Flashcards in Ross Final Exam Deck (89):
4 year olds overall development (3)
1 Strong motor skills (can hop on 1 leg while going down step, hand pref, copy written letters)
2 Better memory (can remember short stories, can count to 5 using rote memory)
3 Social skills (play much better in groups; more cooperation)
3 year olds overall development (4)
1 Fine motor skills not as good - good gross motor skills developing (DIAL3 - preschool screening test - jumping on one foot, skipping/galloping, running, climbing stairs (alternate feet); (good gross motor skills dev., can get dressed alone, but can't tie shoes
2 social skills emerging - can now play in groups & share & take turns
3 expressive vocabulary approx 500-800
4 good symbolic play skills
How many words does a typically developing 3 year old have? How many does a 4 year old have?
How are 4 year olds play skills? How are their language skills?
P: primarily obj. play, but limited role playing (symbolic);
L: can tell a simple story that they made up; vocab ~1500 words; by 4 the ch turn taking and convo skills improv, but the adult still carries most of the burden for creating and maintaining the topic/convo; adult helps the ch along in the convo using scaffolding ("and what else happened?"); convo-based heavily on event knowledge; shared knowledge of past events (b-day parties, McDonald's)
What are monologues?
Vygotsky called it private speech; Piaget, self-talk; a trial and error, pressure-free method to learn lang (pragmatic category); self-conversation, accounts for 20-30% of utterances in 4 y.o.;
What types of activities do 3 and 4 year olds use monologues for?
3 use it for all types
4 use it only in sustained goal directed activities; much the same way Vygotsky said to reason thru something; working thru a puzzle
What are presleep monologues?
The monolgues/private speech/self-talk ch use before bed. They use lots of songs, sounds, & expressions of feelings. Audible private speech decreases as the ch gets older (it becomes inner speech and even adults use it from time to time)
What are ch conversation skills like at 3-4 years?
ch are good at introducing topics but not maintaining them
60% of ch's convo is an attempt to control the partner's beh or relay info.
1-2 turns is typical b/c of lack of knowledge of topic, attention span, listening to partner, and eye contact. They talk about themselves a lot!
Less than 20% of their responses are relevant to the speaker's previous utterance
What change do we see in conversation skills by age 5?
ch can sustain topics thru about 12 turns
What are other convo attempts used for in 3-4 year olds? (5)
- establishing & maintaining social relationships (done w/, goes w/ peers), teaching, managing & correcting communications of others, expressing feelings, talking to self
What are genderlects?
dif ways of communication based on gender; boys use "no" to correct peers beh ; girls use "no" to reject/protest peer's suggestions (3-4 y.o.)
What are registers and how do 3-4 y.o.'s use them?
they are a change in speaking style based on dif context- presch change register for baby talk and playing dif roles; when ch role play, particular roles req certain registers (how is "mom" register dif from "baby" register during role play? it's more uniform and high.)
presch can change register based on role (code switching is a way to change register) presch recognize the social nature of comm
How are registers social? What are the first elements used by presch to change register?
registers change based on convo partner; presch use more commands w/ other presch, use more permission type requests w/ older ch & adults; ch don't realize that using "please" is supposed to be used w/ a polite tone; loudness & pitch are 1st elements used by presch as register changes; girls play more roles & thus modify their register more often.
What is necessary for conversation repair?
first must recognize that their has been a breakdown, need theory of mind dev, and attention span and eye contact
What happens when convos breakdown with 2.5 y.o.?
they are inconsistent in their resp when convo partner's request clarification; many of their communication breakdowns go unrepaired; requests for clarifiction are more likely to be responded to by presch when the request follows the ch's req for action (C give me the toy; A give you the what? C the toy!) as opposed to when the req follows a gen comment by the ch (C that's a xxx. A that's a what? C [CT] ->)
Because the ch want's their request answered!
How do 2.5-4 y.o.'s repair convos?
they use simple repetitions; a 2.5 bilingual ch can repair com breakdown by switching their language to match the partner; they understand breakdowns can occur because of the lang diff
presch usu cannot reformulate their msg in response 2 facial expressions of non-comprehension; you must tell them you didn't understand
What do topics represent?
cohesion in a conversation
What is the first part of convers/dialogue and how do ch fail at it?
topic introduction req that we chose topics that are dependent upon who we're talking to (is this a good person to talk to about sports? religion? politics? my bathroom habits?)
