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What was Restrepo and Kruth's definition of SLI? What's wrong with it?

" exhibit a significant language disorder not accounted for by neurological, sensory, or socioemotional difficulties, in the presence ofnormal nonverbal intelligence" there's often something along with it.


What are other characteristic of SLI according to Restrepo and Kruth? 5

inflectional morphology (ie: copula, past tense, third person singular), pronouns, definite articles, and sometimes plurals and phonological memory


What did Restrepo and Kruth frind out about "cross-linguistic" research in SLI?

Not much - inspires other research; which is why we got rid of SLI: DLD


What can you expect from 4 month olds? 6

1 saliva control2 eye contact w/ baby3 baby push-ups4 follow objects 180 degrees, attention shifts5 cooing6 cries of delight


What is atypical babies look like? 4

1 no squeals of delight2 no movements3 no interest in the world4 not responding to their name


What is kangeroo care?

EBP - skin to skin contact with premie babies that is helpful to their recovery - less time in the NICU


What is the SLPs role for NICU babies? 4

wait for med issues to stabilize, then1 help foster a safe and comfortable environment2 help parents understand the condition3 help families recognize alertness/receptiveness4 encourage interaction when the baby is most alert and receiving


____ is taking into consideration of the time in the NICU when calculating their age (done for 2 years post NICU).

Adjusted Age


___ are program offered to children birth to three years who have had a medical/abnormal birth.

Early Intervention Services


___ is the main part of IDEA offered for children birth to three.

Individual Family Service Plan (not as structured as IEP)


Are IFSP mandated national?

No, done by DARS, Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services in Texas


What goes into DARS' ECI? 4

1 Individualized and Interdisciplinary2 Family-centered3 Familiar settings4 Planning continuing services


What does ECI cost in Texas?

Eval is free, case mgmt is free (including translations), Medicaid covers it, and sliding scale for everyone else (cost/share)


Who is eligible for ECI?

1 medically dx2 auditory or visual impairment3 have to see an impact for developmental delay (the Battelle is the only one Texas uses)


What prelinguistic skills can we look for? 7

1 imitation2 joint attention*3 responding to no, or their name4 babbling5 gaze/pointing6 initiating*7 turn taking*


What type of state do you want to assess a baby with?

calm, alert state


What should you remember when administering the Rossetti?

ask sequential questions all at once (what words can you child say; what body parts does your child know/say)write all over the response formO = observedE = elicitR = report


___ are key for infant intervention.



What are intervention targets for babies? 3

1 Joint attention2 anticipation (turn-taking events, play, peek-a-boo, ball rolling)3 initiation


As the baby grows up, assessment includes prelinguistic communication skills and now ___.



RPMT stands for ___. What is it?

reactive prelinguistic milieu teaching (parents are the providers, respond to baby's needs and interests)


_____ is when you encourage the child to communicate, through social/environmental enticements or toys.

communicative temptations


What are some important points for treatment of prelinguistic children? 5

1 watch for all comm and respond to it (put words in their mouth)2 help parents tell you where they can practice a skill at home (and write it down too!)3 stop prompting all the time4 use functional skills5 use the environment to your favor


What is available for communication function for prelinguistic kids? 3

1 request items/attention/soothing/informaiton2 comment3 acknowledgement(etc.)


What are different ways a prelinguistic child communicates? 4

1 gestures2 verbal3eye contact4 AAC


What should you note when observing a prelinguistic child? 2

how they repair breakdownshow persistent they are


What you address in 18-36 month therapy? 4

1 play (symbolic level/ complexity-steps-characters)2 attention3 following directions4 vocab and written development


What is PMT do?

prelinguisitic milieu teaching is naturalistic in structured concepts, so that that the child has the best chance of using the comm, based on operant conditioning (give a little bit of time to allow child's turn)


What is meant by "nouns, NOT NOUNS"?

do include words that will provide some syntax, some richness, and content


____ is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual disability


Neurodevelopmental disorders are largely ___.

genetic (mostly confirmed with genetic test/marker)


What is adaptive behaviors? 5 (and more in textbook)

1 Social skills2 Practical skills3 Interpersonal social skills, self-esteem, gullibility, follow rules4 Conceptual skills (language, literacy, money time number)5 Personal care (ADL), healthcare, work safety, using money, using a phone


Why do we need to learn about adaptive behaviors?

