Flashcards in Neuroscience Exam 2 Deck (284):
The somato- from somatosensory means ____
Somatosensation exlcudes ____, ____, ___, & ___, which are called ____
hearing, sight, taste, olfaction; special senses
The senses of somatosensation are 2Ps and 2 Ts, they are ___, ___, ___, & ___.
pain, temperature, touch, and proprioception
The pathways that the somatosensation include sensors in the ____, ___, ___ & ___
skin, muscles, joints, and blood vessels
What is the spinal nerve a mix of?
afferent and efferent fibers
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
a collection of cell bodies in the dorsal side of the spinal nerve
The ____ horn is the sensory horn of the spinal cord.
The _____ fibers carry pain, touch, temperature and proprioception info to the brain.
ascending or afferent
When the afferent fibers arrive at the brain, their messages are relayed to ____ & ___.
primary sensory area (parietal lobe) and association areas
Why does all the sensory info go to the parietal lob first?
to allow for conscious perception of sensation
Why does all the sensory info go to association areas?
to allow for analysis and integration of the sensation
How can sensory receptors be classified (2 methods)?
What are the two classifications of adaptability of sensory receptors?
quick adapting (initial response fades away the longer the sense is experienced)
nonadapting (provides the same response over time - as long as the signal is present).
What are the modalities of sensation? 3 big (2 sub types)
1 Mechanoreceptive (tactile-touchpressurevibration, kinesthetic-movement)
2 Thermoreception (temperature)
3 Nociception (pain)
What are the two subtypes of tactile sensation?
1 fine discriminative
____ ____ pathway is a sensory pathway carrying non-localizable touch and pain and temperature.
The anterior portion of the anterolateral spinothalamic pathway carries ____.
The lateral portion of the anterolateral spinothalamic pathway carries ____.
pain and temperature
The ____ ___ (region of the spinal cord) carries info from the lower extremities.
The ____ ___ (region of the spinal cord) carries info from the upper extremities.
___ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) has dendrites in the periphery, cell bodies in the DRG and synapse in ipsilateral spinal cord or medulla.
___ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) has cell bodies in the spinal cord or medulla, axons cross over and ascend in contralateral spinal cord or brain stem.
___ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) has cell bodies in the thalamus, and axons which ascend to the parietal lobe (primary sensory area).
What is the DRG?
dorsal root ganglion are the sensory axon tracts
What is the ipsilateral pathway?
the DCML (dorsal column medial lemniscus) an axon tract that is late developing with discriminative touch, and a decussation in the medulla
What is the contralateral pathway?
the anterolateral pathway is early developing and works with pain, temperature, and diffuse/crud touch; it decussates in the spinal cord.
What are two characteristic of the DCML system?
the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system is:
1 a large myelinated fiber tract
2 sent to precise maps of the body system (lesions that occur accompany predictable losses in sensation)
What is carried in the DCML system? functions 3
1 fine discriminative touch (graphesthesia; stereognosis)
2 vibration sense
3 proprioception, kinesthesia
What is graphesthesia?
ability to ID letters draw on skin
What is stereognosis?
ability to ID shapes based on touch
In the post-central gyrus, the information is represented _____. This is where ____ begins to happen.
somatotopically; conscious awareness
A lesion to the post-central gyrus can result in _____.
reduced perception of touch and localization
The somasthetic association cortex is found in BA __ & ___. Which is in the _____
5 &7; the superior, posterior parietal lobe
A lesion to the somasthetic association cortex results in reduced _____, _____, and reduced ___
touch perception, tactile agnosia (loss of touch recognition-can describe object but can't name it), sensory discrimination
First order neurons in the DCML system are ____ (shape)
_____ in the DCML system have cell bodies in the nucleus gracilis or nucleus cuneatus in the medulla.
second order neurons (depending on if they are LE or UE neurons)
Second order neurons in the DCML cross the midline in the ___ and continue through the contralateral brainstem in the ___ ___.
medulla; medial lemniscus
The dorsal column after the cross over in the medulla is called the ___ ___ ___.
