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Flashcards in Neuroscience Exam 2 Deck (284):
1

The somato- from somatosensory means ____

body

2

Somatosensation exlcudes ____, ____, ___, & ___, which are called ____

hearing, sight, taste, olfaction; special senses

3

The senses of somatosensation are 2Ps and 2 Ts, they are ___, ___, ___, & ___.

pain, temperature, touch, and proprioception

4

The pathways that the somatosensation include sensors in the ____, ___, ___ & ___

skin, muscles, joints, and blood vessels

5

What is the spinal nerve a mix of?

afferent and efferent fibers

6

What is the dorsal root ganglion?

a collection of cell bodies in the dorsal side of the spinal nerve

7

The ____ horn is the sensory horn of the spinal cord.

dorsal

8

The _____ fibers carry pain, touch, temperature and proprioception info to the brain.

ascending or afferent

9

When the afferent fibers arrive at the brain, their messages are relayed to ____ & ___.

primary sensory area (parietal lobe) and association areas

10

Why does all the sensory info go to the parietal lob first?

to allow for conscious perception of sensation

11

Why does all the sensory info go to association areas?

to allow for analysis and integration of the sensation

12

How can sensory receptors be classified (2 methods)?

1 modality
2 adaptability

13

What are the two classifications of adaptability of sensory receptors?

quick adapting (initial response fades away the longer the sense is experienced)
nonadapting (provides the same response over time - as long as the signal is present).

14

What are the modalities of sensation? 3 big (2 sub types)

1 Mechanoreceptive (tactile-touchpressurevibration, kinesthetic-movement)
2 Thermoreception (temperature)
3 Nociception (pain)

15

What are the two subtypes of tactile sensation?

1 fine discriminative
2 diffuse/gross

16

____ ____ pathway is a sensory pathway carrying non-localizable touch and pain and temperature.

anterolateral spinothalamic

17

The anterior portion of the anterolateral spinothalamic pathway carries ____.

non-localizable touch

18

The lateral portion of the anterolateral spinothalamic pathway carries ____.

pain and temperature

19

The ____ ___ (region of the spinal cord) carries info from the lower extremities.

fasciulus gracilis

20

The ____ ___ (region of the spinal cord) carries info from the upper extremities.

fasciulus cuneatus

21

___ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) has dendrites in the periphery, cell bodies in the DRG and synapse in ipsilateral spinal cord or medulla.

1st

22

___ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) has cell bodies in the spinal cord or medulla, axons cross over and ascend in contralateral spinal cord or brain stem.

2nd

23

___ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) has cell bodies in the thalamus, and axons which ascend to the parietal lobe (primary sensory area).

3rd

24

What is the DRG?

dorsal root ganglion are the sensory axon tracts

25

What is the ipsilateral pathway?

the DCML (dorsal column medial lemniscus) an axon tract that is late developing with discriminative touch, and a decussation in the medulla

26

What is the contralateral pathway?

the anterolateral pathway is early developing and works with pain, temperature, and diffuse/crud touch; it decussates in the spinal cord.

27

What are two characteristic of the DCML system?

the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system is:
1 a large myelinated fiber tract
2 sent to precise maps of the body system (lesions that occur accompany predictable losses in sensation)

28

What is carried in the DCML system? functions 3

1 fine discriminative touch (graphesthesia; stereognosis)
2 vibration sense
3 proprioception, kinesthesia

29

What is graphesthesia?

ability to ID letters draw on skin

30

What is stereognosis?

ability to ID shapes based on touch

31

In the post-central gyrus, the information is represented _____. This is where ____ begins to happen.

somatotopically; conscious awareness

32

A lesion to the post-central gyrus can result in _____.

reduced perception of touch and localization

33

The somasthetic association cortex is found in BA __ & ___. Which is in the _____

5 &7; the superior, posterior parietal lobe

34

A lesion to the somasthetic association cortex results in reduced _____, _____, and reduced ___

touch perception, tactile agnosia (loss of touch recognition-can describe object but can't name it), sensory discrimination