these are good therapy targets or things related to these


What is "working memory" according to Baddeley's model? 3

1 central executive2 phonlogical loop or visuospatial sketchpad3 episodic buffer


What is central executive in working memory?

what you want to keep and what you want to get rid of. it controls the active process


What are the two methods of encoding in working memory?

phonological loop (subvocalizing and rehearsing)visuospatial sketchpad (photographic memory is extreme)


What is episodic buffer in working memory?

a work space where memories are held until they are discarded (short-term) or stored (long-term)


What goes into the capacity limit of working memory?

difficulty doing two tasks in the same domainauditory loop (2s); visuospatial sketchpad (3-5 items)


What step of working memory is the biggest for therapy?

transfer into long-term memory


_____ occurs when you make a conscious decision to direct the processing activities of the brain (e.g. using a particular strategy to accomplish a task, with consideration of effort - harder for ID, some give & take to get good results)

Controlled processing


_____ generally has some ID with deficits in verbal processing and working memory and executive functions. Have problems with impulse control. (it's a syndrome). Treat with visual supports. Literacy deficits, hearing screenings, and assess for apraxia. Smaller brain, smaller temporal lobes, smaller cerebellar volume, different hippocampus volume, and frontal lobe volumes.

Down Syndrome


What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?

Form, less intelligibility, receptive syntax, expressive syntax


What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for content (3)?

Content later first words,some delayed vocab, gestures used to support communication


What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for use (3)?

Use: delay in early social communication, good narratives, good conversation.


___ is marked by mild to moderate ID, very poor visual spatial construction and adaptive behavior deficits (motor development and no independent living).

Williams syndrome


What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?

late babblinggood grammardifficulty with grammar comprehension


What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for content (2)?

good with concrete vocabularyextreme decreases with relational concept vocab


What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for use (3)?

delay in joint attentionintegration of gaze informationpoor conversation, narratives


___ is almost always marked by ID and severity is related to gene involvment. Many meet criteria for autism, lots of otitis media, and executive functioning (sequential processing, cognitive flexibility, planning, attention).

Fragile X Syndrome


What are individuals with Fragile X Syndrome good at?

good with simultaneous processing and long-term memory


What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?

articulation is goodauditory processing gooddecreased understand and use of syntax and morphology


What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for content (1)?

slower vocab growth/poor discours


What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for use (4)?

poor conversationpoor theory of mindlimited sharing thoughtspoor critiquing their own work and getting info to others.


___ is serious behavior deficits replaced with socially appropriate behaviors.

Functional communication training


What are some different reasons for behavior deficits?4

1 seeking attention2 to get a tangible reward3 how it feels/sensory4 escape


Functional communication training provides a different ___ for equivalent _____. As easy or easier than old behavior!



____ is a direction.



___ is a plan for when a child will get reinforced.

Reinforcement schedule


___ is taking something out of the environment they want.

Negative reinforcement


Every hit in the face is a TBI. T/F



What must you know to begin rehabilitation for a pt w/ a TBI?

pre-morbid condition


What is the most common cause of TBI?



What are the two kinds of TBI?

closed- injury caused by mvt w/in the skull (diffuse lesions)penetrating - foreign object entering the skull (focal lesions)


CDC estimate ___ people per year suffer a TBI.

1.7 millino


What are the most likely age groups for TBI?

0-4 (falls)15-19 (risk-taking behavior)65+ (falls)


The effects of TBI are always long lasting. T/F



___ is when changes with new learning or social demands cause the child to stop progressing (or start).

Neurocognitive stall


What do TBI nonverbal IQ deficits manifest as? 3

decreased processing speeddecreased attentionincreased impulsivity (a hallmark of TBI)


What effects linguistic outcomes with TBI? 2

1 whether diffuse or focal2 deficits related to age of injury


Why does age play a role in linguistic outcomes for TBI? 3

1 established skills are less vulnerable2 difficulty acquiring new skills3 younger children have poorer outcomes


What are common linguistic deficits following TBI? 5

1 discourse2 integration of semantic memory, working memory, and world knowledge3 making/understanding inference in story or speech4 narrative creation5 reading


What are targets for therapy for children with TBI? 4

1 relevancy2 organization3 memory supports4 literacy, reading comprehension


What effects do visual impairments have on language? 3

1 trouble with early joint attention2 social exchange issues (primarily pragmatic deficits)3 literacy - story - narratives


____ helps decrease age of services for hearing impairment. Recovery is based on degree and type of loss.

Early detection


___ is the efficiency and effectiveness by which the CNS utilizes auditory information.

(central) Auditory Processing Disorder


When is (C)apd diagnosed?

not until 8 years old


Who diagnoses (C)apd?



