Flashcards in Language Disorders Deck (229):
In the DSMV, Specific Language Impairment is replaced with ______.
Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)
In the DSMV, Mental Retardation is replaced with _______.
What are the 3 types of DLD?
1 Language impairment on its own
2 LD is part of bigger picture with print and literacy
3 Lang learning disorder as part of something else (medical, cognitive)
What are the key diagnostic features of a language disorder? 4 Which one is most important?
syntax, word learning, verbs, semantics; SYNTAX
What is the most common finding in studies of neural anatomy and DLD?
atypical and asymmetry;
What is the most common finding in studies of neural function and DLD?
more focused memory
Is DLD caused by biology or environment?
genetics definitely plays a role
How does linguistic environment play into language disorders?
it doesn't isolate on its own, but you need an enriched environment
How does dual language or multi-language environments affect DLD?
it doesn't, should force mothers to model a language they can't model properly (if they are better in Vietnamese, they should use that!)
Do clients diagnoses change over time?
yes, which makes you wonder if language disorders are all part of the same specturm
_____ uses information processing, memory, and learning. SLP may cause actual changes in brain structures.
Why are changes in the brain of the client important to us? 2
1 if it is a just a beh, it may be compensatory and still reformulation of existing patterns
2 brain-based changes leads client toward functional normalcy
Changes in the brain result from ______ and ____.
carefully manipulating the environment; child engagement in activity
Those with neurodevelopmental disorders (such as Autism) have more ____ ____.
How do brains develop?
back to front (sensory to cognition/execution)
left to right (language to processing skills)
What are ways of increasing receptive language through preprocessing input? 4
1 attending to lang target w/ separating from connected speech
2 associate items in the environment
3 process phonetic units of a word
4 focus on a small number of target words & repeat within and across contexts
What are ways of increasing receptive language through adapting input?
multi-sensory input through: pair with visual representation
What are two reasons that the child is not talking? 2
1 trouble parsing the words
2 trouble mapping words to environmental info
What is needed for expressive language to help with word retrieval/production? 3
1 help them find the salient words
2 use least to most prompting (and intentional levels of support)
3 teach word combinations to use early semantic relations (description, recurrence, location, request+4 words)
Since TD kids form _____, which are help organize and become more elaborate with new experiences, what do we need to do with kids with NDD. 3
schemas; be intentional, provide a schedule, use key words (first, next), and explain strategies.
What are the criteria for SLI? 2
1 lang ability at least 1.25 s.d. below mean
2 non verbal IQ of 85 or above (WNL)
What are the characteristics of ch w/ SLI? 5
1 diff w/ non-word repetition
2 grammatical/inflectional morphemes
3 delayed acquisition of words and reduced vocab, poorer fast mapping
4 diff producing weak syllables
5 diff processing non-linguistic stimuli
Why has SLI been discontinued?
there was a high association with dyslexia and neurological issues like ADHD
What does dialogic mean?
back and forth, dialogue based
What is the PLAI?
Preschool Lang Assessment Instrument, straight forward questions to inferential questions with a judgement scale for referencing answers
What did Desmarais et al. 2013 do?
replicate a study that had only been done once and had few similar; used kids diagnosed with SLI and tested their receptive language through referential and comprehension questions
Why were the results of Desmarais et al. 2013 inconclusive? 2
1 they did not use a control group
2 their two probe books were unequal
What did Yoder et al. (2011) do?
tested to see if MLU could predict success with Milieu Language Therapy (MLT) with Broad Target Recasts (BTR)
What did Yoder et al. (2011) find?
growth was greater for MLT with lower MLUs, but there was less growth for higher MLUs in both Tx. 74% showed growth with either treatment. IQ did not affect results
What did van Kleeck et al. (2010) do?
a meta analysis of research into whether Telegraphic Input (TI) is helpful in any cases or if Grammatical input (GI) is always preferable.
What did van Kleeck et al. (2010) find? 3
1. There was not enough research
2 The research was faulty
3. expert opinion is divided; our book authors argue in favor of GI
What are the main purposes of assessment? 5
3 goal setting
5 progress with an intervention
What are types of assessment models? 3
1 Deficit/Discrepancy Models
2 Categorical Models
3 System Models
___ is an assessment model based on norming samples which determine the difference between intellectual ability and achievement (IQ is not predicative of who has a lang learning disability)
_____ is an assessment model based on etiology. (we don't know the cause all the time, frequent overlap; variation in individual profiles)
_____ is an assessment model based on a multidimensional/synergistic perspective and language components are integrated. (deals with what the child CAN and CAN'T do)
____ is an assessment which is based on population norming sample.
___ is an assessment which is based on an absolute standard.
Criterion referenced test can be either ____ or ___ depending on the administration guidelines.