35

First order neurons in the DCML system are ____ (shape)

unipolar

36

_____ in the DCML system have cell bodies in the nucleus gracilis or nucleus cuneatus in the medulla.

second order neurons (depending on if they are LE or UE neurons)

37

Second order neurons in the DCML cross the midline in the ___ and continue through the contralateral brainstem in the ___ ___.

medulla; medial lemniscus

38

The dorsal column after the cross over in the medulla is called the ___ ___ ___.

medial lemniscus system

39

1st order neurons in the DCML and anterolateral systems cell bodies are in the ____

dorsal root ganglia

40

2nd order neuron in the DCML cell bodies are in the ___

nucleus gracilis or nucleus cuneatus

41

2nd order neuron's axons in the DCML and anterolateral systems decussate and end in ___

ventral posterior lateral nucleus in thalamus

42

3rd order neuron cell bodies in the DCML and anterolateral systems are in the ___

ventral posterior lateral nucleus in the thalamus

43

What does the anterolateral system carry?

lateral spinothalamic tract carries pain and temperature
-

44

The lateral spinothalamic tract branches to ____ and ___

VPL and the intralaminar nuclei (connx to the limbic system)

45

The lateral spinothalamic tract is influenced by _____ ____ ___

descending reticular projections

46

Descending reticular projections influence the lateral spinothalamic tract are ____, and _____ _____ ____ and ___ ____ ____

PAIN: periaqueductal gray matter; modulate pain perception; and visceral response to pain

47

A feature of pain in the Lateral spinal tract is ___.

phantom limb pain (receives signals from scar tissue; hypersensitive neuroma)

48

What is referred pain?

when someone is having a heart attack, feel it in their left arm; the visceral organs don't have a good sensory system; so senses are combined with sense neurons coming from the left arm

49

3 neuron system in the lateral spinothalamic tract is the same as the DCML system, except; in the ___ order, where the ___ cross the midline in the ____.

2nd; axons, spinal cord

50

2nd order axons in the lateral spinothalamic tract and ascend ____.

in the contralateral spinothalamic tract

51

In both the lateral spinothalamic tract and the DCML it is the ______ ____ axons which cross over.

2nd order

52

A ___ involves bilateral loss of all sensory & motor below the lesion.

complete transection of the spinal cord

53

A ____ involves damage to 1 side of the spinal cord (R or L); including ipsilateral paralysis, ipsilateral loss of touch sensation, and contralateral loss of pain and temperature.

spinal hemisection

54

What is another name for spinal hemisection?

Brown-Sequard syndrome

55

A ___ is a signal received in a sensory nerve which synapses in the DRG of spinal cord and sends a excitatory signal to an agonist and an inhibitory signal to an antagonist.

reflex arc

56

A ___ sends a inhibitory signal to the antogonist in the reflex arc.

interneuron

57

Each pair of spinal nerves innervates a specific ___

body region

58

A ___ is a sensory region which is innervated by a spinal nerve.

dermatome

59

A ___ is a motor region which is innervated by a spinal nerve.

myotome

60

Visual perception involves the refraction of light through ___ and ___.

lens and cornea

61

Photoreceptors receive light in the ____

retina

62

Axon tracts in the visual system travel to ___then ____.

thalamus; occipital lobe

63

The retina is composed of three layers of cells, they are ___, ___, and ___.

photoreceptors (most post); bipolar cells (middle); ganglion cells (most anterior)

64

The ____ axons form the optic nerve.

ganglion cell's

65

The ganglion cells' axons form the ____.

optic nerve

66

The ___ is the portion where the optic nerve leaves the eye (no photoreceptors).

blind spot

67

The lateral spinothalamic tract is involved in ___ & ___ perception.

pain & temperature

68

The first order neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapses in ___.

dorsal horn of the spinal cord

69

The second order neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapses in ___

VPL of the thalamus

70

The third order neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapses in ___.

primary sensory area of the parietal lobe

71

The anterior spinothalamic tract is involved in ____ perception.

diffuse touch

72

The visual pathway crosses over at the ___.

optic chiasm

73

the visual pathway area from the retina to the optic chaism is called the ___

optic nerve

74

From the cross over to the thalamus in the visual pathway is called the __.

optic tract

75

The part othe visual pathway from the thalamus to occipital lobe is called the ___.

optic radiation or geniculocalcarine fibers

76

Another name for the optic radiation is ___

geniculocalcarine fibers

77

Where do the neurons of the anterior spinothalamic tract synapse?

same as lateral spinothalamic tract; 1 dorsal horn; 2 thalamus VPL; 3 prim sens area of parietal

78

The ___ is the reverse of the visual field.

retinal field

79

The ___ contains both Right and Left portions in each eye.

visual field

80

What is the reversal of the retinal field from the visual field?