medial lemniscus system
1st order neurons in the DCML and anterolateral systems cell bodies are in the ____
dorsal root ganglia
2nd order neuron in the DCML cell bodies are in the ___
nucleus gracilis or nucleus cuneatus
2nd order neuron's axons in the DCML and anterolateral systems decussate and end in ___
ventral posterior lateral nucleus in thalamus
3rd order neuron cell bodies in the DCML and anterolateral systems are in the ___
ventral posterior lateral nucleus in the thalamus
What does the anterolateral system carry?
lateral spinothalamic tract carries pain and temperature
The lateral spinothalamic tract branches to ____ and ___
VPL and the intralaminar nuclei (connx to the limbic system)
The lateral spinothalamic tract is influenced by _____ ____ ___
descending reticular projections
Descending reticular projections influence the lateral spinothalamic tract are ____, and _____ _____ ____ and ___ ____ ____
PAIN: periaqueductal gray matter; modulate pain perception; and visceral response to pain
A feature of pain in the Lateral spinal tract is ___.
phantom limb pain (receives signals from scar tissue; hypersensitive neuroma)
What is referred pain?
when someone is having a heart attack, feel it in their left arm; the visceral organs don't have a good sensory system; so senses are combined with sense neurons coming from the left arm
3 neuron system in the lateral spinothalamic tract is the same as the DCML system, except; in the ___ order, where the ___ cross the midline in the ____.
2nd; axons, spinal cord
2nd order axons in the lateral spinothalamic tract and ascend ____.
in the contralateral spinothalamic tract
In both the lateral spinothalamic tract and the DCML it is the ______ ____ axons which cross over.
A ___ involves bilateral loss of all sensory & motor below the lesion.
complete transection of the spinal cord
A ____ involves damage to 1 side of the spinal cord (R or L); including ipsilateral paralysis, ipsilateral loss of touch sensation, and contralateral loss of pain and temperature.
What is another name for spinal hemisection?
A ___ is a signal received in a sensory nerve which synapses in the DRG of spinal cord and sends a excitatory signal to an agonist and an inhibitory signal to an antagonist.
A ___ sends a inhibitory signal to the antogonist in the reflex arc.
Each pair of spinal nerves innervates a specific ___
A ___ is a sensory region which is innervated by a spinal nerve.
A ___ is a motor region which is innervated by a spinal nerve.
Visual perception involves the refraction of light through ___ and ___.
lens and cornea
Photoreceptors receive light in the ____
Axon tracts in the visual system travel to ___then ____.
thalamus; occipital lobe
The retina is composed of three layers of cells, they are ___, ___, and ___.
photoreceptors (most post); bipolar cells (middle); ganglion cells (most anterior)
The ____ axons form the optic nerve.
The ganglion cells' axons form the ____.
The ___ is the portion where the optic nerve leaves the eye (no photoreceptors).
The lateral spinothalamic tract is involved in ___ & ___ perception.
pain & temperature
The first order neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapses in ___.
dorsal horn of the spinal cord
The second order neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapses in ___
VPL of the thalamus
The third order neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract synapses in ___.
primary sensory area of the parietal lobe
The anterior spinothalamic tract is involved in ____ perception.
The visual pathway crosses over at the ___.
the visual pathway area from the retina to the optic chaism is called the ___
From the cross over to the thalamus in the visual pathway is called the __.
The part othe visual pathway from the thalamus to occipital lobe is called the ___.
optic radiation or geniculocalcarine fibers
Another name for the optic radiation is ___
Where do the neurons of the anterior spinothalamic tract synapse?
same as lateral spinothalamic tract; 1 dorsal horn; 2 thalamus VPL; 3 prim sens area of parietal
The ___ is the reverse of the visual field.
The ___ contains both Right and Left portions in each eye.
What is the reversal of the retinal field from the visual field?
Left becomes Right; top becomes bottom
The halves of the eye are called ___ and ___.
temporal and nasal
The visual pathways are ___ representation in the occipital lobe.
What do the spinocerebellar tracts control?
unconscious proprioception (modify/monitors ongoing movements thru cerebellum)
Where are the synapses in the spinocerebellar tracts?