What is the second part of convo/dialogue and how do ch fail at it?
topic maintenance is the responsibility of both communication partners and requires asking relevant questions, responding, paying attention and commenting on what has been said
What can happen in the second part of a conversation?
topic switching - can sqitch 2 a new topic or bring up a previous one (adult might transition from car problems to money problems, but a child may make random shifts like new puppy to cake)
Topic closing - topics don't just end abruptly; a skillfully closed topic has cues like "well, it's getting late," "it was real nice talking to you", "well all right then.."
What is shading?
adult topic switching, involving elements of the old topic
What are infants able to do with topics?
they can talk about themselves
What are 1 y.o. able to do w/ topics?
they can use gestures and vocals to intro topic; "that," vocals while pointing in dir of somehting
What are 3 y.o. able to do w/ topics?
they can maintain a topic, but very limited in duration: topic maintained longer when associated w/ a familiar routine (talk about familiar books
What are presch ch able to do w/ topics?
they can attempt to stay on topic using repetition; "want to go see sponge bob square pants?" "see sponge bob square pants!"
they can consider the speaker and their background knowledge of a topic
How much theory of mind to 3 y.o.'s have (relative to topic introductions/etc.)?
They are beginning to understand how much bg is needed; usu gives most relevant info (quantity - appropriate quantity);
A what did you do yesterday?
C went to the doctor & got a shot
as opposed to every little detail
What are directives and requests?
used to get people to do things; presch can make politeness distinc based on the age or size, familiarity, and role of the listener; presch often respond to indirect action requests w/ actions, even when info is what is sought; asking a ch if they can sing results in the ch singing rather than saying if they can sing;
they are more likely to be polite if you have something they want
What is deixis?
directing another person's attention or to make spatial contrasts (here/there; this/that)
early on, ch use that and there for directing attention
Later use this & here for dir. attention
however they don't differentiate; this for something near and that for something far; mom only uses that and there initially
How old do kids need to be to demonstrate their intentions with statements and assertions? What are other productions at this time period?
30 months (2.5 y.o.); this dominates their utterances;
they also produce:
naming, wanting and directing requests; content questions (what is that man doing? what does that say?) requests for permission
What do narratives include?
made up stories, retelling of stories previously heard, telling about past experiences (most comm adult), telling us about something seen on TV/movies
What are 4 things narratives and convo's share in common?
1 there is a clear & orderly exchange of info in both
2 there is often a need to repair
3 there is a need to assume the perspective of the listener (another reason ch struggles to tell stories)
4 there is a sense of purpose - a point
What are 3 things different between convos and narratives?
1. convos are dialogues while narratives are basically monologue; both people usus participate in convo; but one person usus tells the story in a narrative;
2 events are linked together in a predictable manner in a narrative (certain patterns are not found in gen convo; relation between events must be clearly stated)
3 the listener plays a relatively passive role in a narrative (provides minimal support during the story)
What is Theory of Mind?
a (still not completely accepted as a phenomena) understanding that others have thoughts and beliefs different from your own (a major development breakthru for ch-presch age ~4 years)
a ch who tries to hide from you by covering his eyes has not developed the concept
How does ToM relate to emotion?
Children cannot understand about the emotions of others until they understand their own- self awareness develops in parallel w/ ToM; ch recognizes themselves about 18 months; express their emotion state about 24 months (2 years)
How has ToM developed by 4 y.o.?
they can related to the emotions of others to desires & intentions; "momm'ys mad so I better sit down."
they understand that others have dif perspectives from their own; should be able to pass the false belief paradigms (M&M test or Sally test)
What are 4 language effects of ToM skills for 4 y.o.s?
1 giving directions
2 telling narratives (give bg info)
3 ID the need to repair
4 ability to repair (also give the bg)
How long is the period of rapid lexical and concept development?
btw 1.5 and 6 yrs of age
How many words a day does a child learn during their rapid lexical and concept dev?