Left becomes Right; top becomes bottom

81

The halves of the eye are called ___ and ___.

temporal and nasal

82

The visual pathways are ___ representation in the occipital lobe.

point-to-point

83

What do the spinocerebellar tracts control?

unconscious proprioception (modify/monitors ongoing movements thru cerebellum)

84

Where are the synapses in the spinocerebellar tracts?

1 synapse in dorsal horn
2 synapse in the ipsalateral cerebellum
(some will crossover in the spinal cord and cross back in the medulla)

85

Information from left eye has ___.

bilateral projections

86

The R/L halves of the ___ converges at the optic chiasm.

optic nerve (CN II)

87

The ___ retinal field fibers cross over.

nasal

88

The ___ retinal field fibers remain ipsilateral.

temporal

89

The information from the left visual field ends synapse in the ___ lateral geniculate body and the ___ occipital lobe.

right; right

90

The visual pathway from the retina is optic ___, optic ___, and optic ____.

nerve, tract (fibers), radiation (or geniculocalcarine fibers)

91

____ occurs because you see things from two separate eyes, but it ends up in the same hemisphere of the occipital lobe.

binocular vision

92

The RVF has a ____ to the LH.

partial crossover (Right visual field; left hemisphere)

93

The image from the retina will be ___ when it reaches the occipital lobe.

inverted

94

What are 3 basic visual field deficits resulting from lesions?

monocular blindness; bi-temporal heteronymous hemianopia; nasal hemianopia

95

___ is damage at the chiasm; (The chiasm is cut) loss of peripheral visual fields. Tunnel vision.

bi-temporal, heteronymous hemianopia

96

___ is loss of vision in one eye, unilaterally resulting from a cut in the lateral edge of the optic chiasm.

nasal hemianopia or hemianopsia

97

___ is lesion to the optic nerve (CNII) cut between retina and the chiasm.

monocular blindness.

98

One cause of tunnel vision is a tumor of the ___.

pituitary gland

99

Nasal hemianopia affects fibrers from the ___ temporal retinal. or ___ nasal visual field.

ipsilateral

100

The most common type of visual field cut is a ____; which is loss of the same visual half (R/L) in each eye.

homonymous hemianopia

101

Homonymous hemianopia results from ___

interruption of optic tract, LGB, or geniculocalcarine fibers; contralateral to the eye affected.

102

____ is the most common kind of visual loss in stroke victims.

homonymous hemianopia

103

___ is vision loss in the superior or inferior quandrant to the lesion.

homonymous R/L qunadrantanopsia

104

Homonymous R/L quandrantanopsia results from a ___

interruption of a portion of the geniculocalcarine fibers

105

A Primary visual cortex lesion is like a homonymous hemianopia, but ____

w/ spared central vision

106

Primary visual cortex lesion is a _____

lesion to visual cortex unilaterally, resulting to blindnees in the opposite field of vision in each eye.

107

___ is bilateral damage to primary visual processing ares resulting in visual system sends info back, but you do not have awareness of it, responds to visual things which they say they cannot see. Must have lesions in the same spot of each hemisphere.

cortical blindness

108

A Primary visual cortex lesion is like a homonymous hemianopia, but ____

w/ spared central vision

109

Primary visual cortex lesion is a _____

lesion to visual cortex unilaterally, resulting to blindnees in the opposite field of vision in each eye.

110

___ is bilateral damage to primary visual processing ares resulting in visual system sends info back, but you do not have awareness of it, responds to visual things which they say they cannot see.

cortical blindness

111

The primary visual area is Brodmann's area ___.