1 synapse in dorsal horn
2 synapse in the ipsalateral cerebellum
(some will crossover in the spinal cord and cross back in the medulla)
Information from left eye has ___.
The R/L halves of the ___ converges at the optic chiasm.
optic nerve (CN II)
The ___ retinal field fibers cross over.
The ___ retinal field fibers remain ipsilateral.
The information from the left visual field ends synapse in the ___ lateral geniculate body and the ___ occipital lobe.
The visual pathway from the retina is optic ___, optic ___, and optic ____.
nerve, tract (fibers), radiation (or geniculocalcarine fibers)
____ occurs because you see things from two separate eyes, but it ends up in the same hemisphere of the occipital lobe.
The RVF has a ____ to the LH.
partial crossover (Right visual field; left hemisphere)
The image from the retina will be ___ when it reaches the occipital lobe.
What are 3 basic visual field deficits resulting from lesions?
monocular blindness; bi-temporal heteronymous hemianopia; nasal hemianopia
___ is damage at the chiasm; (The chiasm is cut) loss of peripheral visual fields. Tunnel vision.
bi-temporal, heteronymous hemianopia
___ is loss of vision in one eye, unilaterally resulting from a cut in the lateral edge of the optic chiasm.
nasal hemianopia or hemianopsia
___ is lesion to the optic nerve (CNII) cut between retina and the chiasm.
One cause of tunnel vision is a tumor of the ___.
Nasal hemianopia affects fibrers from the ___ temporal retinal. or ___ nasal visual field.
The most common type of visual field cut is a ____; which is loss of the same visual half (R/L) in each eye.
Homonymous hemianopia results from ___
interruption of optic tract, LGB, or geniculocalcarine fibers; contralateral to the eye affected.
____ is the most common kind of visual loss in stroke victims.
___ is vision loss in the superior or inferior quandrant to the lesion.
homonymous R/L qunadrantanopsia
Homonymous R/L quandrantanopsia results from a ___
interruption of a portion of the geniculocalcarine fibers
A Primary visual cortex lesion is like a homonymous hemianopia, but ____
w/ spared central vision
Primary visual cortex lesion is a _____
lesion to visual cortex unilaterally, resulting to blindnees in the opposite field of vision in each eye.
___ is bilateral damage to primary visual processing ares resulting in visual system sends info back, but you do not have awareness of it, responds to visual things which they say they cannot see. Must have lesions in the same spot of each hemisphere.
A Primary visual cortex lesion is like a homonymous hemianopia, but ____
w/ spared central vision
Primary visual cortex lesion is a _____
lesion to visual cortex unilaterally, resulting to blindnees in the opposite field of vision in each eye.
___ is bilateral damage to primary visual processing ares resulting in visual system sends info back, but you do not have awareness of it, responds to visual things which they say they cannot see.
The primary visual area is Brodmann's area ___.
The visual cortex has association areas (___ &___) which connect to ___, ___, & ___
(18 & 19); temporal, parietal, and pulvinar
The association areas connect to the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus which is important for __, ___, and ___
recognizing objects, forms, faces; linking visual objects to meaning; reading & writing
What is the "What" pathway for visual processing?
ventral, to inferior temporal lobe
What does damage to the "what" pathway cause?
agnosias (inability to recog objs, words (alexia), faces
Where is the "where" pathway?
dorsal; to parietal lobe
What does damage to the "where" pathway cause?
inability to localize items; can recog/describe item; cannot ID location (point to it) visual disorientation; topographic abilities inhibited
What are 3 visual association cortex lesions related agnosias?
1 apperceptive agnosia (difficulty recog an obj due to perceptual deficit)
2 associative agnosia (difficulty recognizing or attaching meaning to an item with preserved perception) - visual agnosia
3 prosopagnosia (inability to recog faces - not a memory problem)
What is damage to lingual gyrus/fusiform gyrus (inferior temporal lobe) cause in vision?
achromatopsia: used to be able to tell color now cannot
What does damage to parieto-temporo-occipital lobes bilaterally cause in vision?
akinetopsia: problem detecting movement; it's like viewing the world in a strobe light, they see bits of the world, and don't see movement
What does damage to posterior corpus callosum and occipital cortex cause?
alexia (recognizing words/reading) w/o agraphia (writing): ask them to write a sentence, no problem. ask them to read what they wrote, cannot.