What does (C)apd treatment entail?

reduce impact of environmental distractors


What changed with DSM-5 for autism?

two disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Communication Disorderand language disorders definition focuses more on structure - use disorders fall under SCD


___ is impairment with social communication and social interaction accompanied by restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors that begins in early childhood and results in reductions in functioning.

Autism Spectrum Disorder


____ is impairment with verbal and nonverbal aspects of social communication, without RRB, that manifests early in development and impedes functioning.

Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder


What is the difference between ASD and SCD?

SCD doesn't have a restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors


Can ASD be used with other dxs?

Yes (i.e. ADHD, ID, etc.)


What are two major categories of older children we see?

1 severely impaired kids working on language acquisition (ID, ASD, etc.)2 ones that barely qualify for services but have difficulty with reading etc.


How do we define "older" children?

children that should have been d/c, 12+


What goes into older children intervention generally? 2

watch for assuming skills are intactand higher order therapy


What are some higher level linguistic demands? 11

1 deal with multiple teachers and styles2 reading fluency (gain information from literature)3 increase work produced4 use working memory for processing, chunking and multistep direction5 longer sustained attention6 use meta-cognition to prioritize, evaluate work7 work independently8 abstract, symbolic info mastery9 take notes10 participate in varied assessment formats11 use/understand logic and critical thinking


What areas must be addressed in older children? 5

1 receptive language (symbolic, complex)2 expressive language (complex, social)3 reading (fact and fiction)4 written language5 organization


Older kids may not be as ___ as younger and so we have to work with what we can and give them ___ to succeed.

malleable; strategies


Chunking info and better after lunch are examples of ___ factors



An older child that never wears glasses or hearing aids are examples of ____.

constraints on cognitive resources


What are the approaches of vocabulary from curriculum strengths?

1 it is of interest (relevant for them)2 it's already deigned to pull out language


What are different ways to address vocab/semantics from curriculum? 5

1 preteach2 practice retrieval3 direct instruction4 figurative meanings5 word strategies


____ is making sure the student is ready when it comes up instead of tutoring on the backside.



____ is teaching the words specifically (look it up in the dictionary, practice it in a sentence).

Direct instruction


____ is teaching a way to learn about a word from context and use affixes to break up the word. See how all the words relate.

Word strategies


____ is where a word does not mean what is literally does. Must use world knowledge and context to define a word or phrase. (can also use dictionary to look up alternate meaning and archaic meanings of word)

Figurative meanings


____ is where you practice a word in different settings and with different prompts.

Practice retrieval


____ use more cognitive measure to get more learning time. (Meta-cognition) (root word strategy, use context to learn word, practice strategies for recall via games, and thinking like a writer for figurative language)

Learning strategies methodologies


What are learning strategies for syntax? 3

1 proofreading (teach strategies)2 code for clarity and style (develop your own way)3 review examples of syntax


What are the elements of pragmatics for older children? 4

1 awareness2 routines3 conversation4 peers (watching for models)


What makes older kids successful at pragmatics? 2

1 knowing when to smile2 awareness of expectations/rules (in classroom and social)


What are higher level communication for pragmatics for older kids?

negotiations and persuasion


What does working memory involves? 3

1 central executive connected with a 2 visuo-spatial sketchpad and3 phonological loop


Will bringing visuo-spatial information stress an already stressed system? 2

No, 1 there are not reduced processing capacities, or 2 the task did not stress the system enough


Why should you get a spontaneous language sample? 5

1 functional language use2 assess a variety of skills3 can use different locations, communication partners, and tasks4 reduce bias for CLD clients5 individualized for the client


What are the types of samples? 3

1 spontaneous language (play or daily routine)2 narrative sample (personal, retell, and book (wordless))3 picture descriptions (problem solving and interesting)


Why should you use a "view master" in therapy? 2

1 authentic pragmatic retell expereince2 picture hide and seek (describe picture and then click them and "hide" it to make the the client "find" it; with different levels depending on the wheel)


What is the drawback of picture description?

won't give connected speech


What are Dr. Ivey's two types of picture descriptions?

problem pictures and interesting pictures


What does form encompass with language sampling analysis? 3

morphemes, syntax, morphology


What does content encompass with language sampling analysis? 2

semantics, lexical diversity


What does use encompass with language sampling analysis? 3

communicative intentpragmatic functionpragmatic awareness


What is the IPSyn? What is it useful for?