17

112

The visual cortex has association areas (___ &___) which connect to ___, ___, & ___

(18 & 19); temporal, parietal, and pulvinar

113

The association areas connect to the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus which is important for __, ___, and ___

recognizing objects, forms, faces; linking visual objects to meaning; reading & writing

114

What is the "What" pathway for visual processing?

ventral, to inferior temporal lobe

115

What does damage to the "what" pathway cause?

agnosias (inability to recog objs, words (alexia), faces

116

Where is the "where" pathway?

dorsal; to parietal lobe

117

What does damage to the "where" pathway cause?

inability to localize items; can recog/describe item; cannot ID location (point to it) visual disorientation; topographic abilities inhibited

118

What are 3 visual association cortex lesions related agnosias?

1 apperceptive agnosia (difficulty recog an obj due to perceptual deficit)
2 associative agnosia (difficulty recognizing or attaching meaning to an item with preserved perception) - visual agnosia
3 prosopagnosia (inability to recog faces - not a memory problem)

119

What is damage to lingual gyrus/fusiform gyrus (inferior temporal lobe) cause in vision?

achromatopsia: used to be able to tell color now cannot

120

What does damage to parieto-temporo-occipital lobes bilaterally cause in vision?

akinetopsia: problem detecting movement; it's like viewing the world in a strobe light, they see bits of the world, and don't see movement

121

What does damage to posterior corpus callosum and occipital cortex cause?

alexia (recognizing words/reading) w/o agraphia (writing): ask them to write a sentence, no problem. ask them to read what they wrote, cannot.

122

The auditory system begins with ___ waves, which create vibration.

sound waves

123

The sound waves are changed into ___ waves by the tympanic membrane.

pressure waves

124

The mechanical energy of the ossicles is converted into ___ energy in the cochlea (and OHC).

hydraulic energy

125

The cochlea captures the hydraulic energy and transforms it into ___ (impulses ...).

nerve impulses

126

The outside of the cochlea is the ___. The inside is the ___.

bony labyrinth; membranous labyrinth

127

The scala ___ is the most superior.

vestibuli

128

The scala vestibuli is divided from the scala media by ___.

Reissner's membrane

129

The scala media is divided from the scala tympani by ___.

Basilar membrane

130

The ___ rests on top of the basilar membrane.

organ of corti; tectorial membrane

131

The ___ is a snail shaped structure, which is coiled around the ___.

cochlea; modiolus

132

There is/are ___ row(s) of IHC.

1

133

There is/are ___ row(s) of OHC.

3

134

The scala vestibuli/tympani is filled with ____. This has a high ___ concentration.

perilymph; Na, similar to CSF

135

The scala media is filled with ____. This has a high ___ concentration.

endolymph; K, similar to extracellular fluid

136

The hair cells have little piece which stick out of their top, called ___.

stereocilia

137

___ are the primary auditory receptors.

hair cells

138

The faster the action potentials from IHC, the more displacement, and the ___ the sound.

louder

139

____ is the highest/biggest stereocilia on a hair cell.

kinocilium

140

As the cilia bend, there is an increased permeability to ___.

K+ ions

141

As K+ moves into hair cells, it opens ___, which ___.

Ca++ channels; triggers the release of neurotransmitters

142

___ is the transmitter released from hair cells, which is a excitatory ntx.

Glutamate

143

Action potentials from the cochlea create the CN ____.

VIII

144

Action potentials from the cochlea synapse first in the ____, then next in the ___, then ___, then ___, and finally ____ .

cochlear nuclei; superior olivary complex; inferior colliculus; medial geniculate body; Heschel's gyrus

145

Axons from the cochlea enter the brainstem at the ____

ponto-medullary junction

146

about ____ of signals cross over at the cochlear nucleus/superior olivary nucleus.

80%

147

The auditory pathway is a ____ neuron system.