___ is a type of informal test which gather information about their conversation.
____ is a type of assessment which uses the principle test, teach, retest.
Norm referenced standardized test refer to ___ standing in relation to the group norms (standard deviation from the norm/mean).
Criterion-referenced standardized test refer to ___ score.
Norm referenced tests yield ___ which measure a broad domain.
Criterion referenced test yields ___ which measures a specific skills.
___ rankings are another means of expressing standardized scores, which compares 100% of the population.
And informal test can never give ____ information.
What do you assess? big 3
(also, fluency, voice, hearing, OME, behavior comments + play skills)
What goes into creation of an assessment plan? 4
1 consider your goal
2 look at options
3 gather materials
4 prepare for eveything
What do you do during an assessment? 2
1 follow directions as specifically as possible
2 write down everything; as specifically as possible (including wrong answers)
What are the two terms that come up a lot in Betz et al. (2013)? What do they mean?
sensitivity - how accurate at test is at IDing that a child has a disorder
specificity - how accurate is a test at IDing the children who do not have a disorder
What did Betz et al. find about the criteria for choosing which test to administer?
Publication year was the only variable that people used for choosing a test; based on name recognition; test can become dated and norming sample could be based on OLD population norms
What do you need in addition to a norm-referenced test? 2
Language samples (specific ex of using target forms; many tasks - explain, story retell, argue!)
What is the next step after the assessment? 2
Integrate with the big picture (case history, bg, parent/teacher/family member/friend)
If the pieces don't fit, find out why!!!
What were the main points of McCauley & Swisher (1984)? 4
1 age equivalencies as test scores
2 be aware of the difference btw scores needed to be significant
3 don't let an individual test item be indicative of a deficit or the need for a goal
4 don't use multiple testing to measure progress
When you report results of a test, what MUST you do?
give a definition of what the score means
When you report results on a norm-referenced test outside it's norming sample, what must you do?
explain that it is just used for information!
What should go into a language testing plan? 5
1 administer a norm-referenced, standardized test (determine eligibility status)
2. complete a language sample to determine consistency of strengths and errors
3. administer a criterion-referenced test for baseline
4 integrate 1-3 to formulate targets
5 repeat 3 after a (short) time in therapy to assess change, or 1-3 after a longer time
Can you share test content questions?
no, we must protect the content. write a similar/parallel but not exact question (use the same preposition).
What are the two general learning theories?
1 connectionism (statistical learning)
2 emergentism/dynamic systems
What are three language specific language learning theories?
___ defines learning as the process of statistically evaluating and integrating environmental input for optimal functioning (if it happens more often, i'll pay attention to it)
___ defines learning as driven by input, with cues from strength, reliability, and frequency.
___ defines learning as the interaction between components of development (forces that allow for learning and change)
What does the Competition model define as prompts from the environment (accuracy & happens often)? 2 big 2 underneath
strength cues (reliability cues and frequency cues)
capacity (starts at a certain level then grows)
What are the two big categories of forces for learning and change according to Dynamic systems?
internal & external
___ defines learning as the result of an interaction of a learner's capacity and environmental factors. (Following a developmental path of least resistance)
What are environmental language learning influences? 3
1 acoustic (t.v., parents, siblings)
2 linguistic (reliable, quality of parents, sibs and t.v. input)
3 social input (what is it used for and how much - cuing freq)
What are internal language learning influences? 5
3 physical mechanisms (hearing, oral mech)
4 emotional state
5 social conceptions
What happens in language deficits according to emergentism?
a breakdown in competence or performance between the child's system and environment
____ is that language features with relatively weak phonetic salience (acoustically) will be more difficult to learn and that language features with relatively complex acoustic properties will be more difficult to produce.
___ is when you put emphasis on the salient idea (understanding "bring the book to me" means "go get the book").
What is meant by the competition model?
features in language compete to gain input time (related to learner's capacity to process linguistic info)
____ is when children hear cues relevant to language in speech from pauses, sound duration and higher pitches.
____ is when children hear cues relevant to language in speech from subject verb objects and morphemes as frames.
How do parents use pause? Speech sound duration? Higher fund freq?