100 utterances and child can get things on a checklist and can be used to measure change over time and different than the MLU because it shows specific skills that a child is using


What is the Narrative Assessment Protocol?

5 analyses that is useful with ages 3-5 and has connections to early literacy


What is SALT?

Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - gives a comparison from your client to others; 2012 is most current version


What is MLU?

a morphosyntactic measure for mean length of utterance; useful way of measuring language complexity until 4-4.5


What should we beware of with morphosyntactic analysis?

1 deciding on a utterance2 inflectional cues


What should we remember about interjections? 3

1 not part of the grmmatical structure2 separate from main utterance3 classify as "interjection" and vocabulary (C HeyC don't.; or C Uh-oh C broken.


What should we remember about nouns in direct address? 3

1 when a child calls the listener by name2 must be done at the time of transcription3 indicated with a comma


What should we remember about question markers? 2

1 noted by rising intonation at the end2 not part of the utterance to analyze grammar


What should we remember about imperative interjections?

1 separate imperative sentences 2 "I got it, see?" and "Look-it, a dog" two separate utterances


What should we remember about sentence tags? 2

1 they are added at the beginning or end of a sentence2 used to start or end the utterance"over there, I think." "I see, you found it." must separate the tag from the main utterance.


What are t-units?

a dominant clause and any dependent clauses attached to it.


How do coordinating conjuntions affect t-units?

they start new ones (and, but, or) except if they are co-referential subject deletion


What are co-referential subject deletion?

When it looks like you have two clauses that are linked, but the subject is implied by shared subject ("He goes and loses" = He goes. He loses it.)


What is a t-unit analysis?

MLTU = total # of word /total # of T-units


What can t-unit analysis be used with? 3

1 written language2 spoken language3 older children (increases gradually)


When you use MLU for school aged kids, what changes?

it is MLU in words (or MLU-w) before it was morphemes; this is also known as Mean length of response or MLR


What is a normal TTR? How reliable is it?

.5 for children 3-8Not reliable for some children depending on sample size and child


What can be analyzed with semantics besides TTR? 5

1 use of context cues for meaning2 curriculum vocabulary for school aged (receptive, definitions, expressive)3 functional analysis vocabulary4 multiple meanings5 figurative language


What can be analyzed for pragmatics? 2; How many combinations are there?

+/- assertiveness+/- responsiveness (4 combinations)


How do we analyze pragmatics?

conversation analyses or criterion/standardize assesment


What are the parts of pragmatic function? 3

1 means of comunication2 persistence3 modification to partner's needs (repair strategy)


What are the most adult pragmatic skills (i.e. higher order skills)? 6

1 changes in register2 presupposition3 inference4 discourse5 negotiation6 conversation repair


What do we look at in narration? 3

1 macrostructure2 microstructure3 artful storytelling


What do we mean by macrostructure for narration? 4

1 overall maturity of narrative2 organization3 number of story grammar elements4 cohesion


What do we mean by microstructure for narration? 2

1 productivity (lexical diversity (TNW/NDW) and t-unity output)2 complexity (MLTU and proportion of complex sentences)


What goes into artful storytelling? 5

1 rich vocabulary2 episodes3 cohesion4 story climax5 varied language forms


What is the written language process that we analyze it? 5

1 pre-write2 draft3 revise4 edit5 publish


What is knowledge independent measures good for?

testing capacity


Who is knowledge independent measures good for? 2

1 Culturally diverse bg
2 Linguistically diverse bg


Why do we need to test the ability to learn? 3

1 test to see if ch is failing due to lack of experience to language
2 it is less biased than std measures
3 gain info about how the ch learns


What are two knowledge independent measures? 2

1 dynamic assessment
2 non-word repetition


What are the steps in a dynamic assessment? 5 What's the important part?

1 observe initial level
2 observe level of support needed
3 observe time to achieve goal
4 observe how much scaffolding is necessary
5 results


What is non-word repetition?

it is an examination of child's ability to repeat a string of sounds. it sounds like a word, but does not have meaning


Why does non-word repetition work? 2 What can cause problems?