5

148

Some of the crossover in the central auditory pathway occurs in the ____.

trapezoid body

149

__ is the first stop in the auditory pathway that receives signal from both ears. This is good for comparisons of ___ and ___ for localization.

superior olivary nucleus; timing; intensity

150

____ is part of the central auditory pathway and has some synapses in the pons. This is a tract of axons.

Lateral lemniscus

151

___ is part of the central auditory pathway and has some commisural fibers btw R/L halves and plays a role in startle reflexes.

Inferior colliculus

152

The cell bodies of the neurons of CNVIII are found in the ___. These neurons receive input from inner hair cells.

spiral ganglia

153

The higher the frequency the more ___ it is represented in Heschel's gyrus.

posterior

154

____ is where meaning attached to sound.

Secondary auditory area (association area)

155

The secondary auditory area is found in Brodmann Area ___.

42

156

____ is an area that is larger in the LH than RH, and is deep in the sylvian fissure, and has something to do with language processing.

Planum temporale

157

___ is where language is comprehended and interpreted.

Wernicke's area

158

Wernicke's area is found in Brodmann Area ___.

22

159

What do auditory reflexes do?

coordinate head and eye mvt to sound

160

What do descending auditory projections do? 3

1 refine pitch perception
2 lateral inhibition (sharpen reception of spec freq)
3 suppress response to competing bg noise

161

What are the two main categories of auditory pathologies?

conductive and sensorineural HL

162

What are potential causes of SNHL? 5

1 noise exposure
2 Meniere's disease
3 Presbycusis
4 Acoustic neuroma
5 Vestibular schwannoma

163

____ is a tumor on CN VIII.

acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma

164

What are cortical impairments to the LEFT hemisphere?

unilateral temporal lobe lesions will affect speech only without affecting non-speech sounds

165

If you have ___ you do not recognize sp sounds as sp sounds. This occurs with bilateral temporal lesions.

pure word deafness or Auditory Verbal Agnosia

166

A unilateral RIGHT temporal lobe lesions may have ____.

aprosodia (problem w/ understanding prosody, especially emotional prosody)

167

____ aphasia is marked by sounding like they are talking normally (but with poor semantics).

Fluent

168

_____ is marked by difficulty understanding commands and picking correct words. Syntax and prosody is primarily unaffected.

Wernicke's aphasia

169

In the inner ear next to the cochlea are the ___, which are the main part of the vestibular system.

semicircular ducts/canals

170

Next to the semicircular canals, are two ___, called the ___ and the ___

vestibules: utricle; saccule

171

The vestibular system connects the vestibular nucleus to the brain via the ___ 3

1 medial longitudinal fasciculus
2 brainstem reticular formation
3 reticular activating system

172

At the base of each semicircular canals is a ___ with a ___.

ampulla crista; cupula

173

Inside the utricle and saccule are ___.

otoliths

174

The ampulla crista, utricle and saccule are ___

sensory organs of the vestibular system

175

____ are weights that rest on top of the otolithic membranes. They cause extra shifting.

otoconia

176

When the vestibular hair cells in the utricle or saccule bend towards kinocilium, causing an ____ signal.

excitatory; signal speeds up

177

When the vestibular hair cells in the utricle or saccule bend away from the kinocilium, causing an _____ signal.

inhibitory; signal slows down

178

Vestibular nerve fibers course through the _____, join with ____ and enter ___.

internal auditory meatus; auditory nerve fibers; brainstem

179

What are the projections of the vestibular system? 3

medial longitudinal fasciculus (CN III, IV, and VI); cerebellum (flocculonodular lobe and vermis), and spinal cord

180

What do the projections of the vestibular system accomplish?

integrated connections for balance/equilibrium

181

What system combine with the vestibular system for balance/equilibrium? 3

cerebellovestibular (feedback system)
spinocerebellar (sensory info to the cerebellum)
vestibulospinal (descending projections to the spinal cord)

182

____ helps control visceral-autonomic activities with the vestibular nuclei. Motion sickness

Reticular activating system/reticular formation

183

What ascending connections from the vestibular nuclei? 2

1 thalmus
2 cortex (unknown exactly: motor system, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, frontal eye fields in the middle frontal gyrus (volitional eye mvts))

184

As you rise in the motor system the ___ increases.

level of control

185

____ can only respond in a reflexive manner of motor control.

The spinal cord

186

____ can respond for vegetative functions of motor control.

Brainstem

187

____ can control coordination of motor control.

Cerebellum

188

____ can regulate body functions (inhibition and facilitation of movement).

Basal ganglia

189

_____ are the basal ganglia not control movement.

Tremors

190

___ can initiate and regulation of movement (inhibit and facilitate motor control)

motor cortex

191

The primary motor strip (precentral gyrus/motor homunculus) is Brodmann's area ___.

