动作
Noun.1 : an attention-drawing often wildly playful or funny act or action : CAPER *childish antics*
2 archaic : a performer of a grotesque or ludicrous part : BUFFOON
Adj.1 archaic : GROTESQUE, BIZARRE
2 a : characterized by clownish extravagance or absurdity b : whimsically gay : FROLICSOME

124

anticipate

[æn'tisipeit] vt. 预期,期望;占先,抢先;提前使用
Transitive verb
1 : to give advance thought, discussion, or treatment to
2 : to meet (an obligation) before a due date
3 : to foresee and deal with in advance : FORESTALL
4 : to use or expend in advance of actual possession
5 : to act before (another) often so as to check or counter
6 : to look forward to as certain : EXPECT
intransitive verb : to speak or write in knowledge or expectation of later matter
synonyms see FORESEE, PREVENT

125

anvil

['ænvil] n. 铁砧;[解]砧骨
Noun.1 : a heavy usually steel-faced iron block on which metal is shaped (as by hand hammering)
2 : INCUS
3 : the anvil*shaped top of a cumulonimbus

126

aplomb

[ə'plɔm] n. 沉着;垂直;泰然自若
Noun.: complete and confident composure or self-assurance : POISE
synonyms see CONFIDENCE

127

apocryphal

[ə'pɔkrifəl] adj. 伪的;可疑的
Adj.1 : of doubtful authenticity : SPURIOUS
2 often capitalized : of or resembling the Apocrypha
synonyms see FICTITIOUS

128

apologize

[ə'pɔlədʒaiz] vi. 道歉;辩解;赔不是
vt. 道歉;谢罪;辩白
vi.: to make an apology

129

apostate

[ə'pɔsteit] adj. 变节的;脱党的;背教的
n. 脱党者;变节者;叛教者
Noun. : one who commits apostasy

130

appeal

[ə'pi:l] vi. 呼吁,恳求;上诉;诉诸,求助;有吸引力,迎合爱好;(体育比赛中)诉诸裁判
n. 呼吁,请求;吸引力,感染力;上诉;诉诸裁判
vt. [美]将…上诉,对…上诉
Noun.1 : a legal proceeding by which a case is brought before a higher court for review of the decision of a lower court
2 : a criminal accusation
3 a : an application (as to a recognized authority) for corroboration, vindication, or decision b : an earnest plea : ENTREATY *an appeal for help* c : an organized request for donations *the annual appeal*
4 : the power of arousing a sympathetic response : ATTRACTION *movies had a great appeal for him*
transitive verb
1 : to charge with a crime : ACCUSE
2 : to take proceedings to have (a lower court's decision) reviewed in a higher court
intransitive verb
1 : to take a lower court's decision to a higher court for review
2 : to call upon another for corroboration, vindication, or decision
3 : to make an earnest request *appealed to them for help*
4 : to arouse a sympathetic response *that idea appeals to him*

131

applicant

['æplikənt] n. 申请人,申请者;请求者
Noun.: one who applies *a job applicant*

132

appoint

[ə'pɔint] vt. 任命;指定;约定
vi. 任命;委派
Transitive verb
1 a : to fix or set officially *appoint a trial date* b : to name officially *will appoint her director of the program* c archaic : ARRANGE d : to determine the disposition of (an estate) to someone by virtue of a power of appointment
2 : to provide with complete and usually appropriate or elegant furnishings or equipment *a beautifully appointed room*
intransitive verb : to exercise a power of appointment
synonyms see FURNISH

133

appraise

[ə'preiz] vt. 评价,鉴定;估价
vt.1 : to set a value on : estimate the amount of *appraise the damage*
2 : to evaluate the worth, significance, or status of; especially : to give an expert judgment of the value or merit of *appraise an actor's career*
synonyms see ESTIMATE

134

apprentice

[ə'prentis] n. 学徒;生手
vt. 使…当学徒
vi. 当学徒
Noun.1 a : one bound by indenture to serve another for a prescribed period with a view to learning an art or trade b : one who is learning by practical experience under skilled workers a trade, art, or calling
2 : an inexperienced person : NOVICE *an apprentice in cooking*
transitive verb : to set at work as an apprentice; especially : to bind to an apprenticeship by contract or indenture
intransitive verb : to serve as an apprentice

135

apron

['eiprən] n. 围裙;停机坪;舞台口
vt. 着围裙于;围绕
Noun.1 : a garment usually of cloth, plastic, or leather usually tied around the waist and used to protect clothing or adorn a costume
2 : something that suggests or resembles an apron in shape, position, or use: as a : the lower member under the sill of the interior casing of a window b : an upward or downward vertical extension of a bathroom fixture (as a sink or tub) c : an endless belt for carrying material d : an extensive fan-shaped deposit of detritus e : the part of the stage in front of the proscenium arch f : the area along the waterfront edge of a pier or wharf g : a shield (as of concrete or gravel) to protect against erosion (as of a waterway) by water h : the extensive paved part of an airport immediately adjacent to the terminal area or hangars

