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Flashcards in Phonetics - Final Deck (74):
1

Diacritics

special symbols to mark phonetic details on segmental notations (the more marked, the narrow the transcription)

2

Coarticulation

articulation in which sounds overlap to a certain extent; overlapping or simultaneous articulation

3

Assimilation

the influence exercised by one sound on the articulation of another, so that the sounds become more alike

4

Regressive assimilation

anticipatory (e.g. "ten pens" [tEm pEnz]); most common type in English

5

Progressive assimilation

retentive (e.g., "me" [m~i:])

6

Coalescent assimilation

reciprocal (e.g., "got you" ['gɑtʃə])

7

Suprasegmentals

char that go beyond the ID of a series of phones; aspects about the lvl of seg/phon

8

Prosody

the ling use of pitch, loudness, tempo, & rhythm (rhy & tonal feats of sp)

9

Intonation

changes of pitch & stress patterns

10

Stress

degree of prominence associated with a particular syllable (correlated to length)

11

Rhythm

percvd regularity of prominent units in speech/patterns of stress

12

Foot

a basic unit of rhythm (e.g. trochaic: table, cover; iambic: about, react, etc.)

13

Pause

a point where sp may be halted; a pause over 100 ms is generally associated w/ syntactic boundaries 200 ms

14

8 diacritics for transcription portion

1 Main or primary stress ˈ
2 Lengthening aː kː
3 Syllabic consonant æpl. ɹ̩ n̩
4 Aspiration tʰ
5 Nasalization ẽ z̃
6 Velarization ɫ
7 Labialization of consonants tʷ dʷ
8 Rhoticity ɚ

15

6 diacritics for test portion

1 Dentalization
2 Palatalization
3 Partial voicing
4 Partial devoicing
5 Unreleased (stop)
6 Lateral release

16

Dentalization

symbol: t̺ d̺
- alveolar/nasal or stop tends to be dentalized; use of dental articulation that occurs in Eng when alveolar consants are followed by a(n) (inter)dental fricative e.g. tenth, width

17

Palatalization

symbol: j above symbol moving the tongue (usu. the blade toward the palatal area; glides back a little (as you, this year)

18

Partial Voicing

symbol: v underneath ipa
a voiceless consonant becomes partially voiced, usu. happens to voiceless consonant btw vowels; it may occur b4 vowels or even b4 voiced consonants; absurd (s); assign (s); IHOP (h)

19

Partial Devoicing

Symbol o below ipa
a voiced consonant becomes partially devoiced often on word final stops, liquids and glides following voiceless consonants;

big (g); tree (r); judge (dg)

20

Unreleased (stop)

Symbol d̚  ̚
no stop burst (no audible release after a stop consonant); generally occurs for word-final stops
tip; peak

21

Lateral Release

Symbol L (lowercase) above the the symbol to the right
lateral release of a consonant gen. involves lateral emission of fricatives followed by [l] in Eng: slide (s)

22

Main/Primary stress*

most important diacritic in Eng; most prominent stress in an utterance; Symbol '
occur (second); example (second); butter (first)

23

Length(ening)*

refers to longer duration; Symbol: :
sea [si:]; moon [mu:n]

24

Syllabic consonants*

liquids and nasals may become syllable nuclei if the preceding vowel in the same syllable is deleted: b^tn (button, n is s.c.); æpl (l is s.c.)

25

Aspiration *

Symbol: raised h;
"puff of air" following a voiceless stop; generally if the voiceless sotp is the sole onset of a stressed syllable, but may occur elsewhere;
cap, pie, tea, too;

26

Nasalization*

Symbol ~
lowered velum: velopharyngeal port is open to varying degress; vowels that are followed by nasals (esp if the nasal is in the coda of the same syllable) tend to be nasalized in Eng; him, ban

27

Velarization *

this is the "dark l" Symbol: ɫ
the dorsum of the palate approximates the posterior plate of the velum; [l] in the coda position is gen. velarized;
pool, candle

28

Labialization of consonants*

Symbol: raised w
in eng., consonants may be labialized (involving some lip rounding and or protrusion) before [w] or round vowels
squeak, school, two

29

Rhoticity*

only vowel diacritic that is important: it is r-coloring to vowels; we should assume every vowel before an "r" is rhoticized
Symbol: ɚ; hover; car

30

What are the primary correlates of stress?

duration (length), fundamental frequency

31

What is the secondary correlate of stress?

intensity (loudness)

32

What is contrastive stress?

used to mark an emphasized or contrasted element (e.g. "I want that" versus "I want that"

33

What is lexical stress?

used to distinguish words based on stress variation (e.g. "convict (noun) versus convict (verb)) maybe used to mark compound words (e.g. black beard versus Blackbeard (the pirate))

34

i

high, front, tense, unrounded;
heat, see, people

35

ɪ

high-mid, front, lax, unrounded
pick, bin, cyst

36

ɛ

low-mid, front, lax, unrounded
head, bet, friend, test

37

æ

low, front lax, unrounded
hat, trap, bat, that

38

ə

schwa, mid, central, lax, unrounded
again, pompous, purpose, nation

39

ʌ

carrot or hub, low-mid, back-central, lax, unrounded
upper, tough, hut

40

u

high, back, tense, rounded
shoe, two, boo, cruise

41

ʊ

high-mid, back, lax, rounded
put, book, shook

42

ɔ

low-mid, back, tense, rounded
bough, caught, law, torn

43

ɑ

low, back, tense, unrounded
father, bother, pot, lot, top

44

ɑɪ

unrounded, slight to moderate closing motion during the diphthong (tongue raising and may move somewhat forward;
buy, hi, die, mine

45

ɔɪ

from round to unrounded, from low-mid back to mid or high front position (tonuge raising and moving forward)
boy, boil, toy, voice, coin

46

ɑʊ

from relatively open, unrounded to rounded and higher (tongue raising and moving back)
now, out, cow, loud

47

rounded, from mid back to high mid back (tongue raising)
boat, toe, though, own

48

lips unrounded, from mid front to high-mid front (tongue raising)
bait, crate, weight, say

49

p

stop, bilabial, voiceless
pie, cap

50

b

stop, bilabial, voiced
bye, cab

51

t

stop, alveolar, voiceless
tie, cat

52

d

stop, alveolar, voiced
die, bad

53

k

stop, velar, voiceless
kite, bike

54

g

stop, velar, voiced
dog, god

55

f

fricative, labiodental, voiceless
far, off

56

v

fricative, labiodental, voiced
give, velar

57

s

fricative, alveolar, voiceless
sam, bus

58

z

fricative, alveolar, voiced
buzz, friends

59

h

fricative, glottal, voiceless
he, human

60

m

nasal, bilabial, voiced
mine, miniature

61

n

nasal, alveolar, voiced
not, nasal, gun

62

l

lateral (liquid) alveolar, voiced
lots, pull

63

j

glide, palatal, voiced
yes, universe

64

w

glide, labio-velar, voiced
what, where, coward

65

ʔ

stop, glottal, voiceless
"Anna Adams"

66

ʃ

fricative, palatal, voiceless
shoe, bush

67

affricate, palatal, voiceless
church, ouch

68

ʒ

fricative, palatal, voiced
genre, vision

69

affricate, palatal, voiced
junior, juror

70

θ

fricative, interdental, voiceless
cloth,

71

ð

fricative, interdental, voiced
clothe

72

ŋ

nasal, velar, voiced
sing, ring

73

ɹ

rhotic (liquid), palatal, voiced
ring, burr

74

ʍ

glide, labio-velar, voiceless
which, where,