4

192

The pre-motor strip is Brodmann's area ___.

6

193

The supplementary motor strip is Brodmann's area ___.

8

194

____ controls the intention to move.

Supplementary motor area.

195

What are 4 inputs to the motor cortex?
1 intention, motivation, goals
2 current muscle status/position
3 complex spatial aspects
4 excitatory loop; integration w/ basal ganglia

1 prefrontal
2 primary sensory
3 sensory association
4 thalamocortical

196

___ are direct connections btw brain and muscles.

pyramidal tracts

197

___ are the pyramidal shaped cells in the motor strip.

Betz cells

198

_____ are connections/networks in brainstem and cerebellum.

Extrapyramidal tracts

199

The pyramidal tracts are divided into __ and __.

upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron

200

_____ have cell bodies in the motor cortex, axons project to the brain stem/spinal cord and are part of the CNS.

upper motor neurons (UMN)

201

Upper motor neurons start where and end where?

motor cortex; brain stem (All in CNS)

202

____ have cell bodies in the brain stem or spinal cord (CNS) and axons project to muscles (PNS).

lower motor neurons (LMN)

203

___ are called the "final common pathway".

lower motor neurons

204

Lower motors neurons start where and end where?

brain stem or spinal cord; muscles

205

____ % of pyramidal tracts are corticobulbar and ___ % of them are corticospinal tracts.

70; 30

206

____ begin in the cortex and end in the brain stem.

Corticobulbar tracts

207

___ begin in the cortex and end in the spinal cord.

Corticospinal tracts

208

LMNs of the corticospinal tracts are ___.

spinal nerves

209

LMNs of the corticobulbar tracts are ____.

cranial nerves

210

___ is composed of corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts. Most fibers crossover in the UMN.

Pyramidal tracts

211

The first region of the motor tract (UMN) is called the ___ which is a broad fanning of fibers from the cortex. This is white matter.

corona radiata

212

___ is where the UMN tracts converge in the white matter and pass between structures of the basal ganglia.

Internal capsule

213

When the axons reach the brainstem in the corticobulbar tract (UMN), what happens?

they cross over in small groups and synapse onto LMN in the brainstem

214

When the axons reach the brainstem in the corticospinal tract (UMN), what happens?

cross over en mass in medulla (pyramidal decussation), travel down the spinal cord (form LMN)

215

In both corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts there is ____, but in CBit happens gradually, but in CS they do it en mass.

crossover/decussation

216

Damage to LMN results in ___ pathology.

ipsilateral

217

Damage to a right cranial nerve will result in weakness on the ___ side.

right

218

What is the cranial nerve mneumonic?

On old Olympus' towering top a Finn and German Viewed Some Hops

219

What are the 12 cranial nerves?

Olfactory
Optic
Occulomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Auditory/Vestibular
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Spinal accessory
Hypoglossal

220

What is the mneumonic for cranial nerve function? What do the letters stand for?

Some, Saps, May Marry, But, Brother, Believes, Bad, Business, Marriage, Makes
S: Sensory
M: Motor (LMN)
B: Both Sensory and Motor

221

____ has it's UMN cell bodies in motor strip and they cross over to respective cranial nerve nucleus and synapse on LMN cell bodies on the brain stem (these are cranial nerves).

Corticobulbar tract

222

The top bone of the skull is the ___.

ethmoid

223

The ethmoid is the location where CN ___ enters. This is called ___

I; olfactory

224

Olfactory nerve is CN ___ and its function is ___.

I; sensory only

225

Sensory cells in ____ in the roof of the nasal cavity.

epithelium

226

The receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are replaced every ___.