The auditory system begins with ___ waves, which create vibration.
The sound waves are changed into ___ waves by the tympanic membrane.
The mechanical energy of the ossicles is converted into ___ energy in the cochlea (and OHC).
The cochlea captures the hydraulic energy and transforms it into ___ (impulses ...).
The outside of the cochlea is the ___. The inside is the ___.
bony labyrinth; membranous labyrinth
The scala ___ is the most superior.
The scala vestibuli is divided from the scala media by ___.
The scala media is divided from the scala tympani by ___.
The ___ rests on top of the basilar membrane.
organ of corti; tectorial membrane
The ___ is a snail shaped structure, which is coiled around the ___.
There is/are ___ row(s) of IHC.
There is/are ___ row(s) of OHC.
The scala vestibuli/tympani is filled with ____. This has a high ___ concentration.
perilymph; Na, similar to CSF
The scala media is filled with ____. This has a high ___ concentration.
endolymph; K, similar to extracellular fluid
The hair cells have little piece which stick out of their top, called ___.
___ are the primary auditory receptors.
The faster the action potentials from IHC, the more displacement, and the ___ the sound.
____ is the highest/biggest stereocilia on a hair cell.
As the cilia bend, there is an increased permeability to ___.
As K+ moves into hair cells, it opens ___, which ___.
Ca++ channels; triggers the release of neurotransmitters
___ is the transmitter released from hair cells, which is a excitatory ntx.
Action potentials from the cochlea create the CN ____.
Action potentials from the cochlea synapse first in the ____, then next in the ___, then ___, then ___, and finally ____ .
cochlear nuclei; superior olivary complex; inferior colliculus; medial geniculate body; Heschel's gyrus
Axons from the cochlea enter the brainstem at the ____
about ____ of signals cross over at the cochlear nucleus/superior olivary nucleus.
The auditory pathway is a ____ neuron system.
Some of the crossover in the central auditory pathway occurs in the ____.
__ is the first stop in the auditory pathway that receives signal from both ears. This is good for comparisons of ___ and ___ for localization.
superior olivary nucleus; timing; intensity
____ is part of the central auditory pathway and has some synapses in the pons. This is a tract of axons.
___ is part of the central auditory pathway and has some commisural fibers btw R/L halves and plays a role in startle reflexes.
The cell bodies of the neurons of CNVIII are found in the ___. These neurons receive input from inner hair cells.
The higher the frequency the more ___ it is represented in Heschel's gyrus.
____ is where meaning attached to sound.
Secondary auditory area (association area)
The secondary auditory area is found in Brodmann Area ___.
____ is an area that is larger in the LH than RH, and is deep in the sylvian fissure, and has something to do with language processing.
___ is where language is comprehended and interpreted.
Wernicke's area is found in Brodmann Area ___.
What do auditory reflexes do?
coordinate head and eye mvt to sound
What do descending auditory projections do? 3
1 refine pitch perception
2 lateral inhibition (sharpen reception of spec freq)
3 suppress response to competing bg noise
What are the two main categories of auditory pathologies?
conductive and sensorineural HL
What are potential causes of SNHL? 5
1 noise exposure
2 Meniere's disease
4 Acoustic neuroma
5 Vestibular schwannoma
____ is a tumor on CN VIII.
acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma
What are cortical impairments to the LEFT hemisphere?
unilateral temporal lobe lesions will affect speech only without affecting non-speech sounds
If you have ___ you do not recognize sp sounds as sp sounds. This occurs with bilateral temporal lesions.
pure word deafness or Auditory Verbal Agnosia
A unilateral RIGHT temporal lobe lesions may have ____.
aprosodia (problem w/ understanding prosody, especially emotional prosody)
____ aphasia is marked by sounding like they are talking normally (but with poor semantics).
_____ is marked by difficulty understanding commands and picking correct words. Syntax and prosody is primarily unaffected.
In the inner ear next to the cochlea are the ___, which are the main part of the vestibular system.