- longer at clause/phrase boundaries
- longer at linguistic boundaries (phrase ending)
- helps with attention
What are difficulties in working with bilingual clients? 4
1. defining bilingual
2. timing of bilingualism & norming processes in second language acquisition
3. ethics in working with bilinguals (DIFFERENCE vs. DISORDER)
4 working with an interpreter is different
If you re monolingual, you don't have to have bilingual clients. T/F
What do we need from an interpreter? 5
1 can process and use both languages (written and spoken)
2 explain the culture
3 understand and explain discipline-specific material
4 meet before to review targets
5 check that you are on the right path before session
What do you need to provide to an interpreter? 2
1 explain any rules
2 during the session, do not talk to the interpreter, talk to the client, eye-to-eye
What are cues to a language disorder? 9
1 reliance on gestures (not with Autism)
2 difficulty paying attention/following directions
3 frequent repetition
4 less precise vocabulary
5 family history
6 parents concerned
7 different than siblings
8 client frustration
9 deficits in BOTH languages
How do you determine language dominance? 2 suggestions
1 observe child in many settings to see language of choice
2 use a structured questionnaires
What are some questionnaires for determining language dominance? 8
Assessment Instrument for Multicultural Clients
2 Basic Inventory of Natural Language
3 Bilingual Language Proficiency Questionnaire
4 Bilingual Syntax Measure
5 Home Bilingual Usage Estimate
6 Oral Language Evaluation
7 Oral Language Dominance
8 Teacher Language Observation Report
How does the Competition model apply to language acquisition?
since frequency cues strength; if there's a match that will cause transference, if there's a difference that will cause an interference
What if you don't speak the clients language? 3
1 serve directly w/ a paraprofessional (interpreter)
2 serve indirectly w/ a teacher/parent
3 serve indirectly w/ a peers
When do you begin therapy in English? 3
1 client's English skills are at the same level as L1
2 there is a plateau in L1
3 client has had substantial exposure to bilingual education
Does learning 2 languages cause the language disorder? What about two dialects?
Do parents of children with CLD need to speak to their children in English only?
Can a child have a language disorder in only one language?
No, it will show up in both/any language they try to speak.
What was Restrepo and Kruth's definition of SLI? What's wrong with it?
" exhibit a significant language disorder not accounted for by neurological, sensory, or socioemotional difficulties, in the presence of
normal nonverbal intelligence " there's often something along with it.
What are other characteristic of SLI according to Restrepo and Kruth? 5
inflectional morphology (ie: copula, past tense, third person singular), pronouns, definite articles, and sometimes plurals and phonological memory
What did Restrepo and Kruth frind out about "cross-linguistic" research in SLI?
Not much - inspires other research; which is why we got rid of SLI: DLD
What can you expect from 4 month olds? 6
1 saliva control
2 eye contact w/ baby
3 baby push-ups
4 follow objects 180 degrees, attention shifts
6 cries of delight
What is atypical babies look like? 4
1 no squeals of delight
2 no movements
3 no interest in the world
4 not responding to their name
What is kangeroo care?
EBP - skin to skin contact with premie babies that is helpful to their recovery - less time in the NICU
What is the SLPs role for NICU babies? 4
wait for med issues to stabilize, then
1 help foster a safe and comfortable environment
2 help parents understand the condition
3 help families recognize alertness/receptiveness
4 encourage interaction when the baby is most alert and receiving
____ is taking into consideration of the time in the NICU when calculating their age (done for 2 years post NICU).
___ are program offered to children birth to three years who have had a medical/abnormal birth.
Early Intervention Services
___ is the main part of IDEA offered for children birth to three.
Individual Family Service Plan (not as structured as IEP)
Are IFSP mandated national?
No, done by DARS, Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services in Texas
What goes into DARS' ECI? 4
1 Individualized and Interdisciplinary
3 Familiar settings
4 Planning continuing services
What does ECI cost in Texas?
Eval is free, case mgmt is free (including translations), Medicaid covers it, and sliding scale for everyone else (cost/share)
Who is eligible for ECI?
1 medically dx
2 auditory or visual impairment
3 have to see an impact for developmental delay (the Battelle is the only one Texas uses)
What prelinguistic skills can we look for? 7
2 joint attention*
3 responding to no, or their name
7 turn taking*
What type of state do you want to assess a baby with?
calm, alert state
What should you remember when administering the Rossetti?
ask sequential questions all at once (what words can you child say; what body parts does your child know/say)
write all over the response form
O = observed
E = elicit
R = report
___ are key for infant intervention.
What are intervention targets for babies? 3
1 Joint attention
2 anticipation (turn-taking events, play, peek-a-boo, ball rolling)
As the baby grows up, assessment includes prelinguistic communication skills and now ___.