30-60 days (only mammalian olfactory nerves are like this)

227

The termination/synapse of cells in CN I is in ___. (They integrate with the opposite side via ____).

olfactory bulb; anterior commissure

228

Sensory cells in the nose are found in epithelium in roof of nasal cavity and travel through what bone?

cribiform plate of ethmoid bone

229

What does the olfactory bulb have projections to? 5

1 anterior commissure (cross over)
2 subcallosal area (limbic system)
3 medial temporal lobe (amygdala, hippocampus)
4 connections to orbitofrontal cortex, insula (discrimination of odor)
5 connections to hypothalamus (feeding beh)

230

What are pathologies related to olfactory? 2

anosmia (loss of sense of smell; could be TBI)
reduced acuity in smell with aging (reported often as a reduction of taste)

231

CN II is the ____. It carries ___.

optic nerve, sensory info only

232

The optic nerve has fibers from the retina to the ___. After it reaches that, it is called ____ until ___, after which it is called ___.

optic chiasm; optic tract; thalamus (LGB); optic radiation

233

CN III is the ____. It carries ____.

oculomotor nerve; motor only

234

Oculomotor nerve innervates ___ of the ___ muscles for the eye movement.

4/6

235

What are the 4 muscles that the oculomotor nerve innervates?

1 medial rectus
2 superior rectus
3 inferior rectus
4 inferior oblique

236

The oculomotor nerve moves the eye and aids in ___. It also integrates with ____ system and ____ movements.

eyelid elevation; vestibular system; neck movements

237

The ____ nucleus is involved in the parasympathetic system where it plays a role in the constrictor muscles of iris (plays a role in the pupillary light reflex).

Edinger-Westphal

238

Damage to the CN III can result in ____, (deviation of ipsilateral eye to lateral position; double vision); ____ (drooping eyelid); and/or ___ (permanent dilation of the pupil).

lateral strabismus; diplopia; ptosis; mydriasis

239

CN IV is the ___ and it's function is ___.

trochlear, motor only

240

Trochlear innervates __ of ___ eye muscles (____ muscle); exists midbrain on the ___ surface. It integrates with ___ system and ___ movements.

1/6 (superior oblique); dorsal surface; vestibular system; neck movement

241

The trochlear nerve controls ___ (eye muscle). Damage to it will result in difficulty looking ____, and ____ when 1 eye moves in that direction.

superior oblique; down/outward; diplopia

242

CN VI is the ___ and its function is ___.

abducens; motor only

243

Abducens innervates __ of the ___ eye muscles (___ muscle); integrates with the ___ system and __ movement. It exits from the ___.

1/6 (lateral rectus); vestibular system; neck movements; midbrain

244

____ is weakness/drooping of the eyelid.

Ptosis

245

___is permanent dilation of pupil.

Mydriasis

246

CN V is the ___ and its function is ___.

trigeminal; both motor and sensory

247

The Trigimenal nerve is CN ___, its function is in ___ muscles, and the _____ muscle (in the ____).

V; mastication, tensor veli palatini (in the soft palate, opens eustachian tube)

248

Trigimenal is CN ___ and it carries basic sensory from ___, ___, ___, ____.

V; face, death, dura mater, muscous membranes of mouth and nose

249

The muscles of mastication that are innervated by the trigeminal are 6

1 masseter
2 pterygoids
3 temporalis
4 digastric
5 tensor veli palatini
6 tensor tympani

250

What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve? Which one(s) have motor and sensory?

1 ophthalmic
2 maxillary
3 mandibular (motor and sensory)

251

What is carried in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve? 3 examples

sense info from forehead, anterior scalp, eyball, upper eyelid, cornea, lateral nose, sinuses, tentorium cerebelli

252

What is carried in the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve? 3 examples

temples, post nose, upper cheeks/lips, upper gums/teeth, palates, medial dura mater

253

What is carried in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve? 3 examples

side of scalp, lower lips/gums, mouth, anterior/middle meninges, external auditory meatus, anterior 2/3 tongue (touch/pain/temp)

254

____ is excruciating chronic pain affecting upper and lower face (caused by little or no stimuli).

Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)

255

____ is unilateral LMN damage with slight deviation of the jaw and minimal weakness. Little impact on function.

Flaccid paresis

256

___ is bilateral UMN damage which results in paralysis of masticator muscles and the mandible hangs open. Rare

Masticator palsy

257

CN VII is the ___. Its function is ___.

facial; both motor and sensory

258

Facial nerve is CN ___, its functions are ____ and ____.