5 new words a day
What are the 4 processes that 2 y.o. undergo semantic development?
1 word frequency
2 word segmentation
3 fast mapping
4 word meaning
What is word frequency?
words that ch hears more often are produced earlier; freq words include: hi, bye, more, milk, go, come, stop, yes, no, here, there
What is word segmentation?
dividing words into phonemes or morphemes to introduce a new word; mom's usually put the new word at the end of the utterance: "that is a bask-et-BALL"
What is fast mapping?
ch draws limited meaning from their initial exposure to a word; ch hears "bring me the aqua tray, not the red one," the following steps may be followed:
1. assume that mom is trying to comm w/ me (mom's teaching me sumthin)
2. unk word used in ref to "tray" as a descriptor (syntax, lang form)
3 only observalbe dif btw trays is color
4 aqua must be a color
5 one tray is red, but she didn't ask for red
6 she must be wantin' the other, which must be aqua
going back to the first point: ch assumes only trays will be aqua
What is word meaning?
ch dev a more complete meaning as a result of modeling by adults and trial and error
it is a longer process & depends on social interaction
What are relational terms and when do ch acquire them?
terms such as location and time; it is a complicated process that is infl by: how complex the concept is, freq of adult use, and syntactical complexity
occurs during preschool
What do relational terms INCLUDE? 5
2 Temporal relations
3 physical relations
4 locational prepositions
5 kinship terms
What interrogatives do preschoolers learn? 8
asking & resp to wh questions (why is the most abstract) acquired in order what, where, who, whose, which, when, where, how, and why (who and whose maybe harder to address func in therapy)
What temporal relations to preschoolers learn? 4
words such as before, after, since, & until
What physical relational terms to preschoolers learn? 5
relational terms in the following order:
What locational prepositions to preschoolers learn? 5
in on under in front of behind
What kinship terms do preschoolers learn?
different for ch to understand @ first; first they treat them like they are part of the name "grandpaDan"; understand less complex relations 1st- mom & dad; then they acquire the more complex: sister & brother
What factors seem to flag later speech and lang impairments for preschoolers? 4
1 male gender
2 ongoing hearing problems
3 more reactive temperament (resp neg to frustration such as tantruming)
4 family hist of lang impairments
What could be moderators for speech and lang impairments for preschoolers? 2
1 persistent social temperament
2 high levels of maternal psychological well being
What is a pidgin language?
occurs when a nondominant lang begins accepting and using some terms from the dominant (consists mostly of nouns and gestures @ beginning; grammar still holds form of the nondominant; begins very informal but eventually becomes more formal, can happen due to invasion/necessity or lazines w/ bilingualism. As the pidgin becomes more formal it is used more frequently. Eventually the laws of the non-dominant are replaced by the pidgin (now a creole, like Haitian Creole)
What is a creole?
the language that develops when the pidgin language becomes the primary for the nondominant
What is decreolization?
as the creole lang evolves it becomes more similar to the dominant
What are the two parts of the definitions of dialect? Who came up with them?
"a variety of languange shared by a group of speakers" (Wolfram & Christian 1989)
"Developed through interplay of historical, social, political, educational and linguistic forces." (Taylor 1990)
What do dialects tend to correspond to?
other difference among groups of people - people who share culture, social class, & religion tend to share dialect.
Dialects should not be thought of in terms of good or bad - no dialect is better than another, there are just different variations of the same language. What is the central dialect of American English called? Where can it be found?
Standard/Mainstream American English is the parent language, but only exists in written form
What is a standard dialect?
a dialect used by people of high status - economic, political, social, and educational (influential people).
There was a time when they would look down on those who don't speak their dialect. The term "standard" is relative: there is standard for Texas (George W. Bush) and standard for NYC (Donald Trump).
What is a vernacular dialect?
dialects other than the standard- we must understand that standard dialect doesn't mean superior and vernacular doesn't mean inferior
How many regional dialects are there in the US?
at least 10
How many racial/ethnic dialects did we discuss?
3: African American English, Latino/Hispanic English, and Asian English
What are 3 previous names for African American English?