RPMT stands for ___. What is it?
reactive prelinguistic milieu teaching (parents are the providers, respond to baby's needs and interests)
_____ is when you encourage the child to communicate, through social/environmental enticements or toys.
What are some important points for treatment of prelinguistic children? 5
1 watch for all comm and respond to it (put words in their mouth)
2 help parents tell you where they can practice a skill at home (and write it down too!)
3 stop prompting all the time
4 use functional skills
5 use the environment to your favor
What is available for communication function? 3
1 request items/attention/soothing/informaiton
What are different ways a child communicates? 4
What should you note when observing a child? 2
how they repair breakdowns
how persistent they are
What you address in 18-36 month therapy? 4
1 play (symbolic level/ complexity-steps-characters)
3 following directions
4 vocab and written development
What is PMT do?
prelinguisitic milieu teaching is naturalistic in structured concepts, so that that the child has the best chance of using the comm, based on operant conditioning (give a little bit of time to allow child's turn)
What is meant by "nouns, NOT NOUNS"?
do include words that will provide some syntax, some richness, and content
____ is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are largely ___.
genetic (mostly confirmed with genetic test/marker)
What is adaptive behaviors? 5 (and more in textbook)
1 Social skills
2 Practical skills
3 Interpersonal social skills, self-esteem, gullibility, follow rules
4 Conceptual skills (language, literacy, money time number)
5 Personal care (ADL), healthcare, work safety, using money, using a phone
Why do we need to learn about adaptive behaviors?
these are good therapy targets or things related to these
What is "working memory" according to Baddeley's model? 3
1 central executive
2 phonlogical loop or visuospatial sketchpad
3 episodic buffer
What is central executive in working memory?
what you want to keep and what you want to get rid of. it controls the active process
What are the two methods of encoding in working memory?
phonological loop (subvocalizing and rehearsing)
visuospatial sketchpad (photographic memory is extreme)
What is episodic buffer in working memory?
a work space where memories are held until they are discarded (short-term) or stored (long-term)
What goes into the capacity limit of working memory?
difficulty doing two tasks in the same domain
auditory loop (2s); visuospatial sketchpad (3-5 items)
What step of working memory is the biggest for therapy?
transfer into long-term memory
_____ occurs when you make a conscious decision to direct the processing activities of the brain (e.g. using a particular strategy to accomplish a task, with consideration of effort - harder for ID, some give & take to get good results)
_____ generally has some ID with deficits in verbal processing and working memory and executive functions. Have problems with impulse control. (it's a syndrome). Treat with visual supports. Literacy deficits, hearing screenings, and assess for apraxia. Smaller brain, smaller temporal lobes, smaller cerebellar volume, different hippocampus volume, and frontal lobe volumes.
What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?
Form, less intelligibility, receptive syntax, expressive syntax
What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for content (3)?
Content later first words,some delayed vocab, gestures used to support communication
What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for use (3)?
Use: delay in early social communication, good narratives, good conversation.
___ is marked by mild to moderate ID, very poor visual spatial construction and adaptive behavior deficits (motor development and no independent living).
What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?
difficulty with grammar comprehension
What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for content (2)?
good with concrete vocabulary
extreme decreases with relational concept vocab
What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for use (3)?
delay in joint attention
integration of gaze information
poor conversation, narratives
___ is almost always marked by ID and severity is related to gene involvment. Many meet criteria for autism, lots of otitis media, and executive functioning (sequential processing, cognitive flexibility, planning, attention).
Fragile X Syndrome
What are individuals with Fragile X Syndrome good at?
good with simultaneous processing and long-term memory
What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?
articulation is good
auditory processing good
decreased understand and use of syntax and morphology
What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for content (1)?
slower vocab growth/poor discours
What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for use (4)?
poor theory of mind
limited sharing thoughts
poor critiquing their own work and getting info to others.
___ is serious behavior deficits replaced with socially appropriate behaviors.
Functional communication training
What are some different reasons for behavior deficits?4
1 seeking attention
2 to get a tangible reward
3 how it feels/sensory
Functional communication training provides a different ___ for equivalent _____. As easy or easier than old behavior!
____ is a direction.
___ is a plan for when a child will get reinforced.
___ is taking something out of the environment they want.
Every hit in the face is a TBI. T/F
What must you know to begin rehabilitation for a pt w/ a TBI?