Next to the semicircular canals, are two ___, called the ___ and the ___
vestibules: utricle; saccule
The vestibular system connects the vestibular nucleus to the brain via the ___ 3
1 medial longitudinal fasciculus
2 brainstem reticular formation
3 reticular activating system
At the base of each semicircular canals is a ___ with a ___.
ampulla crista; cupula
Inside the utricle and saccule are ___.
The ampulla crista, utricle and saccule are ___
sensory organs of the vestibular system
____ are weights that rest on top of the otolithic membranes. They cause extra shifting.
When the vestibular hair cells in the utricle or saccule bend towards kinocilium, causing an ____ signal.
excitatory; signal speeds up
When the vestibular hair cells in the utricle or saccule bend away from the kinocilium, causing an _____ signal.
inhibitory; signal slows down
Vestibular nerve fibers course through the _____, join with ____ and enter ___.
internal auditory meatus; auditory nerve fibers; brainstem
What are the projections of the vestibular system? 3
medial longitudinal fasciculus (CN III, IV, and VI); cerebellum (flocculonodular lobe and vermis), and spinal cord
What do the projections of the vestibular system accomplish?
integrated connections for balance/equilibrium
What system combine with the vestibular system for balance/equilibrium? 3
cerebellovestibular (feedback system)
spinocerebellar (sensory info to the cerebellum)
vestibulospinal (descending projections to the spinal cord)
____ helps control visceral-autonomic activities with the vestibular nuclei. Motion sickness
Reticular activating system/reticular formation
What ascending connections from the vestibular nuclei? 2
2 cortex (unknown exactly: motor system, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, frontal eye fields in the middle frontal gyrus (volitional eye mvts))
As you rise in the motor system the ___ increases.
level of control
____ can only respond in a reflexive manner of motor control.
The spinal cord
____ can respond for vegetative functions of motor control.
____ can control coordination of motor control.
____ can regulate body functions (inhibition and facilitation of movement).
_____ are the basal ganglia not control movement.
___ can initiate and regulation of movement (inhibit and facilitate motor control)
The primary motor strip (precentral gyrus/motor homunculus) is Brodmann's area ___.
The pre-motor strip is Brodmann's area ___.
The supplementary motor strip is Brodmann's area ___.
____ controls the intention to move.
Supplementary motor area.
What are 4 inputs to the motor cortex?
1 intention, motivation, goals
2 current muscle status/position
3 complex spatial aspects
4 excitatory loop; integration w/ basal ganglia
2 primary sensory
3 sensory association
___ are direct connections btw brain and muscles.
___ are the pyramidal shaped cells in the motor strip.
_____ are connections/networks in brainstem and cerebellum.
The pyramidal tracts are divided into __ and __.
upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron
_____ have cell bodies in the motor cortex, axons project to the brain stem/spinal cord and are part of the CNS.
upper motor neurons (UMN)
Upper motor neurons start where and end where?
motor cortex; brain stem (All in CNS)
____ have cell bodies in the brain stem or spinal cord (CNS) and axons project to muscles (PNS).
lower motor neurons (LMN)
___ are called the "final common pathway".
lower motor neurons
Lower motors neurons start where and end where?
brain stem or spinal cord; muscles
____ % of pyramidal tracts are corticobulbar and ___ % of them are corticospinal tracts.
____ begin in the cortex and end in the brain stem.
___ begin in the cortex and end in the spinal cord.
LMNs of the corticospinal tracts are ___.
LMNs of the corticobulbar tracts are ____.
___ is composed of corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts. Most fibers crossover in the UMN.
The first region of the motor tract (UMN) is called the ___ which is a broad fanning of fibers from the cortex. This is white matter.
___ is where the UMN tracts converge in the white matter and pass between structures of the basal ganglia.
When the axons reach the brainstem in the corticobulbar tract (UMN), what happens?
they cross over in small groups and synapse onto LMN in the brainstem
When the axons reach the brainstem in the corticospinal tract (UMN), what happens?
cross over en mass in medulla (pyramidal decussation), travel down the spinal cord (form LMN)
In both corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts there is ____, but in CBit happens gradually, but in CS they do it en mass.