136

apt

[æpt] adj. 恰当的;有…倾向的;灵敏的
Adj.1 : unusually fitted or qualified : READY *proved an apt tool in the hands of the conspirators*
2 a : having a tendency : LIKELY *plants apt to suffer from drought* b : ordinarily disposed : INCLINED *apt to accept what is plausible as true*
3 : suited to a purpose; especially : being to the point *an apt quotation*
4 : keenly intelligent and responsive *an apt pupil*
synonyms see FIT, QUICK
Abbreviation.1 apartment
2 aptitude

137

aquiline

['ækwilain] adj. 鹰的;似鹰的,像鹰的;钩状的
Adj.1 : curving like an eagle's beak *an aquiline nose*
2 : of, relating to, or resembling an eagle

138

arbitrate

['ɑ:bitreit] vt. 仲裁;公断
Transitive verb
1 archaic : DECIDE, DETERMINE
2 : to act as arbiter upon
3 : to submit or refer for decision to an arbiter *agreed to arbitrate their differences*
intransitive verb : to act as arbiter

139

archer

['ɑ:tʃə] n. (运动或战争中的)弓箭手,射手;射手座;阿彻(姓氏)
noun.1 : a person who uses a bow and arrow
2 capitalized : SAGITTARIUS

140

archetype

['ɑ:kitaip] n. 原型
Noun.1 : the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies : PROTOTYPE; also : a perfect example
2 : IDEA 1a
3 : an inherited idea or mode of thought in the psychology of C. G. Jung that is derived from the experience of the race and is present in the unconscious of the individual

141

ardent

['ɑ:dənt] adj. 热情的;热心的;激烈的;燃烧般的
Adj.1 : characterized by warmth of feeling typically expressed in eager zealous support or activity *ardent proponents of the bill*
2 : FIERY, HOT *an ardent sun*
3 : SHINING, GLOWING *ardent eyes*

142

aristocracy

[,æri'stɔkrəsi] n. 贵族;贵族统治;上层社会;[法]贵族政治
Noun.1 : government by the best individuals or by a small privileged class
2 a : a government in which power is vested in a minority consisting of those believed to be best qualified b : a state with such a government
3 : a governing body or upper class usually made up of a hereditary nobility
4 : the aggregate of those believed to be superior

143

aroma

[ə'rəumə] n. 芳香
Noun.1 a : a distinctive pervasive and usually pleasant or savory smell; broadly : ODOR b : the odor of a wine imparted by the grapes from which it is made
2 : a distinctive quality or atmosphere : FLAVOR *the aroma of enjoyment ?Stella D. Gibbons*
synonyms see SMELL

144

arouse

[ə'rəuz] vt. 引起;唤醒;鼓励
vi. 激发;醒来;发奋
Transitive verb
1 : to awaken from sleep
2 : to rouse or stimulate to action or to physiological readiness for activity : EXCITE *the book aroused debate*
intransitive verb : to awake from sleep : STIR

145

arraign

[ə'reɪn] vt. 传讯,控告;责难,指责
vt.1 : to call (a defendant) before a court to answer to an indictment : CHARGE
2 : to accuse of wrong, inadequacy, or imperfection

146

arrant

['ærənt] adj. 极恶的;声名狼藉的;彻头彻尾的
Adj.: being notoriously without moderation : EXTREME *we are arrant knaves, all; believe none of us ?Shakespeare*

147

array

[ə'rei] n. [计]数组,阵列;排列,列阵;大批,一系列;衣服
vt. 排列,部署;打扮
vt.1 : to dress or decorate especially in splendid or impressive attire : ADORN *he had already arrayed himself in his best clothes ?Thomas Hardy*
2 a : to set or place in order : DRAW UP, MARSHAL *the forces arrayed against us* b : to set or set forth in order (as a jury) for the trial of a cause
3 : to arrange or display in or as if in an array *theTdata are arrayed in descending order ?Ed Burnett*
Noun.1 a : a regular and imposing grouping or arrangement : ORDER *lined upTin soldierly array ?Donald Barthelme* b : an orderly listing of jurors impaneled
2 a : CLOTHING, ATTIRE b : rich or beautiful apparel : FINERY
3 : a body of soldiers : MILITIA *the baron and his feudal array*
4 : an imposing group : large number *faced a whole array of problems*; also : VARIETY, ASSORTMENT *a broad array of styles*
5 a (1) : a number of mathematical elements arranged in rows and columns (2) : a data structure in which similar elements of data are arranged in a table b : a series of statistical data arranged in classes in order of magnitude
6 : a group of elements forming a complete unit *an antenna array*