What is the most common cause of TBI?
What are the two kinds of TBI?
closed- injury caused by mvt w/in the skull (diffuse lesions)
penetrating - foreign object entering the skull (focal lesions)
CDC estimate ___ people per year suffer a TBI.
What are the most likely age groups for TBI?
15-19 (risk-taking behavior)
The effects of TBI are always long lasting. T/F
___ is when changes with new learning or social demands cause the child to stop progressing (or start).
What do TBI nonverbal IQ deficits manifest as? 3
decreased processing speed
increased impulsivity (a hallmark of TBI)
What effects linguistic outcomes with TBI? 2
1 whether diffuse or focal
2 deficits related to age of injury
Why does age play a role in linguistic outcomes for TBI? 3
1 established skills are less vulnerable
2 difficulty acquiring new skills
3 younger children have poorer outcomes
What are common linguistic deficits following TBI? 5
2 integration of semantic memory, working memory, and world knowledge
3 making/understanding inference in story or speech
4 narrative creation
What are targets for therapy for children with TBI? 4
3 memory supports
4 literacy, reading comprehension
What effects do visual impairments have on language? 3
1 trouble with early joint attention
2 social exchange issues (primarily pragmatic deficits)
3 literacy - story - narratives
____ helps decrease age of services for hearing impairment. Recovery is based on degree and type of loss.
___ is the efficiency and effectiveness by which the CNS utilizes auditory information.
(central) Auditory Processing Disorder
When is (C)apd diagnosed?
not until 8 years old
Who diagnoses (C)apd?
What does (C)apd treatment entail?
reduce impact of environmental distractors
What changed with DSM-5 for autism?
two disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Communication Disorder
and language disorders definition focuses more on structure - use disorders fall under SCD
___ is impairment with social communication and social interaction accompanied by restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors that begins in early childhood and results in reductions in functioning.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
____ is impairment with verbal and nonverbal aspects of social communication, without RRB, that manifests early in development and impedes functioning.
Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
What is the difference between ASD and SCD?
SCD doesn't have a restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors
Can ASD be used with other dxs?
Yes (i.e. ADHD, ID, etc.)
What are two major categories of older children we see?
1 severely impaired kids working on language acquisition (ID, ASD, etc.)
2 ones that barely qualify for services but have difficulty with reading etc.
How do we define "older" children?
children that should have been d/c, 12+
What goes into older children intervention generally? 2
watch for assuming skills are intact
and higher order therapy
What are some higher level linguistic demands? 11
1 deal with multiple teachers and styles
2 reading fluency (gain information from literature)
3 increase work produced
4 use working memory for processing, chunking and multistep direction
5 longer sustained attention
6 use meta-cognition to prioritize, evaluate work
7 work independently
8 abstract, symbolic info mastery
9 take notes
10 participate in varied assessment formats
11 use/understand logic and critical thinking
What areas must be addressed in older children? 5
1 receptive language (symbolic, complex)
2 expressive language (complex, social)
3 reading (fact and fiction)
4 written language
Older kids may not be as ___ as younger and so we have to work with what we can and give them ___ to succeed.
Chunking info and better after lunch are examples of ___ factors
An older child that never wears glasses or hearing aids are examples of ____.
constraints on cognitive resources
What are the approaches of vocabulary from curriculum strengths?
1 it is of interest (relevant for them)
2 it's already deigned to pull out language
What are different ways to address vocab/semantics from curriculum? 5
2 practice retrieval
3 direct instruction
4 figurative meanings
5 word strategies
____ is making sure the student is ready when it comes up instead of tutoring on the backside.
____ is teaching the words specifically (look it up in the dictionary, practice it in a sentence).
____ is teaching a way to learn about a word from context and use affixes to break up the word. See how all the words relate.