VII; muscles of facial expression; taste anterior 2/3rds of tongue

259

What are the 4 different branches of the Facial nerve? Which have dual function?

1 Branchial motor
2 visceral motor
3 special sensory (tongue)
4 general sensory
(none)

260

The corticobulbar tracts for the lower half of the face have _____ innervation.

contralateral

261

The corticobulbar tracts for the upper half of the face (forehead) have _____ innervation.

bilateral

262

If a pt has unilateral cortical/UMN damage will have ___ facial drooping. This is on ____ (upper, lower, both) face.

contralateral, lower

263

If a pt has unilateral nerve/LMN damage will have ___ facial drooping. This is on ____ (upper, lower, both) face.

ipsilateral; both (entire face)

264

___ will have facial paralysis on one side.

Bell's palsy

265

CN VIII is the ____ and its function is ___.

auditory-vestibular; both motor and sensory

266

Auditory-vestibular is CN ___ it's function is __ and ___.

VIII, hearing and balance

267

CN IX is the ___ and its function is ___.

glossopharyngeal; both motor and sensory

268

Glossopharyngeal is CN ___ and functions to innervate ___ muscle(s), and sensory info from ___, ___, ___, & ___ (also ___ here).

IX; stylopharyngeus; mucosa of harynx, tonsils, Eustacian tube, tongue (also taste from post 1/3 here)

269

____ stimulates the salivary glands.

Glossopharyngeal nerve

270

CN X is the ___ and its function is ___.

vagus; both motor and sensory

271

Vagus nerve is CN ___ and its function to innervate ___ and __ muscles; and provide sense info from ____, ___, ___, ____, and ___.

X; laryngeal; pharyngeal; muscles of pharynx, epiglottis; trachea/bronchi; esophagus/stomach; taste from pharynx

272

What are the 3 branches of the Vagus nerve?

1 pharyngeal branch (motor only)
2 Superior larygneal branch (both sense and motor)
3 Recurrent laryngeal branch (both sense and motor)

273

What is innervated by the pharyngeal branch? What does damage to this cause?

velum; pharynx;
hypernasality; dysphagia (nasal regurgitation)

274

What are the sub-branches of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus? What is innervated by the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus?

internal laryngeal (sense only)- epiglottis, larynx above folds
external laryngeal nerve (motor only) cricothyroid

275

What does damage to the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus caused?

reduced pitch control; risk of aspiration due to reduced sensation

276

What is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve? What does damage to it cause?

intrinsic laryngeal muscles (motor); vocal folds and below (sense); vocal fold paralysis (breathy/hoarse voice, diplophonia-due to atrophy)(risk of aspiration)

277

CN XI is the ___ and its function is ____

Spinal Accessory; motor only.

278

Spinal Accessory is CN ___ and it functions to innervate ___, ___, and ___ muscles. And randomly, innervate ___ and ___.

XI; velum; uvula; intrinsic laryngeal muscles; Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

279

CN XII is the ___ and its function is ___.

Hypoglossal; motor only

280

Hypoglossal nerve is CN ___ and it innervates ____ and __.

XII; all intrinsic and most extrinsic tongue muscles

281

What does damage to CN XII cause?

weakness of tongue muscles

282

Is CN XII ipsilateral, contralateral or both?

contralateral only

283

The ____ represents only 10% of the corticospinal tract which remains ipsilateral down the spinal cord. It crosses over prior to synapsing.

Anterior Corticospinal Tract

284

The ____ represent 90% of the corticospinal tract which decussates at the pyramidal decussation; travels down contralateral spinal cord.

Lateral Corticospinal Tract