Damage to LMN results in ___ pathology.
Damage to a right cranial nerve will result in weakness on the ___ side.
What is the cranial nerve mneumonic?
On old Olympus' towering top a Finn and German Viewed Some Hops
What are the 12 cranial nerves?
What is the mneumonic for cranial nerve function? What do the letters stand for?
Some, Saps, May Marry, But, Brother, Believes, Bad, Business, Marriage, Makes
M: Motor (LMN)
B: Both Sensory and Motor
____ has it's UMN cell bodies in motor strip and they cross over to respective cranial nerve nucleus and synapse on LMN cell bodies on the brain stem (these are cranial nerves).
The top bone of the skull is the ___.
The ethmoid is the location where CN ___ enters. This is called ___
Olfactory nerve is CN ___ and its function is ___.
I; sensory only
Sensory cells in ____ in the roof of the nasal cavity.
The receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are replaced every ___.
30-60 days (only mammalian olfactory nerves are like this)
The termination/synapse of cells in CN I is in ___. (They integrate with the opposite side via ____).
olfactory bulb; anterior commissure
Sensory cells in the nose are found in epithelium in roof of nasal cavity and travel through what bone?
cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
What does the olfactory bulb have projections to? 5
1 anterior commissure (cross over)
2 subcallosal area (limbic system)
3 medial temporal lobe (amygdala, hippocampus)
4 connections to orbitofrontal cortex, insula (discrimination of odor)
5 connections to hypothalamus (feeding beh)
What are pathologies related to olfactory? 2
anosmia (loss of sense of smell; could be TBI)
reduced acuity in smell with aging (reported often as a reduction of taste)
CN II is the ____. It carries ___.
optic nerve, sensory info only
The optic nerve has fibers from the retina to the ___. After it reaches that, it is called ____ until ___, after which it is called ___.
optic chiasm; optic tract; thalamus (LGB); optic radiation
CN III is the ____. It carries ____.
oculomotor nerve; motor only
Oculomotor nerve innervates ___ of the ___ muscles for the eye movement.
What are the 4 muscles that the oculomotor nerve innervates?
1 medial rectus
2 superior rectus
3 inferior rectus
4 inferior oblique
The oculomotor nerve moves the eye and aids in ___. It also integrates with ____ system and ____ movements.
eyelid elevation; vestibular system; neck movements
The ____ nucleus is involved in the parasympathetic system where it plays a role in the constrictor muscles of iris (plays a role in the pupillary light reflex).
Damage to the CN III can result in ____, (deviation of ipsilateral eye to lateral position; double vision); ____ (drooping eyelid); and/or ___ (permanent dilation of the pupil).
lateral strabismus; diplopia; ptosis; mydriasis
CN IV is the ___ and it's function is ___.
trochlear, motor only
Trochlear innervates __ of ___ eye muscles (____ muscle); exists midbrain on the ___ surface. It integrates with ___ system and ___ movements.
1/6 (superior oblique); dorsal surface; vestibular system; neck movement
The trochlear nerve controls ___ (eye muscle). Damage to it will result in difficulty looking ____, and ____ when 1 eye moves in that direction.
superior oblique; down/outward; diplopia
CN VI is the ___ and its function is ___.
abducens; motor only
Abducens innervates __ of the ___ eye muscles (___ muscle); integrates with the ___ system and __ movement. It exits from the ___.
1/6 (lateral rectus); vestibular system; neck movements; midbrain
____ is weakness/drooping of the eyelid.
___is permanent dilation of pupil.
CN V is the ___ and its function is ___.
trigeminal; both motor and sensory
The Trigimenal nerve is CN ___, its function is in ___ muscles, and the _____ muscle (in the ____).
V; mastication, tensor veli palatini (in the soft palate, opens eustachian tube)
Trigimenal is CN ___ and it carries basic sensory from ___, ___, ___, ____.
V; face, death, dura mater, muscous membranes of mouth and nose
The muscles of mastication that are innervated by the trigeminal are 6
5 tensor veli palatini
6 tensor tympani
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve? Which one(s) have motor and sensory?