____ is where a word does not mean what is literally does. Must use world knowledge and context to define a word or phrase. (can also use dictionary to look up alternate meaning and archaic meanings of word)
____ is where you practice a word in different settings and with different prompts.
____ use more cognitive measure to get more learning time. (Meta-cognition) (root word strategy, use context to learn word, practice strategies for recall via games, and thinking like a writer for figurative language)
Learning strategies methodologies
What are learning strategies for syntax? 3
1 proofreading (teach strategies)
2 code for clarity and style (develop your own way)
3 review examples of syntax
What are the elements of pragmatics for older children? 4
4 peers (watching for models)
What makes older kids successful at pragmatics? 2
1 knowing when to smile
2 awareness of expectations/rules (in classroom and social)
What are higher level communication for pragmatics for older kids?
negotiations and persuasion
What does working memory involves? 3
1 central executive connected with a
2 visuo-spatial sketchpad and
3 phonological loop
Will bringing visuo-spatial information stress an already stressed system? 2
No, 1 there are not reduced processing capacities, or 2 the task did not stress the system enough
Why should you get a spontaneous language sample? 5
1 functional language use
2 assess a variety of skills
3 can use different locations, communication partners, and tasks
4 reduce bias for CLD clients
5 individualized for the client
What are the types of samples? 3
1 spontaneous language (play or daily routine)
2 narrative sample (personal, retell, and book (wordless))
3 picture descriptions (problem solving and interesting)
Why should you use a "view master" in therapy? 2
1 authentic pragmatic retell expereince
2 picture hide and seek (describe picture and then click them and "hide" it to make the the client "find" it; with different levels depending on the wheel)
What is the drawback of picture description?
won't give connected speech
What are Dr. Ivey's two types of picture descriptions?
problem pictures and interesting pictures
What does form encompass with language sampling analysis? 3
morphemes, syntax, morphology
What does content encompass with language sampling analysis? 2
semantics, lexical diversity
What does use encompass with language sampling analysis? 3
What is the IPSyn? What is it useful for?
100 utterances and child can get things on a checklist and can be used to measure change over time and different than the MLU because it shows specific skills that a child is using
What is the Narrative Assessment Protocol?
5 analyses that is useful with ages 3-5 and has connections to early literacy
What is SALT?
Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - gives a comparison from your client to others; 2012 is most current version
What is MLU?
a morphosyntactic measure for mean length of utterance; useful way of measuring language complexity until 4-4.5
What should we beware of with morphosyntactic analysis?
1 deciding on a utterance
2 inflectional cues
What should we remember about interjections? 3
1 not part of the grmmatical structure
2 separate from main utterance
3 classify as "interjection" and vocabulary (C Hey
C don't.; or C Uh-oh C broken.
What should we remember about nouns in direct address? 3
1 when a child calls the listener by name
2 must be done at the time of transcription
3 indicated with a comma
What should we remember about question markers? 2
1 noted by rising intonation at the end
2 not part of the utterance to analyze grammar
What should we remember about imperative interjections?
1 separate imperative sentences
2 "I got it, see?" and "Look-it, a dog" two separate utterances
What should we remember about sentence tags? 2
1 they are added at the beginning or end of a sentence
2 used to start or end the utterance
"over there, I think." "I see, you found it." must separate the tag from the main utterance.
What are t-units?
a dominant clause and any dependent clauses attached to it.
How do coordinating conjuntions affect t-units?
they start new ones (and, but, or) except if they are co-referential subject deletion
What are co-referential subject deletion?
When it looks like you have two clauses that are linked, but the subject is implied by shared subject ("He goes and loses" = He goes. He loses it.)
What is a t-unit analysis?
MLTU = total # of T-units/total # of words
What can t-unit analysis be used with? 3
1 written language
2 spoken language
3 older children (increases gradually)
When you use MLU for school aged kids, what changes?
it is MLU in words (or MLU-w) before it was morphemes; this is also known as Mean length of response or MLR
What is a normal TTR? How reliable is it?
.5 for children 3-8
Not reliable for some children depending on sample size and child
What can be analyzed with semantics besides TTR? 5
1 use of context cues for meaning
2 curriculum vocabulary for school aged (receptive, definitions, expressive)
3 functional analysis vocabulary
4 multiple meanings
5 figurative language
What can be analyzed for pragmatics? 2; How many combinations are there?
+/- responsiveness (4 combinations)
How do we analyze pragmatics?
conversation analyses or criterion/standardize assesment
What are the parts of pragmatic function? 3
1 means of comunication
3 modification to partner's needs (repair strategy)
What are the most adult pragmatic skills (i.e. higher order skills)? 6
1 changes in register
6 conversation repair
What do we look at in narration? 3
3 artful storytelling
What do we mean by macrostructure for narration? 4
1 overall maturity of narrative
3 number of story grammar elements
What do we mean by microstructure for narration? 2
1 productivity (lexical diversity (TNW/NDW) and t-unity output)
2 complexity (MLTU and proportion of complex sentences)
What goes into artful storytelling? 5
1 rich vocabulary
4 story climax
5 varied language forms