Black English, Black Dialect, Ebonics
What are some characteristics of AAE? 3
1. spoken by most working class blacks living in work-class black comm;
2 all speakers will not sound the same due to infl of the regional dialects of Engl spoken around them;
3 continues to spark contraversy as many still don't recognize AAE as a legitimate dialect (blacks and non-blacks)
What are the cultural influences on AAE? 4
1 superior verbal skills are highly regarded (oral history, poetry, and singing)
2 touching someone's hair maybe highly offensive (must have permission)
3 calling a parent or caregiver by their first name maybe a sign of disrespect (ask permission)
4 some cultural mistrust may affect the acquiring of information (asking medical histories, gets into distrust of government from Tuskegee experiments, Black Panther investigations)
What are some of the phonemic characteristics of AAE? 5
1 the second of 2 sounds of a final consonant cluster often deleted (bend becomes ben, rust becomes rus)
2 "f" often substituted for voiceless "th" in the final positions (tooth becomes toof and bath become baf).
3 "d" often substitute for voiced "th" in the initial position (that becomes dat)
4 semivowels /r/ & /l/ are often deleted (four becomes foe, ball becomes ba)
5 voiced stops /b,g,d/ are general affected in the final positions (bag becomes ba)
What are some of the grammatical characteristics of AAE? 4
1. possession doesn't need to be marked by 's, as long as the possessor is identified "that's Jim car,"
2 past tense markers not required "she talk to me yesterday"
3 copular and auxilary verbs may be deleted: "she a beautiful woman."
4 aspect - a syntactic device used by speakers when he/she wants to convey that an action or state of beings is continuing, or occurs intermittently, he/she uses the verb "be": to relay the msg that it's cold in the room, right now: "it's cold in here"; but to relay that it's cold in the room every time I have come in here: "it be cold in here."
What is aspect?
a syntactic device used by speakers of African American English when he/she wants to convey that an action or state of beings is continuing, or occurs intermittently, he/she uses the verb "be": to relay the msg that it's cold in the room, right now: "it's cold in here"; but to relay that it's cold in the room every time I have come in here: "it be cold in here."
What are characteristics of Latino/Hispanic English?
just like AAE, it is not homogenous because Spanish-speakers come from a variety of different places and cultures: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central America, Carribean (Cuba), South America (etc.). and they all bring something different with them
What are some of the cultural/nonlinguistic influences of Latino/Hispanic English? 7
1 extended family is extremely important (frequency of linguistic terms referring to extended family is high)
2 oral expression is very highly valued (good orators are held in high esteem for storytelling)
3 child is encouraged to participate in communication with adults
4 narrative abilities in child are very important
5 invasion of personal space more tolerable among spanish speakers
6 more touching while talking
7 avoidance of direct eye contact is a signal of respect & attentiveness
What are some phonemic characteristics of HE/LE? 6
1 no voiced or voiceless /th/, /z/, /sh/ & j - leads to frequent distortion, omission, or substitution in HE/LE speakers
2 all final plosives are voiceless (plosives are stops)
3 no distinction between /b/ and /v/ in Spanish in initial position, but they know the difference in spelling, so literacy may make a difference here.
4 /l/ & /r/ produced differently in Spanish than in English pero vs. perro; bailar vs. calle
5 five vowels and four diphthongs in Spanish but there are many more in English (they will over simplify vowels)
6 vowels same length whether stressed or unstressed in Spanish; English vowels vary w/ stressing (hope and house)
in summary: English vowels can cause major problems for spanish speakers?
What are some of the grammatical characteristics of HE/LE? 2
1 spanish grammar ctns postnoun possessive (car of Juan) as opposed to English version Juan's car
2 Adjective follow's the noun in spanish as opposed to proceeding the noun in English
What is meant by Asian American Dialects?
Asian American Dialects include the most widely used language of Asia: Madarin Chinese, Cantonese Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, and Vietnamese, but each Asian American English has its own dialect, so it wouldn't be appropriate to label it Asian English
What are some phonemic contrasts with Asian American Dialects and SAE? 3
1 final consonant deletion (many Asian languages have open vowels or vowel final syllables (except Korean))
2 lengthening or shortening of vowels (it=eat)
3 addition of schwa btw consonant clusters
What are some grammatical contrasts with Asian American Dialects and SAE? 3
1 regular plural made by numeral adjective (3 cat)
2 omission or overgeneralization of regular past tense (he walk or he eated)
3 nonreversal of interrogative sentences "you are going home?" instead of "are you going home?"