148

arrest

[ə'rest] vt. 逮捕;阻止;吸引
n. 逮捕;监禁
vt.1 a : to bring to a stop *sickness arrested his activities* b : CHECK, SLOW c : to make inactive *an arrested tumor*
2 : SEIZE, CAPTURE; specifically : to take or keep in custody by authority of law
3 : to catch suddenly and engagingly *arrest attention*
Noun.1 a : the act of stopping b : the condition of being stopped or inactive ? compare CARDIAC ARREST
2 : the taking or detaining in custody by authority of law

149

arson

['ɑ:sən] n. 纵火;纵火罪
Noun.: the willful or malicious burning of property (as a building) especially with criminal or fraudulent intent

150

artifact

['ɑ:tifækt] n. 人工制品;手工艺品
Noun.1 a : something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially : an object remaining from a particular period *caves containing prehistoric artifacts* b : something characteristic of or resulting from a particular human institution, period, trend, or individual *self-consciousnessTturns out to be an artifact of our education system ?Times Literary Supplement*
2 : a product of artificial character (as in a scientific test) due usually to extraneous (as human) agency

151

artifice

['ɑ:tifis] n. 诡计;欺骗;巧妙的办法
Noun.1 a : clever or artful skill : INGENUITY *believing that characters had to be created from within rather than with artifice ?Garson Kanin* b : an ingenious device or expedient
2 a : an artful stratagem : TRICK b : false or insincere behavior *social artifice*
synonyms see TRICK, ART

152

artificial

[,ɑ:ti'fiʃəl] adj. 人造的;仿造的;虚伪的;非原产地的;武断的
Adj.1 : humanly contrived often on a natural model : MAN-MADE *an artificial limb* *artificial diamonds*
2 a : having existence in legal, economic, or political theory b : caused or produced by a human and especially social or political agency *an artificial price advantage* *artificial barriers of discrimination ?R. C. Weaver*
3 obsolete : ARTFUL, CUNNING
4 a : lacking in natural or spontaneous quality *an artificial smile* *an artificial excitement* b : IMITATION, SHAM *artificial flavor*
5 : based on differential morphological characters not necessarily indicative of natural relationships *an artificial key for plant identification*

153

ashen

['æʃən] adj. 灰色的;苍白的
Adj.: of, relating to, or made from ash wood
Adj.: resembling ashes (as in color); especially : deadly pale *a face ashen and haggard*

154

asinine

['æsɪnaɪn] adj. 驴的;愚蠢的,固执的;驴子似的
Adj.1 : extremely or utterly foolish *an asinine excuse*
2 : of, relating to, or resembling an ass
synonyms see SIMPLE

155

askance

[ə'skæns]
adv. 怀疑地;斜视地
Adv.1 : with a side-glance : OBLIQUELY
2 : with disapproval or distrust : SCORNFULLY *they eyed the stranger askance*

156

askew

[ə'skju:] adj. 歪斜的
adv. 歪斜地,斜地
Adv or adj.: out of line : AWRY *the picture hung askew*

157

aspersion

[ə'spə:ʃən] n. 中伤,诽谤;洒水
Noun.1 : a sprinkling with water especially in religious ceremonies
2 a : a false or misleading charge meant to harm someone's reputation *cast aspersions on her integrity* b : the act of making such a charge : DEFAMATION

158

aspirant

[ə'spaiərənt] n. 有抱负的人;野心家
adj. 上进的;有野心的
Noun. : one who aspires *presidential aspirants*
Adj.: seeking to attain a desired position or status *the pilot was an aspirant astronaut*

159

aspire

[ə'spaiə] vi. 渴望;立志;追求
vi.1 : to seek to attain or accomplish a particular goal *aspired to a career in medicine*
2 : ASCEND, SOAR

160

assault

[ə'sɔ:lt] n. 攻击;袭击
vt. 攻击;袭击
vi. 袭击;动武
Noun.1 a : a violent physical or verbal attack b : a military attack usually involving direct combat with enemy forces c : a concerted effort (as to reach a goal or defeat an adversary)
2 a : a threat or attempt to inflict offensive physical contact or bodily harm on a person (as by lifting a fist in a threatening manner) that puts the person in immediate danger of or in apprehension of such harm or contact ---compare BATTERY 1b b : RAPE 2
transitive verb
1 : to make an assault on
2 : RAPE 2
intransitive verb : to make an assault
synonyms see ATTACK

161

assemble

[ə'sembl] vt. 集合,聚集;装配;收集
vi. 集合,聚集
Transitive verb
1 : to bring together (as in a particular place or for a particular purpose)
2 : to fit together the parts of
intransitive verb : to meet together : CONVENE
synonyms see GATHER