3 mandibular (motor and sensory)
What is carried in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve? 3 examples
sense info from forehead, anterior scalp, eyball, upper eyelid, cornea, lateral nose, sinuses, tentorium cerebelli
What is carried in the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve? 3 examples
temples, post nose, upper cheeks/lips, upper gums/teeth, palates, medial dura mater
What is carried in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve? 3 examples
side of scalp, lower lips/gums, mouth, anterior/middle meninges, external auditory meatus, anterior 2/3 tongue (touch/pain/temp)
____ is excruciating chronic pain affecting upper and lower face (caused by little or no stimuli).
Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
____ is unilateral LMN damage with slight deviation of the jaw and minimal weakness. Little impact on function.
___ is bilateral UMN damage which results in paralysis of masticator muscles and the mandible hangs open. Rare
CN VII is the ___. Its function is ___.
facial; both motor and sensory
Facial nerve is CN ___, its functions are ____ and ____.
VII; muscles of facial expression; taste anterior 2/3rds of tongue
What are the 4 different branches of the Facial nerve? Which have dual function?
1 Branchial motor
2 visceral motor
3 special sensory (tongue)
4 general sensory
The corticobulbar tracts for the lower half of the face have _____ innervation.
The corticobulbar tracts for the upper half of the face (forehead) have _____ innervation.
If a pt has unilateral cortical/UMN damage will have ___ facial drooping. This is on ____ (upper, lower, both) face.
If a pt has unilateral nerve/LMN damage will have ___ facial drooping. This is on ____ (upper, lower, both) face.
ipsilateral; both (entire face)
___ will have facial paralysis on one side.
CN VIII is the ____ and its function is ___.
auditory-vestibular; both motor and sensory
Auditory-vestibular is CN ___ it's function is __ and ___.
VIII, hearing and balance
CN IX is the ___ and its function is ___.
glossopharyngeal; both motor and sensory
Glossopharyngeal is CN ___ and functions to innervate ___ muscle(s), and sensory info from ___, ___, ___, & ___ (also ___ here).
IX; stylopharyngeus; mucosa of harynx, tonsils, Eustacian tube, tongue (also taste from post 1/3 here)
____ stimulates the salivary glands.
CN X is the ___ and its function is ___.
vagus; both motor and sensory
Vagus nerve is CN ___ and its function to innervate ___ and __ muscles; and provide sense info from ____, ___, ___, ____, and ___.
X; laryngeal; pharyngeal; muscles of pharynx, epiglottis; trachea/bronchi; esophagus/stomach; taste from pharynx
What are the 3 branches of the Vagus nerve?
1 pharyngeal branch (motor only)
2 Superior larygneal branch (both sense and motor)
3 Recurrent laryngeal branch (both sense and motor)
What is innervated by the pharyngeal branch? What does damage to this cause?
hypernasality; dysphagia (nasal regurgitation)
What are the sub-branches of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus? What is innervated by the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus?
internal laryngeal (sense only)- epiglottis, larynx above folds
external laryngeal nerve (motor only) cricothyroid
What does damage to the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus caused?
reduced pitch control; risk of aspiration due to reduced sensation
What is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve? What does damage to it cause?
intrinsic laryngeal muscles (motor); vocal folds and below (sense); vocal fold paralysis (breathy/hoarse voice, diplophonia-due to atrophy)(risk of aspiration)
CN XI is the ___ and its function is ____
Spinal Accessory; motor only.
Spinal Accessory is CN ___ and it functions to innervate ___, ___, and ___ muscles. And randomly, innervate ___ and ___.
XI; velum; uvula; intrinsic laryngeal muscles; Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
CN XII is the ___ and its function is ___.
Hypoglossal; motor only
Hypoglossal nerve is CN ___ and it innervates ____ and __.
XII; all intrinsic and most extrinsic tongue muscles
What does damage to CN XII cause?
weakness of tongue muscles
Is CN XII ipsilateral, contralateral or both?
The ____ represents only 10% of the corticospinal tract which remains ipsilateral down the spinal cord. It crosses over prior to synapsing.
Anterior Corticospinal Tract