What is the name of the diagnostic instrument used for dialects?
the DELV (Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation) - supposedly represents all ethnic groups based on the 2000 Census
What is balanced bilingualism?
equal proficiency in two languages (rare) (in form, content, and use)
What is nonbalanced bilingualism?
high proficiency in one language than another (more common) (not a necessarily large descrepency)
What is semiproficiency and semibilingualism?
due to mixed input of languages, a speaker could be not-proficient in either language (e.g. Spanglish which uses elements of both languages, but also dilutes the proficiency of one)
What is simultaneous acquisition?
the development of 2 languages prior to age 3; despite contrary beliefs, bilingual children acquire both languages at about the same rate as monolingual children; even if the degree of dissimilarity between the 2 languages is great, it doesn't affect the rate of acquisition; they will learn the semantic/syntactic system, may not have same # of words in each;
What is the first stage of simultaneous language acquisition? 3
1 Child has 2 separate lexical systems, which reflects his ability to distinguish between the two languages before he can speak;
2 child learns one word from either language for each referent; words from both languages may be combined indescriminately, but not considered mixing lang because the grammatical structure and vocab not learned in one language, therefore ch just uses what he knows;
3 phonology follows similar patters in combining two different inputs from both into one system, however the least amount of intereference occurs in phonology
What is the second stage of simultaneous language acquisition? 4
1 develops two distinct lexical rules, but applies the same syntactical rules to both
2 words remain tied to the context in which it was learned, the corresponding word usual not learned at the same time
3 child can move between languages (semantically), but not syntactically
4 because syntax is so different between languages, concepts (syntax) that are similar will be learned first (easiest to most difficult)
What is the third and final stage of simultaneous language acquisition? 4
1 child correctly produces syntax and lexical structure from both languages (although there still maybe some syntactical mixing) - age 3
2 usually mixing occurs when the child lacks the appropriate structure in one language (coming from an adult input likely)(ex. inserts English nouns into French clauses - syntax remains intacts, vocab changes)
3 to decrease mixing, the child may associate one language w/ a specific person (use Span w/ grandma, Eng w/ cousins)
4 As the ch becomes more comfortable w/ the syntax, that tendency to associate people w/ cert lang decreases - then the child becomes truly bilingual (can manage separate languages) ~Age 7
What is successive acquisition? 5
dev one language (L1) usu @ home and then a second lang (L2) usu @ school AFTER age 3;
Children who acquire Eng as L2 after age 5 to reach comprehensive competence before expressive; English dominance doesn't occur until Middle School;
3 by late teens its diff for us to acq pronunciation characteristics in L2
4 Ch do not acquire L2 easier or faster than adults, but ch do better than adults on L2, and are less likely to allow mixing
5 Attitude about L1 and L2, as well as need to acquire l2 are more significant factors in the ease of learning L2 than intelligence (compatibility of teaching style to learning style is also a significant contributor)
What is semilingualism?
failure to reach profiency in either language, maybe due to early exposure of L2 before L1 is mature; however because of metalinguistic skills learned by school aged children in L1, it may help facilitate the development of L2
What is the first stage of successive language acquisition? 5
1 ch establishs social relations w/ L2 speakers (often at school)
2 ch assumes what is being said is relevant to the situation & learns simple social phrases (what do ya mean, hold on)
3 ch scans the lang & tries to pick up on patterns
4 ch participates in social situations & uses what he's learned (lots of trial & error)
5 social interaction is more important that information exchange
What are inner-directed strategies?
the ch uses private speech to rehearse what they've heard in L2; getting the message across anyway possible thru trial & error
What is the second stage of successive language acquisition? 2
1 comm is the main goal: ch begins using everything she has learned thus far as it relates to L2 (semantics)
2 use of interlanguage (mixing L1 & L2 rules, w/ some rules the ch has created)