1 eliminates the confusion of semantics
2 eliminates previous knowledge

Difficult if the kid can't make the sound!!


What are the general characteristics of critereion-referenced assessments?

it's only a score of one person
you can only compare it to others if you have a large enough sample, but you can track the individual's progress over time
get detailed info on a topic


What CAN'T you do with a criterion referenced assessment?

diagnose a disorder
can't make a statement of severity


What are steps to making a comprehension criterion-referenced assessment? 3

1 don't make it too easy - make sure there are other options
2 test only 1 thing - child must know the vocab around the target
3 choose an appropriate response method (is correct response just correct or use of wh-? naturalistic setting)


What are the steps to making an expression criterion-referenced assessment? 3

1 say what I say (copy cat)
2 tempt you to say it (analogy)
3 analysis from a sample (SALT)


What are the steps to making a semantic criterion-referenced assessment? 3

1 fill in the blanks for nouns (locations, descriptive concept)
2 verb (description)
3 switch the game to be on the same team of client; use puppets


What are the steps to making a morphology syntax criterion-referenced assessment? 3

1 use a checklist for expected skills
2 use analysis of recorded samples
3 use published method like DSS and make sure to get at least 5 examples


What are the steps to making a pragmatic criterion-referenced assessment? 3

1 consider range of communication
2 consider means of communication
3 consider function of communication (social/nonsocial lang, topic initiation, etc.)


What is DSS?

Developmental Sentence Score - a norm and criterion reference test


What specifically does the DSS measure?

it gives points in 8 syntactic categories (indefinite pronouns, personal pronouns, main verbs, secondary (embedded) verbs, negative markers, conjunctions, interrogative reversals, wh- question forms;


Who is the DSS for?

children with primarily full sentences, MLU>3; it draws from 200+ child base


What are 4 aspects of parent/child interacttion associated with language development? 4

1 amount of parent/child interaction (more=better)
2 responsiveness - more models
3 language input - greater quantity and quality
4 language support strategies (recasts, expansions, and extensions)


What shows the greatest impact with parent/child interaction?

expressive morphosyntax


What is the magic cut-off # for language skills? Why?

5 1/2; it's when they begin school


What are pyschiatric disorder that are NOT related to language delays? 7

1 conduct disorder
2 avoident
3 simple phobias
4 separation anxiety
5 general anxiety
6 panic disorder
7 dysthymia (ennui?)


What psychiatric disoder(s) could language disorder potential predict?

ADHD; social phobia


What do language disorders predict in later life at age 5? (5)

1 communication
2 cognitive/academic
3 education attainment
5 occupational status


What doesn't language disorders at 5 predict later in life?

quality of life


What do we need to do with intellectual disability?

syndrome and features of the profile that are unique to ID:


What are syndrome and features of ID profile that are unique? 3

1 variable skills
2 gradual and nonlinear development
3 stability


What are the factors in assessment of ID? 4

1 time requirement
2 nature of test (std or criterion)
3 response choices (2 choice obj discrim task)
4 motivational value


Children with ASD have deficits in ___ skills, based on level of demand for processing.



Children with ___ have a distinct profile with deficits in complex skills, multiple cognitive domains are impaired.

Autism Spectrum Disorder


How are multiple cognitive domains impaired in ASD?

they require integration/higher order cognitive processing and not JUST socialization and communication.


What are the complex skills that ASD kids have difficulty? 6

1 skilled motor
2 complex memory
3 complex language
4 complex frustration
5 reasoning
6 sensory perceptual* (not found in adults as much)


What are kids with ASD intact or superior skills?5

1 attention (unless co-occuring ADHD)
2 simple memory (memorizing maps, etc.)
3 simple language
4 rule learning
5 visuospatial


What is one theory of why ASD occurs in the brain?

Under-connectivity Model - failure of brain activities to work togehter


People with ASD have _____ primary self-awareness



People with ASD have _____ of psychological aspects of self including interpersonal qualities.

decreased awareness


How can you support autobiographical episodic memory? 4

1 prime (Get them ready)
2 photos
3 repeat
4 link to other memories


Using priming, photos, repetition, and linking to other memories is a way to _______ __ ___ ____ ______________.

scaffold to help build episodes